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Motion Control Techniques In Visual Effects Industry Film Studies Essay

In this research we will have the action control rigs and its contribution to create the realistic movement of the camera with help of the computer softwares. Though it's very difficult at the learner level to produce such a rig and experiment with it with the available budget I am going to try to create a movement control rig and control it by making use of the computer programming. It is a long process. The primary advantage of the movement control rig is it can reproduce the same movement very effectively in a brief time period which is highly impossible for individuals hand to accomplish. This survey will contain the information about the motion control rig and its own uses with advantages over the original camera cinematography to attain the visual results in the film.



The filmy camera action which is only dependent on the task and intuition of the cinematographer is very difficult work and if you would like to capture the same scene with same action and the camera movements it is highly impossible to achieve that with a normal camera work. Even though you make an effort to create that action in the computer images software it's very difficult and time taking process, which requires too many efforts to achieve the goal. The primary disadvantage of this is if you aren't able to undertake it correctly it can spoil all the work, time and money invested because the film won't appear to be as you have imagined finally. So it's a big loss of the everyone's work process.

The most recent technological improvement to solve the problem which too many studios are facing is these are producing their own hardwares and action control rigs which may be managed by the computer systems and can store the activity of the camera which a cameraman is managing physically. Therefore the person can achieve whatever movement he wants regularly that to naturalistic. But everyone can't manage these all the things to do and the individual who is doing that must have sound understanding of all the departments to build a motion control rig which needs to be done by experts. So subject matter is if this motion control system can be utilized at a realistic price to explore the ideas by the reduced budget and new comer's filmmakers to experiment with visual effects.

Definition of Action Control

In our day to day life if we go and check out the technology related to the entertainment portion you might notice very complex terms as multipass, go motion, slit scan, streaking that you is probably not aware of nevertheless, you have actually seen it on the screen in the films and Tv set advertisements for example the Legend Wars etc.

The technology of the Movement control system is developed for the necessity of fabricating the visual results and animation and also to have significantly more control over it with the aid of the computer programs. So motion control is the medium of technology to combine all the elements had a need to create the amazing world of the special effects.

As you are handling the motion of the camera with help of the computer programs you have more options and ideas to create a movement is an added advantage. The primary benefit of the action control systems which it repeats the same action with great correctness and that's the reason this technology has been preferred nowadays by the majority of the film makers. Many of us may argue with likelihood that the actions which we can throw easily with the movement control systems can be blast by the traditional cameraman with the initiatives but the correctness level of that action won't be the same at any level that taken been produced because we live taking pictures it with human being hands with some limitations. And also it will take additional time for concluding the shot should you it personally.

The main motive of using the motion control system is to create the naturalistic camera motion within a short while with the affordable cost to get the amazing result for the videos. .

"Motion control, is the foundation after which maximum visible effects work stands" (Alex Alvarez, Director at Gnomon)

In this research survey the main section of review is to explore the techniques found in the movement control systems and exactly how those are much better than the original methods of taking pictures for creation of the visible effects. The literature research for the motion control systems will include the annals of the motion control system and need for it and the future of the same. We will also concentrate on the use of the several cameras to be utilized on the action control rigs and exactly how that helps in the pre visualization level previously. The last part of my research will conclude the primary motive because of this dissertation is how this technology gives more control and plays a essential role and also how it is a superb tool or chance of the reduced budget film makers and newbies to set-up the new world of the visible effects.

Motion control the name itself derives that it's designed to be use to get control over the movement or movement which can be the change in the positioning of the camera or might be the rotation of the axis of the camera in the space. As discussed above if we desire to create the beautiful world of the special results it is the have to be accurate with our activities at the level of the production while firing the footage. This is actually the place where exactly the motion control takes on the main role to provide the exact and the repetition of the action or motion. But in the earlier days because of insufficient the data and technology the dependability of the Action control systems was an issue and the reason behind not getting its credit for its vital role in the development stage. If you try out and get back to history you will find the one other option to make the spectacular special effects is to use the computer softwares and the virtual cameras for the reason that which is highly complex and a very much time consuming process which also requires the know-how in the softwares.

The Need for Motion Control to the Film Industry

The relevance and importance of motion control to the film industry, includes the research done with help of the literature and industry information along with views of the professional people in interviews. People had completely different views about the role of the action control systems in the movies as well as its need to the industry. After achieving this research I arrived to a strategy that if you truly wish to the movie with motion control rig it ought to be built very properly and with quality materials if not if you do it with the momentary basis structure it is not reliable at any point to create the nice outcome as you have expected or imagines with a waste materials of money and time.

