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Multicultural Counselling Conceptualization

  • Ilka I. Bryant

Inter-group characteristics

The term "DARK-COLORED" is used to refer to Us citizens descendants of the African tribes mainly from the sub-Sahara who came up to America as slaves in the 17th and 18th decades. Since it is normal with all unique ethnic groups there are destined to be different core values, behaviour and beliefs even within the same group. Not surprisingly, there are behaviour, beliefs and worth that are incredibly common and which bind the group or in this case the African People in america together. A few of these include; they have very strong kinship bonds, they strongly believe on the value of strong religious ties or orientation, acknowledgement of the value of women and family generally speaking is widespread. Children and how they are really reared can be regarded as the responsibility of every member of the city (Norment, 2005). The value for older people is highly inspired and practiced.

Because of the historical injustices dedicated on the African American they have developed a feeling of distrust of the federal government. They believe that the government neglected them and this it generally does not care. It has led most of them to become deeply religious, fatalistic as well as others have developed deviant behaviors. Most African People in america who have chosen the path of religious beliefs identify with the protestant movements and especially the Baptist denomination.

On the facet of group self-perceptions and issues related to stereotyping the African People in america have always thought discriminated upon for their skin color (Norment, 2005). This sense has not been helped by the various cases of injustices determined upon them from the very first time they came up to America as slaves, down the revolution times, through the times of the Black Power movements until now.

To nearly all African Americans the government neglected them a long time ago and this has already established negative impacts on their socio-economic life. They claim that the government's overlook has been the main cause of poverty among them (Norment, 2005). That that they had very little chance for success because many of them did not go to college and for that reason their chances of success both in the U. S and internationally was and is diminished. A few of them cite the slow government intervention through the hurricane Katrina for example of how the federal government has neglected them.

Intra-group characteristics

As observed in the opening declaration, the African People in the usa talk about may common beliefs, practices and behaviour. But like any other ethnic group they also have several distinctions. These variations might be because of the geographical location, the amount of education and even the monetary class. Most of the elite African Americans for example do not have that strong connection to religious beliefs that is normal with other African People in the usa. Those African Us citizens who are doing perfectly economically aren't likely to be bound by the values, attitudes and tactics that bind those beneath them economically. For instance, the kinship ties on the list of wealthy African Americans aren't as pronounced when compared with the indegent African People in the usa in the ghettos. Another major difference is between those African People in america from the Southern claims such as Alabama which got a brief history of treating African American badly because of their skin color. The patterns and values of the African Us citizens descended from these parts is very different from those who or their parents were brought up in much liberal areas such as NY which from the days of Abraham Lincoln was more lenient and tolerant.

Different members of the BLACK group have different group self-perceptions mainly due to different upbringing, education level, religious beliefs, and the economical status. To those who are endowed materially, they have very little time for teams but those DARK-COLORED who are financially disadvantaged identify very much with organizations.

There are three theoretical approaches to counseling that are incredibly important particularly when dealing with this type of ethnic group particularly; the psychodynamic methodology, the humanistic-existential approach and the cognitive-behavioral procedure. In the psychodynamic approach, the target is how the person inside world is prepared (Anderson, 1985). It talks about the person childhood experiences, interactions and how the person handles self esteem issues. That is very important to comprehend as it pertains to the BLACK group because some of them react in different ways especially in situations where they are the n minority or when abused because of their skin color. The counselor must work on the self esteem issues of this group deeper than other teams.

The humanistic-existential approach deals usually with the individual view of the world in conjunction with his encounters. It majors on the current life and state of affairs. The cognitive-behavior strategy on the other palm looks at the person's behavior and values. The kind of belief you have a direct effect on his / her behavior, for occasion, negative belief is known to lead or result to maladaptive habits.

Psychodynamic approach attempts to get the individual to bring to the surface their true thoughts in order to see them and understand them. This approach assumes that everyone has a subconscious mind which feelings placed in the unconscious mind, and that thoughts performed in the unconscious mind are often too agonizing to be faced (Anderson, 1985). People produce defenses to protect this painful sense. The therapist them seeks to help make the person to talk to their own simple fact, makes them alert to the thoughts they have no idea of and makes them tolerate the unpleasant feeling they may be experiencing.

Since the African-Americans distrust the federal government, the counselor will attempt to make them aware that the issues they are really facing are not caused by the federal government in vitality. The African-Americans will be tolerant to law and thus they will take part in against the law activities such as abusing drugs. The counselor should therefore make an effort to convince them that they need to change their behaviour towards the federal government and abide by law.

The counselors should pay attention to the protection under the law of the African Americans and should not at all get involved in any form discrimination. The counselors will need to treat them quite regardless of their personal thoughts that they could have against them. They shouldn't stereotype with them and hence this will ensure that there surely is no biasness during the guidance period (Avashi & Grover, 2008). The counselors should also know the culture of the African Us citizens well before commencing with the guidance. This will enable him know this attitudes and beliefs of the group and for that reason avoid prejudice while counselling them.

Another honest and legal aspect that the counselors must have is competency. The counselors must have knowledge about this group they are really coping with (Avashi & Grover, 2008). The competency should permit him produce the best decisions in dealing with the customers and also estimate costs and consequences of choosing the best method of dealing with the BLACK client. The counselors should keep carefully the information purchased from the client as confidential in order to avoid issues with the clients

Developing multicultural sensitivity recognition is an ongoing process. As counselors, it's important to see all clients as you individual, and comprehend that their beliefs, experiences, vocabulary and values have an impact on just how they interact with others in a community. Also, we need to remember that there are always variations within cultures. It is inappropriate to expect a common culture is accepted by all members of an linguistic, racial or spiritual group.


Anderson, W. (1985). Journal of Guidance and development. Psychotherapy & Counselling, 588-589.

Avashi, A. , & Grover, S. (2008). Ethical and LEGALITIES in Psychotherapy. Journal of Guidance and Development, 148-163.

Norment, N. (2005). Readings in DARK-COLORED Words: Aspects, Features, and Perspectives. Bern: Peter Lang.

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