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Muslim Women SURVIVING IN A Westernized Modern culture Theology Religious beliefs Essay

Content
  1. Table of Contents
  2. INTRODUCTION
  3. Subject of the research
  4. Background to the research
  1. Purposes of the research
  2. Scope and limitations
  3. Plan of development
  4. METHODOLOGY
  5. Literature review
  6. Participation
  7. Method of data collection
  8. LITERATURE REVIEW
  9. Introduction
  10. The Matter of Hijab Exterior to South Africa
  11. The views of feminists
  12. a) The debate of oppression
  13. b) The argument of liberation
  14. Western Governments
  15. Media attitudes in confirming Islam and hijab
  16. Hijab within the Muslim Community
  17. Reasons why Muslim Women wear the hijab
  18. The regulations of the Qur'an
  19. A mark of resistance
  20. The Interpretation of the hijab by those who wear it
  21. Spirituality
  22. Reasons why Muslim Women do not wear the hijab
  23. Conclusion of Books review
  24. 5. RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONS
  25. DISCUSSION
  26. Defining the hijab
  27. To wear or never to wear: Hijab Decisions
  28. The stresses felt
  29. Conclusion
  30. Appendices
  31. Graph of Reasons for Using the Hijab
  32. Survey Form
  33. Survey
  34. Please circle the appropriate answer
  35. Do you wear the hijab?
  36. If yes, are you ashamed of your hair?
  37. If you do NOT wear the hijab please neglect to section 2 (II).
  38. Reasons: Why can you wear the hijab?
  39. To what magnitude do you agree with the following assertions? Please tick over the correct text
  40. When I wear the hijab I feel closer to God.
  41. When I wear the hijab Personally i think shielded and safe.
  42. When I wear the hijab Personally i think stylish.
  43. When I wear the hijab I feel like I participate in my peers.
  44. II Views on the hijab: How will you view the hijab?
  45. 1. Do you think all Muslim women should wear the hijab?
  46. 2. Women who do not wear the hijab can be good Muslims.
  47. Women who wear the hijab are NOT maintaining modernization
  48. III Custom:
  49. 1. How much of an impact did your family have on for you to decide to wear or NOT wear the hijab on a level of 0-10? (1=no influence 10= I had formed no choice)
  50. 2. Does most your loved ones wear hijab?
  51. If you don't wear the hijab please miss to section 5 (V).
  52. Do you walk and socialize with men in public areas?
  53. Does your hijab impact your public behaviour?
  54. V. Hijab and Involvement: Limitations and accomplishments of hijab
  55. 1. Will you drive a car?
  56. 2. Have you been allowed to study at a College or university?
  57. 3. Do you have a job?
  58. 4. Have you ever felt as if you were not employed for a job because you wear the hijab?
  59. 5. Have you ever felt like you were not hired for a job because you do NOT wear the hijab?
  60. 6. Have you ever travelled beyond Cape Town?
  61. 7. Have you ever been on an airplane?
  62. 8. Have you got a computer/ laptop?
  63. 9. Are you currently allowed to have access to the internet?
  64. 10. Perhaps you have ever been educated about the hijab in school?
  65. 11. Perhaps you have ever before read or observed lectures about different interpretations of hijab?
  66. VI. My Hijab style: What is a hijab for you?
  67. If you don't wear the hijab please skip to questions 3 and 4
  68. 1. Within your opinion, what is a satisfactory hijab?
  69. 2. I've friends who wear the hijab
  70. 3. I've friends who do NOT wear the hijab.
  71. VII Muslim TSiBA Women's view on issue/view of hijab in the west
  72. 1. I really believe the Western world (European countries and America) have a poor view about the hijab.
  73. 2. The Western world shouldn't encourage women to wear the hijab.
  74. 3. The West should make more of an effort to understand the hijab and why Muslim women use it.
  75. 4. The problem of the hijab is not important and really should be left by themselves by the Western.
  76. VIII Muslim TSiBA take on the west
  77. 1. Have you got friends from the Western?
  78. This is the end of the survey thank you for your time and participation!
More...

The following research report was requested and awarded by Philip Broster, The Business Communication lecturer at the Tertiary College in Business Supervision, for 8 October 2012.

Permission was awarded by Philip Broster to carry out research on the argument regarding the putting on of hijab and the traditional western pressures of the experienced by Muslim women who review at TSiBA Education.

His specific instructions were to:

Compile a study report predicated on the prior research proposal to research the debate about the hijab and the stresses believed by Muslim women at TSiBA.

Present a literature review as well as results in a written doc also to conclude by figuring out a romantic relationship, if any, between the literature and the findings of the study.