The importance of the motion control systems for the film industry should be observed and clarified on the basis of its previous success and the failure reports and not on the individuals needs and wants about the utilization of the technology. You can see the impact of the movies recently made on the viewer's brains due to magnificent world of the special effects is due to use of the motion control system. "I would say it is not the most important aspect as before use of movement control systems, videos were made just fine but it offers film makers more options with what they can do with cameras" (M. Thompson, personal communication, March 25, 2010). Here the point to be observed is the fact technology is not the ultimate source but just the medium that it helps to tell the storyline in an exceedingly different and a strong perspective. That is the contribution of the motion control systems to the film industry.

Motion control has given too much freedom to regulate the movements of the cameras while taking pictures. In the event that you get back to history to check out if the videos which were the greatest hits of all the times with the magnificent special effects would never have been possible without use of technology of the movement control system. And that means you can imagine the really regular version of the Celebrity Wars with the most common special effects as in any TV serials. Because of the strong advantages of the movement control system nowadays it has started to make its own place now in the creation pipeline of the VFX film industry very speedily. Which is the necessity for the today's design of filmmaking as it is the various and very strong medium to mention the storyplot in more beautiful way.

"The difference between a failed shot and a magnificent shot can often boil down to the camera activity" (A. Hargreaves, personal communication, March 31, 2010).

Research Questions and hypothesis

1. Reason behind Using Movement Control

Motion control is a system technology that allows the encoding and repetition of the motion of the cameras very accurately. The advantage of this technology is we can take various special effects pictures in very less time instantly, which are highly impossible to produce without Movement Control or can only just be possible to do utilizing a non-moving camera. By using Motion control we can get really natural and stunning looking shots like you want to move the camera in a field to follow a structure of subject matter or an action, so that it plays a very vital role while capturing. I'll give one example of the special result which is fairly simple as a field including a guy is merely walking on a road and gradually begins disappeared into air while walking. That is can be carried out by taking 2 takes. Within the first take the man will walk on the road and in the second take will be the road. Along the way of enhancing the editor will take the two removes and will merge with one another slowly such that it appears like a guy is disappeared in the air. This sort of shot is quite simple to achieve only when the camera is continuous, but when you have the movement of camera this shot is extremely hard without the Movement Control because the 2 2 needs shot will not match in perspective and speed so we cannot merge it. Such as this with the movement control we can throw innumerable moments of the special results.

2. Usage of action Control in live action films

In live action motion pictures we have to concentrate on way too many things at the same time. Motion control system can replicate the camera movements properly and accurately which includes change of concentration, zooming and sometimes to control the signals so all important work is performed by the motion control rig therefore the director can concentrate on the celebrities mainly and their performing without any be concerned about camera movements and continuity. That is a very beneficial reason for using movement control rig as it helps you to save money and also the time.

This is more useful when you have employed very talented actors you can set up all the adjustments and camera actions so when the celebrities seriously the sets you can begin the shoot immediately for saving the time.

3. Setting up a movement on the Movement Control System

Since a long time people and technicians are suffering from various options for setting up the moves on the Action control rig. Which I understood I have divided them in parts for better understanding.

1) Direct enter movement-Traditionally the individual has a remote control to regulate the rig and he packages it up at the position that he wants to get started on and fix the position by the handy remote control. After fixing the beginning position he will move the rig to next position where he intends it to be at and again with handy remote control he helps you to save that place. This king of camera movement setup gives movements along 3 points. Usually to capture any shot 2 to 5 things is necessary. Those factors on the movement path are signed up with by the computer using software. While establishing this move the person decides for that scene the number of frames to be studied and with which velocity the camera should move. Then you can be ready for the filming.

2)The Mimic movement-For this activity a hardware is offered which allows the individual to create the movements by pushing the rig like crane or dolly and with the help of wheels to record the motion been done. As soon as the activity has been set you can replicate it at your desirable velocity like other activities. Whenever a director wishes the handheld feel for the movement or for the unpredictable habits for animals make use of this hardware to create a motion.

3) The activity brought in from CGI packages- If you are friendly with CG software as Softimage/Xsi and Maya you can make a decision and create the own movement and transfer those in the movement control system. By using this you can certainly do very unique and complicated actions also.

4. Advantages of the Motion Control in Post production

Post production part of the film depends upon the very well shot moments. Movement Control is behind the displays professional for the special results which permits the moments from the physical world to be merged and split with the program help and results. Movement control is a development device for this reason all the people give more importance and credit for the special results to the computer images software but can't recognize that minus the important role of the movement control footage these special results wouldn't have been so special.

The additional advantage of using the action control is the fact it offers the accurate activities and perspective so it becomes easy to export that to software immediately so the scenes can be composed and merged together very easily.

