Modernismo in Spanish-american Poetry of the 20th Century


This research analyses Spanish modernismo in Spanish-American poetry. The newspaper investigates in depth the impact of Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones, the most influential modernista poets of the twentieth century, on the development and get spread around of modernismo in Spain. The received results show that Spanish modernismo was new for Latin America and differed much from Western european Modernism. Due to the spread of nationalism, modernista poets experienced rejection and criticism from the people of Spanish society that considered their literary works as the imitation of Western poetry. However, Lugones and Dario opposed the existing restrictions and carried out new forms of poetic manifestation. In this regard, some findings of this research are steady with the previous studies, while other results provide new valid data to the problem of Spanish modernismo in the twentieth century.

1 Affirmation of the problem

Spanish modernismo is known as by some analysts and critics to stand for a real revolution in Spanish-American literature of the twentieth century. The fact is that by the finish of the nineteenth century the poetry of Latin America began to decease, thus enhancements had to be implemented to revive it. Modernismo was new for Latin America, and the poets who greatly affected the formation of this movement were Leopoldo Lugones and Ruben Dario, as these were the first folks who implemented Western european poetic traditions into their writings, changing the linguistic basis of poetry. However, this point of view may also be challenged by literary scholars who make makes an attempt to remove the impact of modernismo on Spanish-American poetry. Gwen Kirkpatrick shows that such a biased eye-sight is described by the actual fact that "many conversations of modernismo are stereotypically describing a 'rubenismo', the hackneyed copies of Ruben Dario's style, while forgetting the movement's audacity and its own sweeping display of subject material and styles"1. The conducted studies aggravate the issue by attracting a parallel between Spanish modernismo and Western european modernism. As a result, they offer ambiguous and invalid findings in regards to modernismo in Spanish-American poetry, instead of clarifying various areas of the twentieth-century Hispanic literature.

2 Introduction

Spanish modernismo as an essential literary trend of twentieth century Hispanic poetry was initiated by Leopoldo Lugones and Ruben Dario and achieved its top in the years of 1888-1915. It possessed the major impact on Spanish poetry, but also afflicted other literary genres, such as short stories and books. Modernismo came out as an effective mixture of the Symbolist and the French Parnassian literary moves and was especially widespread in Argentina, Mexico and Cuba2. Modernismo in Spain reflects various social and monetary changes of the later nineteenth - early on twentieth generations.

It is principally characterized by the substitution of the ex - structural and thematic components for new elements that include tests with meter and rhyme and the use of such styles as panorama and eroticism. Thus, modernismo possesses three primary features: 1) novelty in rhyme and meter; 2) new gratitude of poetry's role and 3) upsurge in subject themes. Interpersonal changes influenced the poets' knowledge of their functions and made them abide by the literary traditions of such Western poets and writers as Edgar Allan Poe, Baudelaire and Whitman. Latin America differed from other Europe because of the simple fact that it made constant attempts to maintain the key points of national identity. As a result, Spanish books used to adhere to conventional ideals, and any withdrawal from these specific traditions was seen as a real danger to the problems of nationality. Modernist poets such as Dario and Lugones were usually considered as escapists and Spanish-American poetry - as the imitation of overseas ways of expression. In view of these complex social and cultural limitations, the surge of modernismo in Spain signified the removal of the more aged stereotypes and the establishment of new models for poetry. The beginning of the twentieth century was also characterized by the spread of sciences and sectors that contributed much to the formation of a rationalistic perspective on life and universe.

However, due to the existing constraints, modernista poets of this period could only unite Western european beliefs with traditional ideals in their literary works. In this regard, modernismo in Spain collided with more complexities than Modernism far away. These complexities led to the fact that Spanish poetry of the sooner twentieth century discovered much ambiguity and inconsistency. Various tries of Spanish poets to utilise modernista elements in their works were regarded as the imitation of Western european literary sources, and modernismo in whole - as the pattern of dependence. However, recent criticism on Hispanic poetry of the twentieth century challenged this point of view, providing valid data to demonstrate the uniqueness and importance of Spanish modernismo. The topics and inventions of modernismo gave rise to many aesthetic and ethnical tendencies of Spanish-American poetry of the twentieth century.