The report is to be submitted on the 8 Oct 2012.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

Subject of the research

The Debate Concerning the Hijab, Investigating the Pressures Was feeling by Muslim women moving into a Westernized Country: A TSiBA case-study.

Background to the research

Literature upon this topic is numerous as research has been conducted globally on this issue of the hijab regarding the explanations why women should and should not wear the hijab. The research conducted was made possible through the use of surveys, interviews, questionnaires and observations. Katherine Bullock specifically, a Canadian community activist, publisher and lecturer have extensive research on this issue of the hijab and shared her findings by means of a e book called Rethinking Muslim Women and the Veil which challenges "Historical and Modern Stereotypes". She's also published articles on Muslim women and the media, and Islam and politics theory.

Purposes of the research

The goals of the analysis are to take a look at if the prominent negative Western belief affects why the Muslim community is divided on the subject of hijab.

This research addresses the matter for a dialogue which could advise westernised societies about the non-public explanations why some feminine Muslim students wear hijab and why others do not. I'd like my research to be important, highly relevant to local communities also to open my mind and that of others by being taught through research and personal interviews about the topic.

Scope and limitations

This study was conducted in a very short period of time with a very small test group as the pool of individuals was limited to the Muslim students at TSiBA Education. The info set is meaningful, but not representative of the vast range of Muslims in various contexts. It will however show a diversity of views in a common theology and beliefs. A far more sizable test within the target group could have provided a more substantial and more conclusive amount of data. This can have a bias that favours the informed and the junior of Cape Town. Another limitation of my review was that of the individuals belonged to 1 cultural group being from the race deemed in South Africa as Coloured. This was due to the fact TSiBA Education is a comparatively small university whose Muslim woman population is a fraction of the full total students which there were no Muslim women from a different competition or culture. The study conducted may have benefitted from a more diverse pool of applicants.

Plan of development

This research statement was put together in the following manner. Firstly I provide my books review which I put together for the intended purpose of checking out what has previously been written on this issue so that you and I may learn from it and be aware of it as we start this research. Second I made a survey form of 3 web pages long that covered relevant questions that i derived from the procedure of compiling the literature review. Thirdly, Randomly I decided on 10 Muslim women their studies at TSiBA to be my members and used through by doing my review about every one of them. Lastly, I analyzed the data extracted from the studies and make this information accessible to you while also checking my research conclusions to the conclusions produced from my literature review.

METHODOLOGY

Literature review

The first piece of work I did so was conducting research on this issue of the hijab in order to put together a books review. My books review took a significant amount of time with regards to just how long the real research demanded. Information was considerable regarding the subject of hijab, modernization, the dominant Western belief and the media's role in the portrayal of Muslim women that I came across it especially challenging to sift out important factors from the all information available. My books review noticed two trainings of editing and enhancing with my Communications lecturer who helped me construct and structured the important info once I determined it.

Participation

The aim for group for the research was at first 20 Southern African Muslim women between the ages of 18 and 40. This age group was the target of this review because they were the current technology of TSiBA students and were experiencing modern South Africa in a period when it felt there was an increasing influx of American culture after Apartheid. This group is also more likely to include committed women who might be inclined to think in different ways about the hijab as their relationship might have improved the way each looks at the hijab. The members of my research were all female as I acquired hoped, but regrettably most of them belonged to one cultural group being from the contest regarded in South Africa as Coloured. There have been 2 wedded women, and 8 unmarried women. 5 of them used hijab and 5 of these were women who choose never to.

Method of data collection

One approach to obtaining data was hired. The research draws on qualitative data from extensive research conducted on 10 Muslim students regarding hijab. The survey was constructed in a manner that it needed students approximately five minutes to complete.

After a variety of drafts of the review I visited the Tertiary College in Business Supervision (TSiBA) Education to send out the ultimate version. My survey included the views of both young women who wear the hijab and the ones that do not. I did so not ask for names in any portion of the survey to ensure the anonymity of most my human topics. In the long run I accumulated 10 surveys in total which was an inferior test group than I had fashioned at first hoped. After gathering the studies, I examined the results personally.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

The debate regarding the wearing of religious garb in public, specifically coverings worn by Muslim women has increased within the last few years resulting in a whole lot of controversy among those who buy into the practice and the ones who do not (iqraonline. net). Hijab sometimes appears all over the world, especially in places with a higher concentration of doing Muslims. The hijab has resulted in severe mass media disputes and today denotes the difference of civilizations. The French, combined with the west expected that the hijab would expire into history as westernization and secularization needed root. However, in the Muslim world, especially among the younger era, a great influx of returning to hijab was spreading through various countries. This current resurgence can be an expression of Islamic revival (Nakata, 1994).

