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Multiprogramming And Time Sharing

Content
  1. Ans1. (a) In Multiprogramming and time writing environment multiple users discuss the data and system so these are pursuing two problems which can occur
  2. There could possibly be the case of pilfering of data, which can bring about various problems. It means after gaining illegitimate access in a person system and thieving the info is a problem
  3. One more problem can be, "no proper accounting of resources", this means if somebody is using the reference without maintaining proper accounting data, is a serious problem.
  4. Ans1. (b) We can not assure same degree of security as it is provided in dedicated machine. Because with time writing environment, multiple users are accessing the system, so that it is somewhat difficult to execute because if we are planning to use a high-level encryption for the sharing environment, than it probably will be difficult to put into practice that security. Every single security system made by man can be busted by another individual.
  1. Ans2. You will find two types of basic working environments
  2. Time writing environment
  3. Dedicated reference environment
  4. Dedicated environment is useful when the jobs which are to be performed are small level. This environment is preferred when hardware resources are sufficient to take care of the user's problem.
  5. Ans3. Both modular kernel and split approach will be the approaches of the planning of the structures of operating-system.
  6. Layered Approach: Layered way follows the idea of design by means of different layers. Within this the operating system is divided into layers in which core level is hardware resources and the topmost layer is User-Interface. The levels that happen to be in-between interact with the coating below it and finish the tasks. In this all the subsystems should be executed in demanding order.
  7. Modular Kernel Methodology: This approach divides the operating-system planning into modules of various levels. Like for e. g. in modules various different domains like booting, process, jobs, etc are divided and they run their modules in random manner. In a single module a group of various duties are given.
  8. Difference between both these designs is the fact that layered approach imposes strict ordering of other levels; lower layers aren't permitted to invoke operations corresponding to upper part operations, whereas regarding modular methodology various modules can invoke each other with no constraint.
  9. Part B
  10. Ans4. The factors which have an effect on the selection of host operating-system are:
  11. The host operating system should be of improved version which you are using as using as visitor operating system.
  12. Hardware resources get shared in case of guest operating-system, so care and attention must be studied off. Because if the resources scarcity occurs both the OS will hang up.
  13. Operating system used must be steady.
  14. It more is dependent upon security and swiftness.
  15. Ans5. Kernel is known as the heart of the OPERATING-SYSTEM. Kernel is the main process handler of the OS. It presents as a bridge between applications and the data processing which is performed at hardware level. The actions of Kernel are :
  16. Ans (b) Auto buffering offers a queue which of infinite period, that will never block an individual while waiting to perform a task. Disadvantage: In such a massive amount memory space is thrown away while allocation.
  17. Explicit Buffering asks explicitly that how much storage must be allocated as the available queue. In such a individual can be obstructed while it is undertaking some task Advantage: Less Storage will be misused with explicit buffering.
  18. Ans (c) Send by copy, in this type of method original value of the changing is never changed throughout the program or job. Whereas in the case of send by research, address of the original variable is approved and any changes made in the research value will be mirrored in the original value.
  19. Ans (e) This idea is used at the time of allocation of space of the buffers. In fixed-sized, fix amount of memory is assigned to buffer which will make a problem during storage area allocation and forms a ram blockage. Because it can hold limited number of jobs/messages only. Whereas in variable size the buffer memory space can be reallocated and resized from anywhere. In this the buffer-size is not pre-known.
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In a multiprogramming and time writing environment, several users show the system all together. This example can bring about various security problems.

What are two such problems?

Ans1. (a) In Multiprogramming and time writing environment multiple users discuss the data and system so these are pursuing two problems which can occur

There could possibly be the case of pilfering of data, which can bring about various problems. It means after gaining illegitimate access in a person system and thieving the info is a problem

One more problem can be, "no proper accounting of resources", this means if somebody is using the reference without maintaining proper accounting data, is a serious problem.

Can we ensure the same amount of security in a period shared machine just as an ardent machine? Explain your answer.

Ans1. (b) We can not assure same degree of security as it is provided in dedicated machine. Because with time writing environment, multiple users are accessing the system, so that it is somewhat difficult to execute because if we are planning to use a high-level encryption for the sharing environment, than it probably will be difficult to put into practice that security. Every single security system made by man can be busted by another individual.