5. Accuracy count number of the Movement Control

The movements of the each axis which is handled motion is assessed to an level of micron level which is performed by using optical encoders the electric machines mounted on the motors which is too fine degree that is obvious to eyes. Because of the heat produced by the heavy and excellent lamps the metals with which the rigs are made of tend to extend. As the measurement is too small it influences the computation. But this doesn't happen frequently.

6. Tracking verses Movement Control

The calculation that your tracking provides for the positioning of camera in space is derivable only varieties 2d footage. The condition which the foreground and background elements can be merged with the live action footage is position and path of the camera. In motion control system first we photograph with the rig and then assess the camera path motion and export it to the software. As the movement control camera system is aware of the position of the camera in space very effectively it is rather simple, convenient and faster to export the info to the softwares. The necessity for the action control cannot be removed by the tracking concept because of its exactness and complicated camera actions. Motion control is the one and only one solution for the desired result of multiple pass scenes. The concept of monitoring is heavily reliant on the resolved markers in the background to estimate the movements of the camera course. Sometimes these markers are difficult to see because the markers will not be in focus or they will be out of the frame so that it won't work out regarding to wish. Actually we may use the previous tracking data computation to export it to the movement control way of the camera that can be available as aspect for the foreground in live action photograph. This can be useful in the film industry especially for new comers to experiment the old techniques with new technology again.

7. Advantage of Movement Control in pre visualization

The need for the pre visualization of the shot while developing and planning the film is increasing daily. Pre visualization gives the perspective of the manufacturer, director and cinematographer of the look of the final world. The pre visualization level eliminates the chances of the heavy and costly mis understandings, helps to put together the shot, allows the set designers to calculate the space for the packages, setting of the models, enables the cameraman for the better understanding of the signals to be utilized in a arena, so finally it saves enough time and lots of money.

So the camera motion which can be fixed such as this can be immediately directed at the movement control camera system rig as it has been visualized previously in the pre visualization stage.

8. Set of cameras can be used on Motion control rig

The movement control rig can handle most quantity of the film cameras with different sizes and weights. The cameras best ideal for the movement control are as follows-

1. Fries Mitchell

2. Mitchell

3. Arri 435s

4. Arri IIIs

5. Movie cam

6. Compacts

7. Panavision

8. Broadcast camcorders and camcorders

9. HD video cameras.

9. Different motion control systems

The 1st is known as as Cyclops which is studio room based motion control system. That is considered as the best ideal system for movement control. It includes unique qualities as it is extremely rigid, it can attain the high speed action around 4 m/s and can also attain the high heights as more than 7m zoom lens.

The 2nd one is known as as Milo which is a big system with portability. The primary benefit of its design that it could be easily moved from one location to other easily because you can build it very quickly compared to other rigs and also dismantles it easily. It could give accelerate very nearer to the rates of speed of the Cyclops, but it can't attain very much height as it is very small. The Milo has another option for the longer reach is the fact that it has a longer arm. But the point of concern could it be is much less rigid as the Cyclops.

The 3rd one is named as Juno. It's the smallest rig, which is lightweight as well. It offers a set arm. It contains a brain with parallelogram to keep it to the level. The advantage of its design that may be easily accommodate in a very less space which can fit thorough the standard doorways. So for this reason benefits you can throw perfectly I the commercial complexes and buildings. When compared with Milo it offers less level and reach than Milo.

10. Dependability of the Action Control System

While developing the motion control rigs the main concern is actually the reliability. If you go and check out the internet pages from history you will get to know that individuals possessed misbelieve in the motion control systems as a result of failure of the equipment to just work at the proper time when needed. That acquired the motion manages very bad labels in few countries because of many "home made" action control systems assembled to give quick and cheap deals to gratify the individuals needs in those days. Whenever we are shooting the quality product we can not package with such thing to bargain with consistency of the parts. So regularly it will maintain in case any issues they could be fixed quickly and completely. Cyclops and Milo rigs 've got the very good name and dependability in the film industry.


History Overview of Motion Control

Motion Control and the computer used to regulate require different calculations or work functions. Even though these processes come from different areas of research they quickly became linked for purposes such as VFX.

"The US defense section first developed the idea of movement control for use in missile instruction systems. The initial VFX use of motion control could very well be in 1985 at the famous NYIT images lab Tom Brigham and J. P. Lewis executed a rig" (Seymour, M. 2004)

The progress in technology as well as trends in CPU and graphics speed began to make video editing and VFX development possible to the film industry.

