Posted at 12.24.2018
The revolution of electronic miniaturization started during World Conflict II and is continuing to change the planet till now. Miniaturization of computer technology has been the foundation of a relatively endless struggle between technology giants around the world. The market is becoming so competitive that the companies that develop microprocessors are constantly working towards erecting a smaller microchip than that of their rival, and as a result, computers become obsolete almost when they are put out on the market. The idea that underlies technological miniaturization is "small the better"; smaller is faster, smaller is cheaper, smaller is more profitable. It is not just companies that benefit from miniaturization advancements, but entire countries reap rewards through the capitalization of new developments. Devices such as computers, cellular telephones, lightweight radios, and camcorders have created substantial markets through miniaturization, and brought billions of dollars to the countries where these were designed and built. In the 21st century, almost every digital camera has your personal computer chip inside. The goal of miniaturization is to make these devices smaller and more powerful, and thus offered everywhere. It's been said, however, that the time for continued miniaturization is bound - small the computer chip gets, the more difficult it becomes to shrink the components that fit on the chip.
Devices manufactured from semiconductors, notably silicon, are crucial the different parts of most electronic digital circuits. An activity of lithography is used to set-up circuitry layered on the silicon substrate. A transistor is a semiconductor device with three connections with the capacity of amplification in addition to rectification. Miniaturization entails increasing the number of transistors that can hold about the same chip, while shrinking the size of the chip. As the surface region of a chip decreases, the duty of designing newer and faster circuit designs becomes more difficult, as there is less room still left for the components that produce the computer run faster and store more data.
Gordon E. Moore created the concept known as "Moore's rules" in 1965, and it has been used in the semiconductor industry to steer long-term planning and development. Regulations predicts a long-term development where the number of transistors inexpensively places on a built-in circuit would double approximately every 2 yrs. His original assertion made an appearance in his publication 'Cramming more components onto integrated circuits", Electronics Publication 19th Apr 1965:
"The complexity for minimum element costs has increased for a price of roughly one factor of two per 12 monthsCertainly on the short-term this rate should be expected to keep, if not to increase. In the longer term, the pace of increase is a little more uncertain, although there is absolutely no reason to trust it will not remain nearly constant for at least 10 years. That means by 1975, the amount of components per integrated circuit for a minimum cost will be 65, 000. I believe such a big circuit can be built about the same wafer" (Appendix 1)
The original affirmation made mention of one year, but was later improved to 2 yrs. Moore's law details a driving push of scientific change in the past due 20th and early on 21st ages. The development and capacities of several digital devices are linked to Moore's law. A few of these include processing acceleration, memory space capacity, and detectors. These devises remain enhancing at an exponential rate and have considerably increased the effectiveness of digital electronics in every portion of the world overall economy.
One such segment is that of Information and Communication Solutions (ICT's). This type of technology allows users to participate in a quickly changing world in which work and alternative activities are increasingly transformed by access to varied and producing technologies. ICT's impact on several areas of the overall economy, including production and creativity, as well as innovations in technology and technology. They are the leading element in improving invention and creativity, and as such, a great part of the productivity increases in the economy are due to the impact of ICT's on products and services. In science and technology, they change the way analysts perform their research. Owing to increasing economical and social needs, technology must be helped bring closer to people and organizational needs. This requires making technology efficient and easy to use, affordable and available, as well as interacting with new tastes and needs. This demand demands the proliferation of miniaturization which results in the introduction of a fresh wave of technology.
The Benefits and Challenges of Miniaturization
Miniaturization is one of the speediest changing megatrends. Although it can be a great gain for society, it also has its downsides. The obstacles include cost-expensive, data inaccuracy, software unreliability, information overload and may result in:
Invasion of Personal privacy and Personal information Theft
On the side of problems, one of the primary growing crimes in America is induced by the affects of miniaturization. Invasion of personal level of privacy and identity robbery are two very dangerous offences that can not only embarrass you, but can also cause financial problems as well. A written report composed by the news headlines organization PRWeb states that 10 million consumers in america become identity theft victims annually and those people spend a countless timeframe and money to correct these attacks. Not absolutely all 10 million are brought on by miniaturization related electronics, but with the improvement in technology, miniaturization has greatly helped to improve the number of personal information theft subjects. Miniaturization is important in this crime since it has generated the technology of small spy cams which aid voyeurism. Voyeurism is a practice in which a person derives sexual pleasure from observing other people. Some types of voyeurism are legal, but if the person being seen is unacquainted with the action, then it is against the law and considered an invasion of personal privacy.