The aim of the study is two-fold: 1) to analyse how modernismo displayed a revolution in Spanish-American poetry in the 20th century; 2) to judge the importance of Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones in the forming of modernismo. The newspaper is split into sections. Chapter 1 provides a statement of the condition that uncovers the principal thesis of the dissertation. Section 2 conducts an over-all overview of modernismo through public and historical contexts. Section 3 observes the critical works that are written on the issue of Spanish modernismo. Chapter 4 discusses the theoretical tools that are requested the analysis. Chapter 5 evaluates in detail the impact of Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones on modernismo and just how they changed Spanish-American poetry. Chapter 6 offers a summarization of the received results, while Section 7 demonstrates the constraints of the study and gives the suggestions for further analysis of Spanish modernismo.

3 Overview of the literature

Various critical works are written on the issue of modernismo in Spain, providing alternatively contradictory results. Cathy Jrade considers that modernista poets viewed the world as "a system of correspondences"3. Thus, these were in search of the ways to discover the concealed fact about Latin America and the world entirely. Some critical works on Spanish modernismo are targeted at examining modernista poetry through communal contexts, including No Jitrik's Contradicciones del modernismo, Franoise Perus' Literatura y sociedad en Amrica Latina and Angel Rama's Rubn Daro y el modernismo4. According to Ricardo Gullon, "What's called modernismo is not thing of school nor of form, but of attitude. . . This is the modernismo: a great movement of enthusiasm and freedom towards the beauty"5. Discussing Spanish modernismo and the poets who contributed to the forming of this activity, Gwen Kirpatrick items at Leopoldo Lugones as "a true precursor of what might be called the dissonant craze in Spanish North american poetry"6. The researcher considers that Lugones greatly affected other poets of the next years by rejecting the original poetic norms and implementing new modernista elements.

Lugones' legacy is particularly clear in the works of Csar Vallejo, Alfonsina Storni and Memoryn Lpez Velarde. Octavio Paz items at the fact that Lugones' and Dario's poetry is the beginning of "all experiences and experiments of modern poetry in speaking spanish"7. However, Paz also differentiates between Lugones and Dario; although he respect Dario as the initiator of modernismo, it is "Leopoldo Lugones who really initiates the second modernista revolution"8. Alternatively, some research workers criticize Lugones' poetry and his effect on Spanish-American literature. For instance, Roberto F. Giusti says, "What is Lugones' literary personality? It really is a difficult question to answer due to the simple fact that he lacks one"9. Amado Nervo contradicts this viewpoint by pointing at powerful facet of Lugones' poetry, especially Las monta±as del oro. Although Nervo acknowledges the impact of overseas thinking on the works of Lugones, he nevertheless recognizes many individualistic features of this modernista poet. As Nervo puts it, "Lugones' personality is powerful, the most powerful inside our America. . . The outside influences, the variety of reminiscences, the trivial and romantic recommendations of sages, poets, anti painters clash in his spirit along with his own and diverse ideas"10. However, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada shows that Lugones' poetry lacks real sincerity, he considers that "We see him [Lugones] change and contradict himself, but we never see him share himself with utter sincerity"11. The different understanding of Lugones' poetry can be discussed by the changes within Spanish contemporary society that molded people's knowledge of poetry throughout the twentieth century. Corresponding to Manuel Pedro Gonzalez, those poets who immediately been successful Leopoldo Lugones greatly adored the poet's extreme dialect and powerful verse12, but later years of Spanish poets failed to rightfully perceive Lugones' improvements, although they also borrowed some components of his poetry. In view of such contradictory criticism on the issue of Spanish modernismo, the next analysis makes an attempt to solve this controversy and show a significant impact of Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones on Spanish-American poetry of the twentieth century.

4 Research methodology

The research utilises two theoretical research methods - a qualitative method and a discourse analytical procedure. These methods provide an opportunity to check out the issue of Spanish modernismo through various perspectives. The qualitative method is applied to the research to see different views on the talked about issue, as the discourse analytical way is targeted at analyzing ethnic and public contexts that contributed much to the forming of modernismo in Latin-America. The discourse analytical approach explains the reasons for regarding Spanish modernismo as a revolution in Spanish-American poetry and the qualitative method interprets literary works of modernista poets. Corresponding to Ricoeur, "interpretation. . . is the task of thought which is made up in deciphering the invisible so this means in the evident meaning, in unfolding the levels of so this means implied in the literal meaning"13. As appropriate methods for research, the qualitative method and the discourse analytical way show Spanish poetic practices and the ways modernismo applied new poetic varieties.