Under what circumstances would a user be better off utilizing a time posting system rather than a PC or single end user workstation?

Ans2. You will find two types of basic working environments

Time writing environment

Dedicated reference environment

Dedicated environment is useful when the jobs which are to be performed are small level. This environment is preferred when hardware resources are sufficient to take care of the user's problem.

In the making of the operating-system there are two techniques modular kernel and split strategy? How are they different?

Ans3. Both modular kernel and split approach will be the approaches of the planning of the structures of operating-system.

Layered Approach: Layered way follows the idea of design by means of different layers. Within this the operating system is divided into layers in which core level is hardware resources and the topmost layer is User-Interface. The levels that happen to be in-between interact with the coating below it and finish the tasks. In this all the subsystems should be executed in demanding order.

Modular Kernel Methodology: This approach divides the operating-system planning into modules of various levels. Like for e. g. in modules various different domains like booting, process, jobs, etc are divided and they run their modules in random manner. In a single module a group of various duties are given.

Difference between both these designs is the fact that layered approach imposes strict ordering of other levels; lower layers aren't permitted to invoke operations corresponding to upper part operations, whereas regarding modular methodology various modules can invoke each other with no constraint.

Part B

There is guest operating-system and a host operating-system like VMware? List all the factors in choosing the number operating-system?

Ans4. The factors which have an effect on the selection of host operating-system are:

The host operating system should be of improved version which you are using as using as visitor operating system.

Hardware resources get shared in case of guest operating-system, so care and attention must be studied off. Because if the resources scarcity occurs both the OS will hang up.

Operating system used must be steady.

It more is dependent upon security and swiftness.

The kernel is responsible for a action with the techniques. Search through the action of kernel and identify the particular action is?

Ans5. Kernel is known as the heart of the OPERATING-SYSTEM. Kernel is the main process handler of the OS. It presents as a bridge between applications and the data processing which is performed at hardware level. The actions of Kernel are :

Kernel creates an address space for this program, loads the documents formulated with the program's code into memory and executes it.

Multi-tasking kernels are able to give the user the exclusive view that the amount of processes running all together is higher than the maximum range of processes the computer is really running.

Kernel uses scheduling algorithms to ascertain which process is operating next and how much time it'll be given. The algorithm chosen may enable some processes to acquire higher goal than others. The kernel generally also provides these procedures ways to communicate; this is known as inter-process communication.

Kernel is accountable for connecting the hardware resources with the software components.

Co-operative multitasking, where each process is allowed to run uninterrupted until it makes a special question that tells the kernel it could switch to another process. Such demands are known as "yielding".

Q6. Considering both system level and the programmer level.

Consider the advantage and downside of the following structure.

Synchronous and asynchronous communication.

Ans (a) Synchronous communication is immediate communication. In which the communication is time synchronized. This means all the users are involved in the communication can be found at exactly the same time.

Asynchronous communication does not require that all the users mixed up in communication should be there at the same time. For e. g. e-mails, blogging.

Asynchronous pays to when the communication is done at far range means online.

Automatic and explicit buffering.

Ans (b) Auto buffering offers a queue which of infinite period, that will never block an individual while waiting to perform a task. Disadvantage: In such a massive amount memory space is thrown away while allocation.

Explicit Buffering asks explicitly that how much storage must be allocated as the available queue. In such a individual can be obstructed while it is undertaking some task Advantage: Less Storage will be misused with explicit buffering.

Send by duplicate and send by reference

Ans (c) Send by copy, in this type of method original value of the changing is never changed throughout the program or job. Whereas in the case of send by research, address of the original variable is approved and any changes made in the research value will be mirrored in the original value.

Fixed-sized and variable-sized communications.

Ans (e) This idea is used at the time of allocation of space of the buffers. In fixed-sized, fix amount of memory is assigned to buffer which will make a problem during storage area allocation and forms a ram blockage. Because it can hold limited number of jobs/messages only. Whereas in variable size the buffer memory space can be reallocated and resized from anywhere. In this the buffer-size is not pre-known.

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