Loss of Electronic Devices
Another problem with the craze of miniaturization, credited to computerized consumer electronics to become extremely more lightweight, is the increased potential to lose your electronic devices or keep these things stolen. As mentioned in the Apple patent,
Current portable electronic devices such as laptop computers, hand-held devices such as mobile telephones and personal multimedia devices, such as the Ipod touch from Apple Computer, and even devices such as compact disk players, are sufficiently compact and lightweight as to make them easily movable. However, such ease of transport also implies ease of robbery. As the rightful owner of the portable digital camera may conveniently travel it almost anywhere, so can a thief. (MacNN. com: Apple Patent, 2007)
A third problem with miniaturization is the progress used of lightweight MP3 players. These players have brought on physiological damage because of the extended use of the ear buds and playing the player's music extremely noisy. Noise-induced hearing reduction involves individuals shedding the ability to listen to higher frequencies, evidenced at times by slight ear-ringing or trouble pursuing conversations in loud situations. This hearing loss is straight related to the use of the MP3 players.
What are a few of the devices that have been influenced by miniaturization?
There are multiple examples that echo miniaturization, but possibly the renowned miniaturized device is the mobile phone. The idea of mobile telephones was created in the early 1900's in britain and america. They were delivered out of research on mobile car phones, and determined out that by restricting the number of transmitters, they could recycle the same radio frequencies. This allowed these to theorize the probability that with this technology, many users would be able to talk about the same network. These were unable to put a creation system collectively to show this theory, due to the limit of available technology. In the early 1970's, AT&T and Bell Labs proposed the first commercial cellular, mobile phone network. The proposal was for a mobile network, which was to contain many small broadcast towers, covering a little area (termed a 'cell'), a few kilometers in radius. As the mobile phone moved across this network, the call would be offered from tower to tower. The first completely automatic, first era cellular network (1G), was developed by Nordic Mobile Mobile phone in 1981. 1G was still based on analog radio impulses. The arrival of Second technology (2G) is at 1991. Broadband, third technology (3G) cellular sites became possible when japan company NTT DoCoMo rolled out its commercial WCDMA network. In 1986 cost between $2, 500 to $3, 500 and weighed slightly below 3 pounds (Appendix 2). Today, they are really razor skinny, weighing between 4 and 6 ounces and can cost from JMD$1, 000 to JMD$60, 000. Some of the most visible include Nokia and Motorola.
Other examples are the iPod Nano, Motorola Razor V3 and Dell Inspirion 700m.
The Ipod touch Nano, manufactured by Apple Computer, Incorporated, is a digital compression very good music player that delivers up to at least one 1, 000 tunes. It features a very thin and compact design with sizes of only 3. 5 x 1. 6 x 0. 27 inches wide and 1. 5 ounces and supports a colour LCD screen, the Apple Click Steering wheel, plays constantly for 14 hours, and supports other information besides music data. It also is made up of 2 gigabytes of memory that retains 500 tracks. The Ipod touch Nano can be used for most purposes when you are struggling to use a Compact disk player or even for updating a CD player. Some examples are performing exercises, going on vacation trips, amongst others. Also in recent media, Apple released a fresh form of miniaturization with the Ipod Video. This product will replace the old Ipods and you will be able to support not only playing music, but also exhibiting video on a two. 5 inch screen (Appendix 2. 1).
Moto Razr V3
The next exemplory case of miniaturization is the Moto Razr V3, which is manufactured by the Motorola Organization. The top features of the Razr V3 include wedding ring tone downloads, calculator and money converter, particular date and clock, noisy alarms, calendar, instant messaging, text messaging, video games, photo camera, and video clip downloading. The Moto Razr V3 facilitates all this while still only weighing 3. 35 ounces and having dimensions of 3. 86 x 2. 08 x 0. 54 ins. The applications of this phone fundamentally compare to those of a palm pilot. Insurance firms a phone with this power, anyone can keep a strict control on their life (Appendix 2. 2)
Dell Inspiron 700m
The last example is the Dell Inspiron 700m notebook, created by Dell Incorporated. It's the slimmest and lightest of all of Dell's notebook computers being 4. 1 pounds and 1. 5 in. thick. Other features upon this laptop include an Intel Pentium M Processor, Windows XP, a minimum of 256 megabytes of Memory, 12. 1 in. screen, a difficult drive with 40, 60, or 80 gigabytes, and an ethernet card for access to the internet. This laptop's applications are very broad and diverse and can be utilized for meeting other folks through the internet, conducting business, recreational purposes like seeing DVDs, burning DVDs, listening to music, playing computer games, or by applying this computer to almost any aspect of a person's life (Appendix 2. 3)
Traditionally, communications multimedia were different and their services were distinct. Broadcasting, speech telephony and on-line computer services were different and handled on different programs: tv set and radio machines, telephones and pcs. Convergence is the combination of most these into one operating platform. It's the merger of telecom, data processing and imaging technology. This convergence is incubating a fresh era of multimedia system, in which words, data and images are merged to provide services to the users.
Traditional convergence is mentioned in the combination of the personal computer and the internet technology. This mixture offers a convergence of data control, images and audio services.