5 Discussion

5. 1. Background

In the sixteenth and seventeenth ages Spanish-American poetry experienced its success because of the occurred historical and political events. However, slowly but surely the poetry of Latin America worn out its potentialities and mirrored only illusionary visions of truth. At the end of the nineteenth century Spanish-American poetry almost completely rejected the poetic practices of Romanticism, since it was impossible to stick to these traditions because of quick changes in worth and modernization of life in many places of Latin America. As Octavio Paz rightfully highlights, "Modernity is our style for a century. It's the universal style. To want to be modern seems crazy: our company is condemned to be modern, since our company is prohibited from the past and the near future"14. It had been for the reason that period when some Latin American cities commenced to inherit Western european ideals on culture, research and fine art.

As Kirkpatrick places it, "New immigration, differing degrees of industrialization, and labor-oriented communal movements transformed the maps of Spanish American towns in the first twentieth century"15. Thus, Spanish-American poets commenced to little by little reject the loving representation of truth, instead exposing their interest in certain objects like the female body and machines. Leopoldo Lugones was main poets that applied to these themes in a few of his poetic works, like Las monta±as del oro. Overall, modernista poets confirmed great obsession with the rules of modernity and made regular attempts to boost the role of the poet in Spanish population. They withdrew from other participation in politics affairs, instead transforming writing into a profession. In view of varied inventions modernismo was aimed at creating a novel reality and varieties of expression. Regarding to Gordon Brotherston, the modernista poets, such as Ruben Dario, Manuel Machado, Leopoldo Lugones, turned down the material obsession that emerged therefore of industrial and scientific achievements, instead uncovering true moral and cultural prices16. As Paz sets it, "it's been said that modernismo was an evasion of the American truth. It would be truer to state that it was a flight from the local present reality. . . searching for a universal simple fact, the only real true reality"17. Spanish modernista poets show you an idealistic treatment of poetry, paying a specific attention to the innovations of poetic forms and designs. The values of these poets appeared on the other hand with the prevailing communal norms and were shown in their poetry.

Modernismo represented a genuine revolution in Spanish-American poetry, because it was targeted at destroying the isolation of Latin America and at creating a book discourse that may discover the concealed truth about cultural and politics situation of the united states. However, the spread of modernismo was different in a variety of part of Latin America. Specifically, in Buenos Aires and Santiago of Chile, the South areas, modernismo was developed in a fast way, while in the portion of Hispanic Carribean the procedure was considerably sluggish. Generally, modernista poets were searching for the ways to make a language that would reflect interpersonal and religious discourse, making them nearer to Western european poets.

In this respect, the words of modernista poets is ambiguous. Deciding on the qualitative approach it is possible to reveal this ambiguity, because this technique provides an opportunity to rightfully interpret the controversial literary text messages. Corresponding to Taylor, "Interpretation. . . is an attempt to make clear, to seem sensible of an subject of study. It aims to bring to light an main coherence or sense"18. Thus, on the one hand, the terminology of modernista poets looks as a visionary tool that uncovers reality modified as a result of various technological inventions, while, on the other palm, it shapes countrywide identity. Because of the fact these two aspects are directly connected with each other, modernismo manages not only to reveal fact, but also to improve the politics and social classes set up in Latin America. As Gonzalez places it, modernismo introduces various aspects of modernity and alters Spanish poetry in entire19. Matching to Ricardo Gullon, "the modernist copy writer is first term modern man, so when so he becomes aware of himself as a citizen and is convinced in the probability of the politics and interpersonal reform"20. Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones were the first poets to represent social modernity and the negative consequences of scientific innovations in their literary works. Within their modernista poems they made makes an attempt to combine national identity with overseas features. The next sections provide a more detailed discussion of Lugones' and Dario's impact on the formation of Spanish modernismo.