The Matter of Hijab Exterior to South Africa

The views of feminists

The Western press and feminists often portray the hijab as a symbol of oppression and slavery of women (www. al-islam. org). A theory of Orientalism has been around lifetime since 1978 which argues that the Muslim populace is deemed backward, uncivilized beings who are outcasts in American culture (Said, 1978). Many feminists, both American and Islamic argue that the hijab is a symbol of gender oppression and that the Islamic veiling of women can be an oppressive practice. Fadel Amara, an Islamic feminist and Muslim feminine member of French government identifies the burqa as a prison and a straightjacket which is not spiritual but is the mark of the tyrannical political task for erotic inequality (King, 299. ).

Feminists claim that public occurrence and presence is important to American women. This overlaps sexism and racism as well as there are two arguments made by feminists who are divided on this issue of the hijab.

a) The debate of oppression

One argument is for hijab to be suspended in public as they encourage the harassment of women who are revealed and because general public presence and visibility represents their struggle for economic freedom, sexual organization and political involvement. In the American culture, superstars are thought to be trend-setters defining what is appropriate. The hijab is therefore also regarded as a problem since it poses challenge to the view of unconventional presence and liberty of self-expression. (www. theage. com). Although it is true that lots of women do choose to wear the hijab, it isn't the case for everyone women. In lots of Middle Eastern and North African countries women are required, persecuted and abused for noncompliance with the hijab. This is proven in Pakistan where an extremist killed a women's activist and government minister because she refused to wear the hijab. Ruler says, "From Afghanistan to Algeria to Sudan, Pakistan and Iran- women are systematically brutalized and captured in a lethal crossfire between the secular and fundamentalist causes. "

Some Islamic feminists claim that although assertion in the Quran about women covering themselves had not been meant to oppress women, the interpretation of those verses by Islamic societies does in fact oppress women. Although it can be argued that the hijab is symbolic of the oppression that occurs against women in Islam, many Islamic women don't agree. It really is true that under some Islamist rule, specifically in a few North African countries, Afghanistan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia women are oppressed and obligated to wear the hijab, but in an international framework, this is actually the exclusion to the guideline regarding women's techniques of using the veil.

Salma Yaqoob, lady woman who chooses to wear the hijab talks about the veil isn't just an oppressing pressure in Islamic countries that require the veil, but also in Traditional western countries that ban the veil. Yaqoob adamantly contends that by infringing regulations that restricts women's choice on whether or not to wear the veil, also, they are being oppressed. "I am against the Saudi and Iranian government authorities' imposition of the veil and that of the Taliban recently. But this is also why I oppose the ban on putting on the hijab. In both conditions the woman herself is no longer free to bother making a choice. In both instances her dignity is violated. " Yaqoob points out that more women are banned from putting on the hijab, than must use it.

b) The argument of liberation

It can be argued that rather than oppressing, the hijab is liberating. The second argument created by feminists helps the discussion of fundamentalist Islamic leaders who dispute that Muslim women possess the right to choose to wear or not to wear a hijab as it is part of any Muslim woman's responsibility to wear a hijab. These feminists demand that the French ban be withdrawn because they believe the oppressing push behind the veil is when authority numbers, both Islamic and European, eliminate a woman's right to choose. They protect the veil as a draw of agency, ethnic membership, and defiance. Tayyab Bashart, a feminist scholar and Muslim who shows in France points out her beliefs "A woman in hijab, who is a functioning person in population, symbolizes an empowered, indie woman, rather than a person who lacks self-determination and it is a puppet of world" (Basharat, 2006). The veil itself is just a piece of cloth. Human beings interpret the hijab according to sociable and spiritual constructions. Through the Western talk and banning of the hijab in public institutions, the Muslim university young ladies of France lose their flexibility to express their spirituality. The desired effect of the 2004 legislations is to battle gender oppression and inequality in the public institution system, but as a residual effect, it actually diminishes women's freedoms somewhat than improving them. The 'rules on the headscarf' holds the oppressing American discourses about veiled women and attempts to Westernize French Muslim schoolgirls.

Western Governments

In Islamic countries like Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and Iran, the full covering, additionally known as the burqa, has been made compulsory after female citizens. As opposed to this, the unwillingness to comprehend the religious beliefs and culture of Muslims has led to traditional clothing like the burqa and the hijab being banned with the hope of Westernised societies achieving secularism in Islamic countries. Katherine Bullock shines light on the distinctions in common sense over hijab insurance agencies identified styles from her research on women and the religious beliefs of Islam. She divides these themes into the descriptions of these who are for and the ones who are resistant to the hijab. Relating to Bullock, critics of the veil rely on secular liberal assumptions about world and human dynamics and then the veil is meant to be and described as a symbol of oppression since it:

Covers up (hides), in the sense of smothering, femininity

Is apparently linked to the essentialized guy and feminine difference (which is taken to mean that naturally, men is superior, woman is inferior);

Is associated with a particular view of woman's place (subjugated in the house);

Is linked to an oppressive (patriarchal) idea of morality and woman purity (because of Islam's

Emphasis on chastity, matrimony, and condemnation of pre- and extra-marital sexual relationships);

Can be enforced; and

Is linked to a program of oppressions women in Islam face, such as seclusion, polygamy, easy guy divorce, unequal inheritance rights.