In a storytelling process person must show too many imaginary illusions to convey the storyline more beautifully. To show and communicate these illusions we've been gifted with one technology that is term called as special effects, which are usually found in film, television, movie theater, or entertainment establishments. The idea of Special effects is categorized divided into the parts named by optical results and mechanical results. As the years handed down the film industry has grown with way too many solutions mainly the digital techniques because which we are now enable to understand the difference between your special results and visual effects. The visual effects mean the one which are created during the procedure for the post creation digitally. The special result means those are created with the aid of the cameras mechanically on the models while firing.

The computer images has been playing important role with special effects from the period of 1990s. The main advantage of the computer design is that it allows the filmmakers to reduce the traditional limitations to create the effects and provides more control over it which is more convenient and fine to achieve by using this technique. This technology will save time and money both at the greater extent's many of the special results which we used to create mechanically are went to lower palm by the computer images.

The first motion picture special effect to be looked at as was enough time in 1857 when Oscar Gustave Fletcher Rejlander merged the different elements of the 32 images in one image. The first commonly awarded special effect in the industry was in 1895 by Alfred Clark. At the time of taking pictures for a reenactment of the beheading of Mary, Queen of Scots an education of to step up to the stop in Mary's halloween costume was given to the actor. In that picture when the executioner came with the axe above his mind, the camera was ended, he advised all the actors to freeze, and instructed the person playing Mary to set off the set. Then your trick was substitution of the dummy in Mary's place rather than the actor. Then the next shot was the axe coming down to slice the head of the dummy by the executioner. "Such techniques would stay at the heart of special results production for another century" (Rickitt).

Special effects technology was produced and reconstructed by the movies company in the time of the 1920s and 1930s. Most of the results techniques were created and improvised the techniques of illusions from the background of the theaters like ghosts composed of papers and still photography like as two times subjection and matte compositing. The theory was to use the painted backgrounds as the projections and replace them with the moving pictures. In those times they used to create faces with life casting by making use of the usual mask making. They used to produce awesome masks which would fit the actor correctly. After the technology of materialization improved upon and that offered more depth for horror film mask making.

The greatest evolution for the special results was the amazing success of the research fiction and fantasy motion pictures in 1977. The film Celebrity Wars created by George Lucas's unlashed a time of fantasy movies with expensive and awesome special effects. That times special effects supervisor was John Dykstra, A. S. C. He and his team did many advancements in technology. For the movie's needs they created a movement handled camera rig known as as "Dykstraflex. " It created the wonders in those days as repetition of the motion which drastically increased the compositing the matte. The film images went through the process of the degradation by the use of other ground breaking techniques: For the widescreen images photography that to horizontal with the stock they used the cameras named Vista eyesight on that rig. They used the more amount of the film per framework rate as well as for the compositing part they used slender films with emulsions.

In the same time, the movie named Close Encounters of the Third Kind creation of Steven Spielberg burst out with amazing special effects. Those were the creation of veteran Douglas Trumbull. They developed their own motion control rig system. In addition they introduced the term lens flare which is intentional and created by the reflection of light in the camera lenses. That was intentionally done to create the patterns of the flying saucers.

The major reason for the investment in the special results was the grand success of these motion pictures. That created a whole lot buzz converted into opportunities for the special effects studios and the delivery of the computer images. As the years passed the film industry is continuing to grow with way too many systems mainly the digital techniques because of which we are actually enable to understand the difference between your special results and visual results. The visual effects mean the one which are created during the process of the post production digitally. The special effect means those are created by using the cameras mechanically on the units while shooting.


This dissertation studies the "integration of action control techniques in the film industry". As for the artefact itself, conclusions drawn from the research will provide guidance as well as specialized knowledge.

The information attained from the interviews of industry effective personnel in regions of motion control will create the basis of the injections. Each shot will have an in depth information of its particular methodology and reasoning, as well as problems and techniques used to achieve a solid record. These approaches examine and support the information that has been derived from both main and secondary research.

Primary Research

In order to get relevant, accurate and up up to now information, the principal research for the analysis and interpretation of the study questions was based on connections and interviews with industry specialists. These interviews were conducted in various manners according to the versatility and time of the sources. These included email questionings, phone conversations. However the question order and wording may vary, all interviews contain similar areas of focus and question key points.

The following individuals where contained in the questioning:

1. Mr. Ramdas A. Dale (Basic Administrator Productions, Amtek Engineers PVT LTD. )

2. Mr. Rahul S. Sharma (

The questions asked were specifically designed to not only help with specific techniques needed to produce an artifact, but also to emphasize any issue areas that might be experienced during use of movement control rig in a professional environment. The primary section of research mentioned in the benefits of this paper still stands and the key exploration into "The integration of movement control system in the film industry" remains.