5. 2. Ruben Dario as the initiator of Spanish modernismo

At the finish of the nineteenth century Ruben Dario (1867-1916) applied the idea of modernismo to mirror a fresh period in Spanish-American poetry. Dario discovered modernismo as the craze that corresponded with the substance of his time, when modernity started out to influence various areas of simple fact. Although Dario is regarded as a nationalistic poet, he is specific in his poetry, bringing up both cultural and national issues. Ruben Dario rejects the traditional elements of poetry by changing the conventional norms of verse and by introducing simple rhythms into his poetic works. Concurrently, Dario issues and criticizes the truth that is offered in many literary works of Spanish-American books of the nineteenth century.

Through his poetry Dario rises contrary to the materialization of Spanish life and against the wrong scientific ideals that prevailed in Latin America in that period of time. He also keeps individualism and independence, eternity and goal world; Dario is particularly enthusiastic about beauty, demonstrating that beauty can be found in many exhibits. He steps beyond traditional portrayal of beauty, paying a specific attention to females' sexuality among the primary images of beauty. For instance, in his poem Rhymes Dario claims, "Out on the sea a swift boat rowing, / rowing: the lover with his favorite, / traveling to the land of dreams. / Inside the sunset light and the million glints / that flashed on the ocean, those streaming oars / looked like manufactured from burnished silver"21. This simple verse reveals the beauty of mother nature and the wonder of a loving couple; nature seems to correspond with the emotions - it is shiny and clear, tender and light. However, by the end of the poem characteristics is evolved, as Dario expresses uncertainty regarding the future of these enthusiasts: "Their fate? I do not know. I recall / that after a pallid twilight, the sky / darkened and the ocean grew rough"22. Thus, mother nature conveys despair of Dario and the inability of lovers to change anything. Similar to characteristics that is exposed to continuous changes, love also has the beginning and the finish.

This modernista poet compensates much focus on language and he is in frequent search of perfecting it. Musicality of Dario's poetry and his spectacular images encourage other Spanish poets, even though Dario is more thinking about words than in the portrayed so this means. Dario's poetic language acquires electric power and symbolism; he offers new so this means to simple words and varieties his unique rhetorical lexicon that reflects the nature of Hellenism and Versailles. Deciding on various poetic experiments, Dario escalates the amount of metrical forms, either transforming traditional varieties or creating new ones. Dario's first literary work Azul (1888) shows musicality and sensuality of his sonnets. It was a real period of time in Spanish-American poetry because of the fact that Dario managed to substitute an elaborate poetic verse of Spanish poets for a simplified and expressive form. In such a collection Ruben Dario masterfully combines the symbols taken from ancient literary sources along with his own symbols.

Some of Dario's icons will be the swan that symbolizes eroticism and chastity or centaur that embodies both human and creature features. In this regard, modernismo will depend on various affects and literary fads; it manages to combine vulgarity and delicacy, actuality and illusion, beauty and violence, extremes and simpleness. Ruben Dario's modernista poetry presents many elements into Spanish-American poetry of the twentieth century. Specifically, in many poems of Blue Dario applies to the theme of escapism, that is, he escapes actuality and requires his readers into the fantasy world. Dario's escapism is enhanced and packed with traditional illusions. In response to various technological innovations and reason, Dario creates poems that are closely connected with nature and passions. Although poet usually depicts such negative emotions as sadness, disappointment, ennui and despondency, they are simply so expressive that they evoke powerful emotions. In the poem Melancholy Ruben Dario areas, "Brother, you that contain light, please give me light / I am just like a blind man. I grope about at night. / I am lost among the list of tempests, lost among torments, blinded / by fantasies, and powered mad my music. / That is my curse. To dream"23.

Another element of Dario's poetry that is broadly used by all modernista poets is the tension between love and sexuality. In his later assortment of poetry Music of Life and Expectation (1905), Dario introduces more profound issues of a guy and world, life and fatality, utilizing irony and bitterness. That is especially clear in such poems as The Fatal Thing and Junior, Divine Treasure. In this regard, Dario and other modernista poets are often accused of motivating anarchy in the country, but in truth Dario contributes to the creation of a certain ideological structure in Spanish-American poetry that is directly linked with culture. Applying to classical allusions and ethnical images, Dario implicitly shows his cultural preferences. Thus, Jean Franco suggests that "modernismo involves imply not just a literary renewal consuming France but a certain exaltation of taste"24. In some of his poetic series, including Tunes of Life and Expectation, Ruben Dario demonstrates his obsession with classical symbols and the images created by Dante in his epic poem.