Western countries is rolling out this view and disregarded other views of what general population awareness may be to different women with differing values. (www. theage. com). A good example of this is the fact France has decided after the banning of the hijab to be worn in institutions. France's 2004 regulation, popularly known as the 'regulation on the headscarf', uncovers the issue of respecting conflicting ideas between diverse areas, especially when one community, in cases like this the Muslims of France, is a minority. Relating to this law, feminine students are banned from wearing the hijab as well as all the openly religious icons in public universities. France bans women from using the hijab in public classes because many feminists and lawmakers claim that veiling women acts as an oppressing pressure, a pressure that silences women. Alia Al- Sari expresses in her article "The Racialization of Muslim Veils: A Philosophical Evaluation" many feminists see the headscarf "As symbolic of Islamic gender oppression that should be suspended from public universities, an area where gender equality is presumed (or desired). " Supporters of regulations believe it battles gender oppression and gives equality to women in the school system.

Media attitudes in confirming Islam and hijab

While the multimedia cannot be really the only party held accountable or blamed for societal attitudes towards smaller cultures and religions, theses mass media moguls create "the lens through which the truth is recognized" (Bullock & Jafri, 2000). European media recognizes itself as a democratic powerhouse and therefore is generally answerable for legitimising and distributing racism and bias against spiritual communities such as Muslims (Bullock & Jafri, 2000). The media in Westernised societies portrays Muslims as "tricky, sleazy, erotic and untrustworthy", as uniformly violent, as oppressors of women, and as members of a worldwide conspiracy (Bullock & Jafri, 2000).

For example, in 1998 a move was noted about the Western media's depiction of women who wear the hijab. Veiled women were no longer portrayed as exotic but instead as a menace to population (Macmaster & Lewis, 1998, ). This shows the contrasting representations of Muslim women as concurrently being oppressed and intimidating.

In 2005 Begum argues these images of Islamic dress were significantly used in the marketing as visual shorthand for treacherous extremism, which Muslims residing in Europe were suffering from the consequences of the associations (Begum, 2005). The increase of these press portrayals and politics deliberation has segregated the Muslim community and acquired an additional disruptive effect on modern culture and feminism at large. (Begum, 2005)

Since then, the multimedia in France reported over a women who was simply suspended for putting on a hijab under her head wear while working as a meter reader, a fashion show of veiled women that was restricted, the hindrance of hijab-wearing mothers from volunteering in schools, the refusal of cafeteria service to a student using a hijab and the banning of any witness to a civil service wedding from putting your signature on the documentation predicated on the debate that hijab averted her from proper recognition.

Many authors upon this issue dispute that as a result of media's cultural fascination with Muslim women's dress as icons of oppression, Muslim women often have to holiday resort to focusing on that element of their personal information as well, even if indeed they would prefer to discuss another thing. These authors state that even conditions of in charge journalism have a propensity to devalue Muslim women. It is because Muslim women are mainly depicted as 'spectacular', victimised, or threatening outcasts somewhat than your standard peaceful next door neighbours. (www. reportingdiversity. org. )

It is apparent that the hijab remains a hot topic in American countries and that the wellbeing and identities of Muslim women in Westernised societies are related to the using of the headscarf as a result.

Hijab within the Muslim Community

The ideas of Muslim women differ in their decision about if to wear the hijab. The hijab, regarding to numerous Muslims, has multiple uses and meanings. The hijab is a symbolic of modesty and morality. Matching to Islam, the hijab functions as a shield for a woman against the lustful gaze of men. The hijab also serves as a cover to protect the modesty and piety of the woman, as that is her main role as mentioned in the Qur'an.