Evaluating Principal research

The primary research conducted by these questions was grouped into 6 subject matter. This approach was necessary in order to structure the info received for either supplementary research solutions, or technique analysis. The primary headings of the primary research evolutions are:

1. The word Motion Control

2. Movement Control for VFX

3. The work of a motion control rig

4. Tricks and problems

5. The Need for Motion Control to the Film Industry

6. The future of Motion Control

Secondary Research

The supplementary research will involve the diagnosis of motion control literature to be able to support the principal research on a far more technical level. The primary methodology and reasoning because of this research, is showing a good understanding of some subject areas discussed in the principal research, as well as how to use the movement control rig for low quality films. This will further assist in the understanding and problem solving.

The strategy of movement control is there since countable years but now is enough time when this technology can be accessible in a affordable cost with which at least we can I mean low quality filmmakers can think of deploying it as a great tool for the take and experiment thoroughly. Earlier days the price tag on a completely-featured computerized animation camera was up to Rs. 90000000.

Now a times the Motion control system is available for under Rs. 540000. For shooting this type of work if you work with a camera it costs around Rs. 3500 per hour and more of course, if you compare that with above price can consider as 270 time of throw with action control. If you compare the photographs each hour with action control you can capture 45 minutes of movie as the film camera will throw 10-12 seconds of film in an hour. The action control systems require the test shoots so if you count the final shooting end result will be around 25 minutes. This is the reason you can think of getting your action control rig which can pay for this in a comparatively less time. Which has other side advantage of experimenting more by yourself ideas for more time.

The main advantage of using this technology is you can own less priced system and can get immediate and great admittance into more comprehensive and great field of Tv set and multimedia. That too is a best chance to low-budget filmmakers who is able to improvise new and unique techniques. Newcomers can make most use of the camera productively plus they spend less for the studio room who wants get a rest in this industry.

There are two options which are for sale to the shooting of the films. Is Cameraman and the other is action control rig. Everyone one of them consists of the parts namely: the system, the added electronic devices to control the motion by the motors and computer softwares, the individual handles the motors with the help of the systems to obtain the special results. Each option uses the name of the brand and personal computers to get control over the activity of the axes, action paths.

Usually a cameraman use the amount of action will be and he runs on the computer. WITHIN THE movement control rig it contains 3 or 6 or even more axes to build the movement and it uses the computer systems as IBM or Apple. The offer of the movement control rig and computer with which it can control 6 axes and software applications costs almost Rs. 540000. The package of the Cameraman and computer system and motion over the 6 axes and software applications at most about Rs. 440000.

The computer software package that your cameraman uses has more features like the streak mode along with fitting of curve. The other thing is the digital devises he uses are made up of very simple design so the advantage is it has less maintenance. The studios with big finances can become more comfortable and reliable with movement control rigs if they have a strong history of producing the large movement control systems and use them.

Future Work

My research will generally concern itself with translating physical camera action with motion control rig in an amazing way. The operation and effectiveness of the movement control can be greatly expanded in the foreseeable future. Opportunities for future work could include developing a real-time depth of field preview that would allow for natural focal length changes to be made using the movement control system camera, adding yet another degree of intuitive control to motion of camera. Reprogramming other handles of the action control to make it more self-sufficient.

Scope and limitations


I got an approach to that how do i use the motion control system for the reduced budget movies. That is possible if I can get a good configured personal computer and make the action control rig by myself. To build a action control rig you 'must' have the sound understanding of the different elements of executive such as electro-mechanical, personal computers and mechanical anatomist and the great effects. If you cannot do it by yourself you may get help from your engineer friends who might be enthusiastic about all this stuff.

Motion control creates way too many visual illusions which are amazing and amazing which might be we can create by the duplication of the images developed in the computer systems. At the moment the action control system is reasonable priced but it'll be vast in the foreseeable future. In fact as soon as the less listed action control systems are certain to get evolved the primary advantages will be for the new filmmakers to emerge as great as it can be with the amazing special results treatment which will allow audience and viewers to get accessibility into to another world of magic created by you.


Over the course of this dissertation, a good knowledge of motion control techniques and their program was exposed. Especially through the considerable key research with industry working individuals a lot of insider information was gathered for examination. These investigations included debatable subject areas, however general developments and similarities where obtained from the analysis of these sources.

It has become clear that comments about the use of a movement control are not simply complaints but reflects how the industry sees action control for several reasons. Probably the most crucial reasoning to this way of thinking is the fact within the India large companies have only just began to use the more complex motion control as an opportunity to enter the VFX industry, which is going to be extravagant very quickly in India by using filmmakers.

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