Dario is at continuous search of incorporating these images with the aesthetic principles of modernismo, the poetry with the complete universe. In other poems Dario, comparable to Lugones, attracts a parallel between natural phenomena and humans' thoughts; for occasion, in the poem Nightfall in the Tropics Dario portrays character through emotions: "Bitter and sonorous rises / The problem from out the deeps, / As well as the wave the wind flow surprises / Weeps. / Viols there amid the gloaming / Hail the sun that dies, / And the white spray in its foaming / 'Misere' sighs"25. This verse shows Dario's experiments with terms and form; and, according to Kirkpatrick, it is these "experiments, ironies, discordance, and ambiguities, later poets will find the legacy that they will create new poetic languages"26. In this respect, Leopoldo Lugones borrows some modernista elements from the poetry of Dario, but he also implements many new elements of modernismo.

5. 3. The affect of Leopoldo Lugones on Spanish-American poetry

Although Leopoldo Lugones' before poetic works are seen as a the adherence to charming ideals, he steadily rejects these elements, mentioning the issues and ideals that are carefully linked with modernismo. Despite the fact that Lugones' patriotic tunes and concise rhyme aren't the explicit top features of modernismo, his changes in themes and the depiction of certain ideologies through poetry illustrate the poet's important role in the change of Spanish-American poetry of the twentieth century27. Matching to Kirkpatrick, concurrently combining some genres and moving from one extreme to some other in his poetic works, "Lugones dramatizes the issue between modernismo's formalism and the move in to the twentieth century's more private sense of poetic language"28. Much like Dario, Lugones sustains the idea of language excellence, but he regards language as an instrument that should be processed. Lugones considers that poetic terminology should be just as much expressive as you possibly can, but "by directing attention to language as a technological tool, Lugones initiates a dissonant development in modern Spanish-American poetry"29.

With the help of expressive terms Lugones manages to incorporate various elements in his poems, such as ironical eroticism and the portrayal of landscape, colloquial speech and unromantic scenes. Lugones takes his images from outward things, depicting the modified urban and rural landscapes of Spain. Simultaneously, Lugones' modernista elements reflect his obsession with France literary poetic customs; however, "Lugones deals the American setting as being too primitive to permit for the introduction of a complicated and sophisticated expression"30. Although in his early poems Lugones only implicitly uncovers modernista elements, he intensifies them in his later poetry. This especially respect Las monta±as del oro (1898), where Lugones makes an effort to combine rather contradictory elements via an allegorical form. It is in this poetic collection that Lugones introduces such improvements as tremendous excesses, undisguised exaggeration and bizarre humour that are utilised in his later poems. Adding various thematic opposites in Las monta±as del oro, Lugones handles to achieve integrity of appearance. The composition of the book resembles Dante's poems, uncovering that Lugones pertains to some traditional allusions in his poetry. This is especially obvious in the following words: "I got by themselves / between my thoughts and eternity. I was / crossing with Dantesque steps the night"31.

In the poem Metempsicosis Leopoldo Lugones combines the powerful images of surroundings and canine features to expose the opposites between two elements: "An evil moon was loosing itself - using its yellow skeleton face / in distances of aspiration and problem; / and there is a sea, but it was an eternal sea, / asleep in a suffocating silence / such as a sick, fantastic pet animal"32. Metempsicosis is accompanied by other poems, like a Histeria, Rosas del Calvario, Oda a la Desnudez, Antifonas, Nebulosa Thule among others that are full of erotic images and the theme of darkness. In his female images Leopoldo Lugones combines both relaxed beauty of a woman and fierce portrayal of femme fatale. Deciding on such conventional icons of female images as moon, apples, bouquets, breast yet others, Lugones demonstrates these images are beautiful, but they embody darkness and damage.