The most basic debate within the hijab has ended the necessity of the hijab. That is an issue that is debated by many Muslim scholars. First in order to understand why there is an issue it is important to understand the energy of the Quran. The Quran is the word of God brought to humanity by his last messenger the Prophet Muhammad (Calmness Be Upon Him). Islam is the faith of total distribution to Allah (God the Father) and behavior to Allah. As the Quran is God's expression then it does mean total submission and compliance to Quran. The first issue with the requirement of the hijab originates from whether the hijab is in the Quran or not. There are two sides to the argument; there are those who say that the hijab is a need because it is in the Quran and the ones who say that it is not because it is not part of the Quran

Reasons why Muslim Women wear the hijab

The regulations of the Qur'an

Amr Khaled's, a popular Islamic scholar, layman, and highly influential Muslim speaker, represents the school of thought that considers the hijab to be straight in the Quran and so a requirement of Muslim women. He rates these Qur'anic verses that produce the hijab obligatory to Muslim women. "O Prophet! Tell your wives as well as your daughters and the women of the believers to pull their cloaks (veils) around their bodies. Which will be better, that they should be known (as free reputable women) in order not to be irritated. And - ALLAH - is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful (Surah 33: verse 59)". With this verse women are informed to cover their bodies so that they should be known as modest women and are not harassed. Corresponding to Amr Khalad's lecture "Al-Hijab, " the hijab also functions the purpose of forcing men to not sexually objectify women but to see her as a vessel of intellect and high moral ideals. Khalad says that the hijab reinforces the actual fact that Islam has placed the beauty of a lady on a higher value in the eye of men by giving security of her beauty from uncontrolled lusts and needs, and instead placing your order men to value greater the internal beauty of her soul. Thus, the real value of women is from the degree of her modesty and her abidance by it (Khaled "Al-Hijab"). Yaqoob state governments her personal reasons why she wears the veil, "For me, the wearing of the hijab denotes that as a woman I expect to be cured as the same in conditions of my intellect and personality and my appearance is relevant only to the amount that I'd like it to be, when I want it to be. ". This is the traditional Islamic rational for the hijab and why it is important in Islam (Khalad "AlHijab").

A mark of resistance

A study about hijab in the Western world also provides another theory that I really believe may also be applied in South Africa because it is a country greatly influenced by the Western world. The idea of the hijab as a symbol of amount of resistance is explored by Tarik Kulenovic but not necessarily one which is strictly politics. Tarik Kulenovic's theory suggests that the hijab in the Western world is a subject of identity, a physical symbol of your woman's Muslim id. This image also carries a subject matter of religiosity in a modernizing society which promotes a secular life style and scorns traditions. Kulenovic asserts that "the modern personal information of Muslim women, which include the using of the veil, is primarily the identity of level of resistance to the values that folks find foreign to them and therefore imposed on them" (Kulenovic, webpage 717). Thus, in society, the hijab can be thought of as a means of retaining a religious life-style while assimilating to the demands of the modern world. Another reason women choose to wear the hijab is that they discover that the hijab assists as an empowering factor.

The Interpretation of the hijab by those who wear it

Katherine Bullock, through her research, provides several reasons why women wear the hijab. The hijab to these wearers:

1. Does not smother femininity;

2. Brings to head the 'different-but-equal' approach, but will not put forward essentalized male-female difference;

3. Is linked to a view that will not limit women to the home, but neither will it consider the role of stay-at-home-mother and homemaker oppressive;

4. Is linked to a view of morality that is oppressive only if one considers the prohibition of erotic relations outside matrimony wrong;

5. Is part of Islamic legislations, though a laws that should be implemented in an exceedingly smart and women-friendly manner, and

6. Can and should be treated independently from other issues of women's privileges in Islam.

Spirituality

Some women have a profound spiritual and spiritual link with the veil and firmly disagree with the view of it as an indicator of oppression. Many Muslim women feel uneasy without wearing it because the hijab is deeply-rooted in their personal values and religious tradition. A main reason women choose to wear the hijab, is really as manifestation of spirituality. Bashart areas in his publication that "Muslim women bring with them their sacred private space in to the open public space by use of the Hijab". With this view of the hijab, the veil is not simply articles of clothing; or a symbol of oppression it is a tool of spirituality for females.

Fadwa El Guindi, author of The Veil: Modesty, Level of privacy and Amount of resistance, says "veiling patterns and veiling behaviour are. . . . about sacred personal privacy, sanctity and the rhythmic interweaving of habits of worldly and sacred life, linking women as the guardians of family sanctuaries and the world of the sacred in this world".