Convergence allows for one component to provide multi-service. An illustrated example of this is in the mobile phone, which was at first designed for tone communications. Nowadays mobile phones offer more functions: They offer print and content material media as in the Short Note Service (Text); they provide reception links to r / c and access to broadcast information, they provide links to gain access to the web, they capture, send and receive pictures etc. New generation of cell phones are designed to catch video images. This got led to the death of several traditional devices like the Personal Digital Assistant and the proliferation of miniaturized devices.
Miniaturization and the Digital Divide
In the early 1990's, when someone referred to the 'digital separate' these were really making reference to gaps in modern culture between individuals who owned and possessed access to pcs and the ones who hadn't. As the word evolved it used new meanings, it arrived to refer to the "gaps between people who have effective access to digital and information technology and those with not a lot of or no gain access to by any means" as well as make reference to the inequalities between organizations of people in their capability to use it fully. It also talks to the imbalances in resources and skills had a need to manipulate information on the internet. Therefore, the word digital divide is absolutely two folds, it pertains to the imbalances created by the inability to physically access technology and the unequal acquisition of skill obtained with the regular use of said technology. Because of this the term is often interchangeably used in combination with the knowledge split, as it is suggested that if there is little to no access to the huge amount of information provided via the internet and technology individuals will be lacking in the attainment of knowledge offered via this source.
The four major components that contribute to the digital divide, as mentioned by Bharat Mehra (2004, Digital Divide, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) are "socio financial position, income, educational level, and rushing among other factors associated with scientific attainment. " These are all major conditions that affect contemporary society on a complete on a social level. The 'global divide' on the other hands, identifies the same concept but in relation to countries as oppose to individuals. It really refers to distinctions to technology accessibility between
Countries or the whole world. Miniaturization of technology in its truest form, if utilized properly will make an effort to drastically decrease the gap in culture that has significantly helped to perpetuate this issue.
The continuous miniaturization of technology will among other things make technology more accessible to everyone. This is because of the fact that as technology gets smaller, it uses less source to make them and hence cause a decrease in the creation cost. Therefore, causes a decrease in the offering cost, rendering it cheaper and even more accessible to everyone. Technology is no more limited to the rich or the wealthiest countries, nor is it a means by which the affluent can showcase their prosperity. Now that miniaturization has made it accessible to everyone, the digital split as it pertains to access to technology is noticeably dwindling. Tasks like One Laptop per Child offer a partial treatment for the global digital separate; these projects have a tendency to rely heavily upon open standards and free available source software. The OLPC XO-1 is an inexpensive laptop computer designed and designed to be distributed to children in producing countries surrounding the world, to supply them with access to knowledge (Appendix 3).
Organizations such as Geekcorps, EduVision and Inveneo also help to triumph over the digital split with the use of now miniaturized technology. They often do so through the use of education systems that pulls on it. The technology they employ
often includes low-cost laptops, subnotebooks, handhelds (eg Simputer, E-slate), tablet Computers, Mini-ITX Computers, and low-cost WiFi-extending technology as cantennas and WokFis. Furthermore, other it materials usable in the class room can even be made diy to lower bills, including projectors. Surely you can see, by these examples, where the ongoing miniaturization of technology is participating in some part in diminishing the global digital separate.
These and other ongoing efforts are minimizing the digital global split in expanding countries owing mainly to miniaturization. As time progresses individuals will find new and innovative ways to make technology smaller and smaller and hence making them more accessible to the general public and moreover, to developing nations.
The Future of Miniaturization
The future of miniaturization is uncertain as there have been a variety of projections as to where developer and creators want it going. Some assume that the idea is to obtain additional transistors on a single chip. Increasing the amount of transistors ultimately leads to more ability in the computer, cellular phone, handheld PDA and other gadgets that have a computer chip inside. Inside our times just about every digital camera has your computer chip inside. The pursuit to make the unit more powerful, and thus effectively independent of an constant power source, is the emphasis for miniaturization in computer technology. Ultimately the goal is to have computers almost everywhere by causing components smaller and better. However, what we should do know is the fact that technology will get smaller and smaller until they are simply almost microscopic. Technology created in the future will all have a few similar characteristics, they'll be smaller, light-weight, durable, reliable, tamper-proof, and take in very little power. However with these advances comes a certain degree of concern. One of the primary & most common concerns to make computer technology smaller is the availability of the Internet. As personal computers are miniaturized right down to the subatomic level, computer systems could literally be going swimming in the air. By building pcs on the subatomic level, the laws and regulations of physics do not apply as we know them. This enables for greater flexibility in computer connectivity, and may eventually make wiring computer systems together outdated. While this and other concerns are valid, with the ongoing creation and advancement of technology, they'll soon no more be relevant concerns.
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Appendix 2. 3