As an outcome, Lugones' feminine images indicate the desire for ownership and desecration: "I want a gold crown to encircle / your heart. . . and I want anyone to triumph, naked like a host, in the perfect Easter ceremony of my pleasures"33. A lot like Dario, Lugones' sexual images are usually linked with various spiritual images and Greek mythology, - the feature that is characteristic to modernismo. However, Lugones' images will be more turbulent and definite, like in the poem A Histeria: "And so your embrace was like the knot of a noose, / and like glacial floes were your lip area, / and bitter wiring were my tendons, / so the enormous stallion was a dark-colored wind"34. Thus, Lugones pulls a parallel between violence and females' sexuality; this connection is obvious in Los Celos del Sacerdote: "desired crucifix of the weddings / and the triumphant elegance of your waist. / as an amphora filled up with magnolias, / and the impenetrable iris of your making love, / iris fool of blood and anguish"35. In another poem Oceanida Lugones pertains to specific intimate images of Vista that symbolize eroticism and beauty.

Some poems of Lugones' poetic collection Las monta±as del oro indicate the sadomasochistic components that constitute one of the most crucial designs of Lugones' poetry. Specifically, the poet combines the images of assault and punishment with the images of females' sensuality: "I shall praise the devotion of your embrace, / in the same way the lecherous ascetic in his fights pulls tight the hairshirt around his kidneys"36. The images of sexuality and violence are repeated several tines throughout the poems, thus repetition is one of the very most crucial poetic tools of Lugones. These repetitions, mainly extracted from Poe's literary style, provide Lugones with an possibility to move in one extreme to some other, maintaining the required integrity of manifestation. For example, in the poem Oda a la Desnudez Lugones constantly repeats the term 'nakedness': "Look at the nakedness of the stars; / the noble nakedness of the savage panthers of Nepal, the clean flesh / of the newborn; your divine nakedness which shines such as a lamp"37. Leopoldo Lugones implicitly introduces the tensions between nature and methodical discoveries, between reason and common myths, between people and environment.

In this respect, Lugones is similar to Ruben Dario who criticizes research and material obsession of his period in his modernista poems. Lugones combines early elements with new discoveries of the nineteenth century, assessing both positive and negative sides of the present. Thus, according to the discourse analytical approach, Lugones' and Dario's poetic words is closely linked with the the different parts of social and politics contexts38. The poem Hymn to the Moon from Lugones' Sentimental Lunario shows French adoptions and it is seen as a irony and new metric form. The poem The Cicadas through the Booklet of the Landscapes is belonged to one of the most modernista poems of Leopoldo Lugones; applying to daily images, the poet portrays them through ironical eye-sight. However, among the finest modernista poetic selections of Leopoldo Lugones is obviously Los crepєsculos del jardn (1905), where in fact the poet intensifies intimate and erotic elements. Within this collection Lugones not only utilises many modernista structures and symbols, but he also implicitly criticizes modernismo's technicality. As Lugones constantly experiments with his poetry, he implements new elements extracted from different literary moves and traditional literary options; thus he handles to see both strong and weakened sides of modernismo.

Exaggeration appears the principal tool of expression in Los crepєsculos del jardn; as Kirkpatrick places it, Lugones "exaggerates certain topics by extending their development too much, or highlights certain techniques by explicitly commenting on the used in the poems themselves"39. Thus, the poet creates not just one swan in his poems, but several swans; portraying the image of a woman, he does not restrict himself to some features, instead he identifies every aspect of her appearance, even the colour of her clothes. Although Leopoldo Lugones initiates the next influx of modernismo in Latin America, he moves from it in his later poetic works, because he seems that he has recently investigated this new area and is constantly on the experiment with other literary trends40. Utilising all modernista elements in his Los crepєculos del jardn, he begins to review the archetypal components of Jules' Laforgue's poems. However, Lugones' later withdrawal from modernismo will not minimize his vital role in the formation of modernismo.

As Kirkpatrick rightfully promises, "Although Ruben Dario is the undisputed professional of the motion, many later poets have found the sophisticated, sometimes troubling, poetic tests of Leopoldo Lugones to signal opportunities for a renewed poetic practice"41. The truth is that Lugones' constant changes of forms and styles, turbulent eroticism and the portrayal of common life fascinated attention of several Spanish-American poets. Tensions and ambiguity that are marginally seen in the works of other modernista poets are significantly intensified in Lugones' poetry42.