Reasons why Muslim Women do not wear the hijab

In the Qur'anic this verse although it says to sketch the cloak around their bodies, it generally does not specifically say the mane. In addition, it generally does not specify in what way, to what level, and in what manner women should cover themselves. There are many modern alternative views to this proven fact that the hijab is compulsory because it is in the Quran. For example, Dr. Reza Alsan, an internationally acclaimed writer and scholar of religions, the creator of AslanMedia. com and also one of the leading scholars in the alternative view, considers the hijab no obligatory aspect of being a Muslim female. Aslan cases that the hijab is shockingly not compulsory upon Muslim women any place in the Quran. Instead he claims that the veil was an Arab culture before the appearance of Islam, through connection with Syria and Iran, where in fact the veil was the hallmark of the upper category women. Matching to Lelia Ahmed and the ones who fall season in the second school of thought like Aslan, the sole places that the hijab is applied to women is when it's handling the wives of Prophet Muhammad. Thus the veil was only associated with the prophets wives and his daughters not absolutely all women of Islam. This approach does not refuse that modesty was expected of all believers. Thinking women are instructed to "'guard their private parts. . . and drape a cover over their breasts"' when in the occurrence of peculiar men (Surah 24:31-32)" as quoted by Aslan. Here specific parts of the body are named that ladies should officer and cover including the private parts and the breasts but the mane is not mentioned. Thus those in this school of thought like Leila Ahmed and Reza Alsan do not believe that the hijab is compulsory for Muslim women because it is not described in the Quran.

Conclusion of Books review

This research investigates the reasons why the Muslim community is divided about the veil in case the prominent negative belief of hijab (as the hijab being oppressive) has damaged, if, the putting on of hijab in TSiBA Education. In the try to answer this question, the research has shown two hypotheses:

(1) Living in South Africa, a country with great American influence, triggers some Muslim women to dread putting on the hijab also to abandon it all together

(2) Muslim women choose to wear the hijab for spirituality reasons despite frequent the pressures of the West

5. RESULTS OF OBSERVATIONS

While examining the results, I used to be interested to see if there will be a correlation between your findings in my own books review and the results of my research.

My data collection was due to 10 research this research unveiled that my two hypotheses were in agreement with most this small sample of subjects. The info accumulated represents the views and beliefs of a complete of 10 man members which is 50% of the full total intended concentrate on group. Thus, the info accumulated must only be interpreted as speculative and cannot be assumed applicable to all or any Muslim women or all Muslim female students.

The results were the following:

5 of the 10 individuals wore the hijab. 3 of those 5 said that they highly agree to putting on the hijab for religious reasons while 2 participants said they concur that they use it for spiritual reasons but that faith is not the main reason why they wear the hijab.

3 out of the 5 Muslim wear the hijab even although hijab makes them feel like they don't fit in with their peers.

1 person however does feel that she fits in with her peers and in her community because she wears the hijab.

The hijab makes all five participants who wear the hijab feel safeguarded and safe in public. 3 of them strongly arranged while 2 arranged.

5 participants said that Muslim women should wear hijab when asked if they believe that all Muslim women should wear the hijab, the opinions were 50/50. Interestingly, Out of the 5 individuals that wear the hijab, 1 person said that she does not imagine all Muslim women should wear hijab; 1 girl would you not wear the hijab said that even though she doesn't wear the hijab yet, she believes all Muslim women should wear the hijab.

When asked if women who do not wear the hijab can be good Muslims: 8 women arranged that Muslim women can be good Muslims if indeed they do not wear the hijab, 1 participant had no opinion expressing "one shouldn't judge, if you evaluate, the type of Muslim does indeed that produce you?", 1 said Muslim women cannot be good if indeed they do not practice the hijab.

When asked for his or her explanation of hijab, 60% identified it as covering with loose fit clothes, 20% said all forms satisfactory and 20% just covering nice hair.

The ranking (1= no impact, 5= influenced however, not explicitly forced, 10 = I needed no choice) of effect of family on members choice to wear or never to wear hijab:

From the 5 participants who wear hijab, 1 scored a 5, 1 graded a 6, 1 scored an 8 elaborating that her parents are religiously tight, 1 scored a 2, and 1 graded a 7 saying that the unexpected fatality of her aunt inspired her selections in life and her awareness of the hijab.

From the 5 members who do not wear the hijab, 2 individuals scored 5; 2 graded the influence of the family as a 1 and 1 participant rated 9 saying that her family allows her choice not to wear the hijab.

The limitations section showed that participants felt free to drive a car, research at a college or university, find a job, travel freely beyond Cape Town, own a computer and also have access to the internet.

5 participants noticed that these were not appointed for a job because they wear the hijab while 1 participant said that she actually is new to wearing the hijab so the question is not suitable to her

No participants felt that they were not chosen because of NOT wearing the hijab

TSIBA Women's view on the issue/view of hijab in the West

9 participants concur that the Western (European countries and America) has a dominantly negative take on hijab. 1 participant got no opinion

When asked their thoughts and opinions of the American perception and the Western should continue not to encourage women to wear the hijab. 4 individuals firmly disagree, 3 disagree, 3 had no view and 1 participant said she firmly agrees.

When asked if they thought the West is ill-informed and really should make more of an attempt to understand the hijab and why Muslim women use it: 6 individuals said they firmly agree, 3 agreed and 1 individuals said she got no impression.

6 individuals have friends from the Western while the left over 4 do not.

DISCUSSION

This research investigates the issue regarding the explanations why some Muslim women wear hypotheses were proved in a majority of this small test group. Within the attempt to answer these questions, the research has provided two hypotheses suggesting that:

(1) Living in South Africa, a country with great Western influence, causes some Muslim women to fear wearing the hijab and to abandon it all together.

(2)The main reason Muslim women choose to wear the hijab is designed for spirituality reasons regardless of the constant the stresses of the prominent Western belief.

Defining the hijab

The point of view unknown if you ask me before starting my research was that there are Muslim women who did not know that there were differing interpretations about what the hijab is tangibly. In fact, from the surveys it is obvious that amongst Muslims there is a concept of a correct hijab and an wrong hijab. Before my research commenced, the purpose of the research had not been intended to identify whether my target populace was aware that many Muslims have differing beliefs the hijab.

My research discovered that within the Muslim community there are present different interpretations of the actual hijab is tangibly. 60% of members stated that the "correct" physical hijab is a brain shawl and long loose fit clothing that conceals the shape of the body and everything but the face and hands. Interesting to notice is that 20% understand that just covering your hair is suitable and a further 20% say that all forms of using hijab including: a. just covering hair b. covering that person and mane c. covering nice hair and putting on loose clothing are satisfactory. This could be a reason why the Muslim community is divided on this issue of the hijab and become why some is perceived to be "hijab compliant" while others are not. That is in agreement of Katherine Bullock's research that shows how the hijab can be perceived differently.

To wear or never to wear: Hijab Decisions

The rationale for why members do or do not wear the hijab in this review is very interesting Although 50% of my individuals said that they wear the hijab since it makes them feel closer to Allah, only 30% of the initial 50% said that they wear the hijab for strictly religious reasons. This is constant with the affirmation that "Muslim women bring with them their sacred private space into the general public space by use of the Hijab". (Bashart, 2006).

This was very interesting to me. While studying the results I wondered about the other 20% who wear the hijab. My attention led me to discover that the 2 2 individuals who concur that they wear it for spiritual reasons said that religious beliefs is not the deciding factor why they wear the hijab. This will abide by Tarik Kulenovic's theory that the hijab in the Western is a matter of an woman's Muslim identification and that it's a symbol also carries a subject matter of religiosity in a modernizing world which induces a secular life-style and scorns tradition. That is also consistent in my literature results that areas there are women who've a deep spiritual and religious link with the veil and further proves my second hypothesis correct because 3 of the 5 members who wear the hijab agree to this statement. The remaining 2 of the 5 who wear the hijab wear the hijab for fashion because they feel stylish and since it is deemed appropriate in their culture.

The hijab makes all five individuals who wear the hijab feel guarded and safe in public. 3 of them strongly arranged while 2 arranged. This demonstrates Fadwa El Guindi spoke value when she said that veiling habits and veiling behavior are. . . . about sacred personal privacy, sanctity and the rhythmic interweaving of habits of worldly and sacred life.

The idea that I surveyed two committed moms may have resulted in that they would be more more likely to wear a far more "modest" and more "Islamically appropriate" hijab.

The stresses felt

3 out of the 5 participants who wear the hijab, a majority, do this even although hijab makes them feel just like they don't participate in their peers. Proving my first hypothesis, this may be because surviving in South Africa, a country with great American influence, triggers some Muslim women to fear using the hijab also to abandon everything together. Furthermore this could be associated with an oppressive feeling of seclusion experienced by Muslim women (Bullock)

9 participants concur that the Western (Europe and America) has a dominantly negative view on hijab and 1 participant possessed no opinion. This could be grounds why 50% of the participants who reside in a Westernized society choose never to wear the hijab.

Furthermore 5 individuals felt that these were not appointed for employment because they wear the hijab while 1 participant said that she actually is new to putting on the hijab so the question is not applicable to her. This may be another reason why these university students choose not to wear the hijab which is shows my hypothesis that surviving in South Africa, a country with great Western influence, triggers some Muslim women to dread wearing the hijab and also to abandon everything together.

Conclusion

The thorough examination of my research accumulated from a tiny sample group, the researcher can conclude that Surviving in South Africa, a country with great Western influence, triggers some Muslim women to fear putting on the hijab and also to abandon it all alongside one another also Muslim women choose to wear the hijab for spirituality reasons despite constant the pressures of the Western world but often faith is not the primary reason Muslim women wear hijab while their studies at TSiBA Education. Respondents believe that the meaning and reason for the hijab will never change although there will vary interpretations of what the right hijab is. The research shows that a majority of women choose widely to wear the hijab, a decided on few are still required by culture and custom.