5. 4. The Legacy of Modernismo

Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones as the major contributors to the forming of Spanish modernismo kept a considerable legacy to other poets who commenced to utilise modernista components of Lugones and Dario in their poetic works. A few of these poets are Ramn Lpez Velarde, Csar Vallejo, Jorge Luis Borges, Octavio Paz, Alfonsina Storni, Julio Herrera y Reissig, Federico Garcis Lorca, Pablo Neruda and Vicente Huidobro. Their poetry is characterized by expressiveness and flexibility, perfection of words and search of new forms, traditional allusions and new topics, convenience of syntax and musicality of words, free verse and powerful visible images. For example, in his poetic works Ram memoryn Lpez Velarde practices Leopoldo Lugones, combining the components of eroticism with various prosaic elements. Other modernista poets also utilise prosaic components in their poetry, including Baldomero Fernndez Moreno and Enrique Banchs. These poets implicitly apply to Lugones' method to create opposites; however, they differ from Lugones, using simple colloquial terms. Besides, the tone with their poems is calm as opposed to unnecessary and exaggerated firmness of Lugones. Julio Herrera y Reissig, another modernista poet, greatly resembles Lugones in his representation of sexuality and violence. Similar to Lugones, the poet makes constant tests with poetic forms and expressions, especially in regard to sound habits. Csar Vallejo, Alfonsina Storni and Ramn Lpez Velarde adopt the ambiguity of modernismo. Their words unveils many modernista components of Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones, such as expressiveness and sensuality.

These poets also express the changes that took place in Spain at the start of the twentieth century. For example, Velarde's Suave Patria demonstrates the utilization of modernista elements in a patriotic poem; in this verse the poet masterfully combines modernista sensuality with common language, sketching a parallel between the past and today's. Csar Vallejo has already established a profound impact on Spanish-American poetry, putting into action some modernista features into his poetic language and style of expression. According to Kirkpatrick, Vallejo "erases the misconceptions that bound Latin People in the usa to a mythic Western homeland and, with the spaces in his words and anguished ironies, he requests a radically new poetic practice"43. In her poetic works Alfonsina Storni will pay much attention to the wonder of a female body and women's sexuality; however, her erotic images are usually more intense than the images of Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones. On the other hand, her irony resembles the irony of Leopoldo Lugones and Herrera y Reissig.

6 Conclusions

The dissertation has analysed the impact of modernismo in Spain with Ruben Dario and Leopoldo Lugones on Spanish-American poetry of the twentieth century. The received results suggest that modernismo represented a genuine revolution in the poetry of that period, rejecting the former styles and poetic framework and sticking with European literary traditions. The obsession with Romanticism was slowly but surely became the embodiment of such things as city, the feminine body and machines that shown social, historical and economical changes of the later nineteenth-early twentieth centuries. Contrary to other European countries, Latin America totally adhered to the guidelines of nationality and proven traditions, making makes an attempt to prohibit any screen of modernity either in social life or literature. Because of this, by the end of the nineteenth century Spanish-American poetry was almost deceased. However, the changes that Dario and Lugones were able to execute into Spanish-American poetry were further utilised and extended by other poets of Latin America. In this regard, Ruben Dario is usually thought to be the initiator of modernista revolution, while Leopoldo Lugones - as his successor.

In particular, Dario achieves musicality and expressiveness in his means of manifestation, paying much attention to dialect, and Lugones goes on his traditions by regarding language as a complex tool that should be constantly upgraded. Modernismo were able to create a new words that equalized Spanish poetry with Western european poetry and uncovered the truth about political, ethnic and social situations in Latin America. Lugones' terms is characterized by the combination of various contradictory elements and allusions taken from classical literature; because of this, his language displays a unity between sexuality and nature, between violence and females' sensuality. Lugones intensifies his images by adhering to repetitions that at times echo the poet's irony. In this regard, both Leopoldo Lugones and Ruben Dario constantly apply to excesses and exaggerations in their poetry, making efforts to contrast usual vocabulary with poetic words.

7 Ideas for further research

Although the study has protected many crucial areas of Spanish modernismo in the twentieth century, the newspaper also offers some limitations that can be overcome in further studies. In particular, the analysis is fixed to the discussion of Ruben Dario's and Leopoldo Lugones' effect on the development and pass on of modernismo in the twentieth century. Further researches may increase the research to the debate of other modernista poets and compare Spanish-American modernista poems with modernista freelance writers, investigating in depth the dissimilarities between their treatment of various content and representation of simple fact.


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