Although this research may be valuable, it is essential to bear in mind that my data collection was due to 10 surveys this research revealed that my two hypotheses were in arrangement with most a small sample of subjects. The data collected represents the opinions and beliefs of a complete of 10 individuals participants. Thus, the data collected must only be interpreted as speculative and can't be assumed applicable to all Muslim women or all Muslim female students.

Appendices

Graph of Reasons for Using the Hijab

Survey Form

Survey

Researcher: Nuraan Vollenhoven

Thank you for your involvement in this review. The following is a survey which aims to obtain knowledge how the Muslim TSiBA women view themselves in current culture with regards to the hijab. This research looks for understand how dominant negative western notion on hijab has effects on your choice of Muslim TSIBA students to wear the hijab or not. The bigger goal of this study is to examine why the Muslim community is divided on the subject of hijab and to analyse the frame of mind of university students towards those who practice and do not practice the veil. This study is completely confidential and you will be used for research purposes only. The review takes approximately five minutes. Again, many thanks for your participation.

Please circle the appropriate answer

Sex: MALE FEMALE

My age group is: 18-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40

I spent the majority of my entire life: In Cape Town Outside of Cape Town

Marital Status: Married Not Married

Do you wear the hijab?

YES NO

If yes, are you ashamed of your hair?

YES NO

If you do NOT wear the hijab please neglect to section 2 (II).

Reasons: Why can you wear the hijab?

To what magnitude do you agree with the following assertions? Please tick over the correct text

When I wear the hijab I feel closer to God.

Strongly Agree Agree No Point of view Highly Disagree Disagree

When I wear the hijab Personally i think shielded and safe.

Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Firmly Disagree Disagree

When I wear the hijab Personally i think stylish.

Strongly Agree Agree No Impression Firmly Disagree Disagree

When I wear the hijab I feel like I participate in my peers.

Strongly Agree Agree No View Strongly Disagree Disagree

II Views on the hijab: How will you view the hijab?

1. Do you think all Muslim women should wear the hijab?

YES NO

2. Women who do not wear the hijab can be good Muslims.

Strongly Agree Agree No View Highly Disagree Disagree

Women who wear the hijab are NOT maintaining modernization

Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Firmly Disagree Disagree

III Custom:

1. How much of an impact did your family have on for you to decide to wear or NOT wear the hijab on a level of 0-10? (1=no influence 10= I had formed no choice)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2. Does most your loved ones wear hijab?

YES NO

If you don't wear the hijab please miss to section 5 (V).

Do you walk and socialize with men in public areas?

YES NO

Does your hijab impact your public behaviour?

YES NO

V. Hijab and Involvement: Limitations and accomplishments of hijab

1. Will you drive a car?

YES NO

2. Have you been allowed to study at a College or university?

YES NO

3. Do you have a job?

YES NO

4. Have you ever felt as if you were not employed for a job because you wear the hijab?

YES NO

5. Have you ever felt like you were not hired for a job because you do NOT wear the hijab?

YES NO

6. Have you ever travelled beyond Cape Town?

YES NO

7. Have you ever been on an airplane?

YES NO

8. Have you got a computer/ laptop?

YES NO

9. Are you currently allowed to have access to the internet?

YES NO

10. Perhaps you have ever been educated about the hijab in school?

YES NO

11. Perhaps you have ever before read or observed lectures about different interpretations of hijab?

YES NO

VI. My Hijab style: What is a hijab for you?

If you don't wear the hijab please skip to questions 3 and 4

1. Within your opinion, what is a satisfactory hijab?

a. Just covering your hair

b. Covering you wild hair and face

c. Covering your hair and putting on loose clothing

d. All varieties are acceptable

2. I've friends who wear the hijab

YES NO

3. I've friends who do NOT wear the hijab.

YES NO

VII Muslim TSiBA Women's view on issue/view of hijab in the west

1. I really believe the Western world (European countries and America) have a poor view about the hijab.

Strongly Agree Agree No Point of view Strongly Disagree Disagree

2. The Western world shouldn't encourage women to wear the hijab.

Strongly Agree Agree No Opinion Strongly Disagree Disagree

3. The West should make more of an effort to understand the hijab and why Muslim women use it.

Strongly Agree Agree No Thoughts and opinions Highly Disagree Disagree

4. The problem of the hijab is not important and really should be left by themselves by the Western.

Strongly Agree Agree No Impression Strongly Disagree Disagree

VIII Muslim TSiBA take on the west

1. Have you got friends from the Western?

YES NO

This is the end of the survey thank you for your time and participation!

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