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Migration FROM YOUR Countryside To Cities Environmental Sciences Essay

The need to increase income encourages people who stay in rural areas to leave their lands and homes. This movement is called 'Urbanisation' which means the migration from countryside to cities in particular in developing and poor countries. This terminology or buzzword emerges in Latin conference. It may be defined in various ways. MEDCs (more economics developed countries) and LEDCs (less economics developed countries), for example, have examined it in several ways. LEDCs have defined it as the encouragement of folks who have a home in rural areas to migrate to cities whereas MEDCs has defended it as a process of dysfunctional movement of men and women from country sides to large cities. In other words, urbanisation means disappearance of several areas of life in areas which surround cities such as agriculture, as a consequence of the migration to large towns and cities. It could also be thought as Elliot (1999) says "the movement of folks from communities concerned chiefly or solely with agriculture to other communities generally larger whose activities are mostly centered in government, trade, manufacture or allied interests"(Elliot. J. A. 1999).

The negative influences of this phenomenon have exceeded the results. Therefore, most countries, in particular developed ones, have been wanting to decrease the population inside cities and towns. This task is accountable for maintaining sustainability for those countries particularly in the field of development. Sustainable development is recognized as "the ability of an activity or development to keep in the permanent without undermining that part of the environment which sustains it" (SNH, 1993). In addition, it may be thought as the searching for high quality of living without affecting the environment (English Nature, 1993).

However, there is a contradiction between urbanisation and sustainable development, because urbanisation has tremendous problematic effects on environment whereas sustainable development seeks to build healthy cities and towns. Urbanisation in all countries has many unwanted effects therefore there are always a considerable amount of policies have been suggested to deter these problems. This project will show two problems of urbanisation, insufficient space and increasing private cars' owners then will highlight some causes of it and lastly will suggest three solutions to be able to resolve these problems of urbanisation.

1. INSUFFICIENT SPACE

1. 1 CAUSES

The prime cause of people's movement from rural areas to urban ones is that they seek higher living standards because they believe cities are definitely more desirable than their current address. However, moving to cities without planning may cause many problems for both settlers and governments. Some troubles that could face squatters therefore of sudden and unplanned moving to cities are insufficient basic living standards and pollution.

1. 2 EFFECTS

Because most migrants who desire to improve their income by moving to industrialised areas are poor plus they cannot afford renting flats or buying houses, they will accept living anywhere even in ill developed places. Because of this, settlers always have a home in the edge of cities and it is known as shanty town. These settlements are always built-in illegitimate ways therefore they lack of the basic components of services such as water, sewerage system and health care (Bilham-Boult et al, 1999).

In advanced countries or even in developing countries, governments usually attempt to build cities in modern ways by establishing great infrastructures. These infrastructures are built to provide good facilities for folks such as road networks, transportation and sewerage systems. Also one of these facilities is to hook up houses with main resources of water by constructing pipes of water. However, as discussed earlier, most settlements are built randomly, thus they get access to these important facilities. Hence, squatters are required to purchase water carts and this will cost them a great deal of money and sometimes paying for water will be unaffordable for these people because most settlers are poor. In Accra, for example, only 35 per cent of houses have been connected to water sources and 24 % use basic pipes whereas 28 per cent of citizens buy water from water vending carts (Bilham-Boult et al, 1999).

Lack of pipes of water means lack of sewerage system, according to Bilham (1999) the pollution in shanty towns in particular the pollution in water has increased rapidly because some cities have no sewerage system therefore sewage is still drained right to rivers and main resources of water. Moreover, settlers build pits dug to assemble the sewage into it, further, these pits dug may construct one of the cities which in charge of bringing a huge amounts of bacteria and diseases for people who reside near it.

1. 3 SOLUTIONS

After discussing the main problems which may face squatters in shanty towns, the following paragraphs will explain some problems that may come across governments due to urbanisation.

Unplanned moving from country sides to cities causes many problems for governments because that requires construct new infrastructures or even builds new territories for newbies which will be too costly. Furthermore, the demands to make jobs for squatters will take place because most squatters sale their farms and lands to help them shift from rural areas to urban ones. Another problem is that the necessity of establishing social services such as healthcare, education and transportation will rise as well.

However, many solutions have been suggested to solve the issues of urbanisation. Among these solutions is that governments should encourage their farmers who reside in rural areas to stay there by causing all facilities which exist in cities available in countryside such as schools, healthcare centers and transportation. In addition, by making this step that'll be very helpful to resolve the condition of unemployment because that will boost the opportunities of migrants who want to move to urban areas to find a job in their areas instead in cities.

2. TRANSPORTATION

Another problem that may be increased due to urbanisation is the increasing of private cars owners. Therefore, the next paragraphs will examine the complexities and effects of rising vehicle use.

2. 1 CAUSES

The most considerable cause of depending on private automobiles is the price because most cars' companies have reduced the costs of the cars by which makes it very reasonable. Hence, most people prefer buying cars rather than using public transportation because they believe using public transportation wastes money and time. Wasting time is due to the commuters are must walk off their homes and work to the nearest station and vice versa and they also spend a great deal of money because they must buy tickets for everyone travels even for small journeys.

This had not been only the reason of increasing the amount of private automobiles, however the reasonable price of fuels also encourages people to buy cars. Moreover, the price tag on fuels equate to the tickets' prices of journeys appears to be a lot more affordable for people in particular for large families.

However, the most significant reason beyond the reliance on cars is the shortage of public transportation. In many cities the rail networks and high ways do not cover all areas which surround cities. Therefore, most people are required to get cars particularly people who work from the urban areas or people who are in rural areas and work in cities. In addition, some cities were built since 19th or early 20th century, thus they lack planning and good organisation this means they lack infrastructures. As a result of this, it is very difficult for governments to rebuild and reorganise cities because that will cost the governments a huge amount of money.

2. 2 EFFECTS

As due to increasing the amount of private cars, many effects will emerge such as congestion, energy consumption, polluting of the environment, noise, health and a significant variety of accidents. However, the most important effect is polluting of the environment since it is a rsulting consequence congestion and energy consumption. Polluting of the environment not only effects the environment of cities but it will also harm medical of people since it carries many emissions such as carbon dioxide.

2. 3 SOLUTIONS

Many solutions have been suggested to solve the problems of urbanisation. Among these solutions is to connect all areas such as the location itself and every area surrounded it by one system. It could cost governments an enormous amount of money, but by firmly taking this step public transportation will be more desirable than private vehicle. It'll save time and money for commuters who move from destination to place frequently.

Moreover, issuing uniform tickets of buses and railway with affordable and reasonable prices will be a most grateful solution in particular for large families. This task will ease transferring between public transportation by establishing short distances of travelling.

Finally, if governments want to lessen the amount of cars they should raise taxes, parking fees and the price of fuels. This stage will encourage visitors to use public transportation. This encouragement must also create informative programmes to improve the awareness of folks particularly in the harm of using private cars such as the pollution and the rapid increasing of accident rates.

CONCLUSION

The former paragraphs have explained the negative impacts of urbanisation specifically the problems of insufficient space and the increase of private cars' owners. A number of policies have been discussed by some governments which might be mainly beneficial to solve the problematic negative influences of urbanisation.

As discussed earlier, urbanisation has significant amounts of harmful impacts, they could be exceeded its benefits. Among these unwanted effects is that a lot of settlements are designed randomly therefore they lack basic living standards as well as basic elements of services. One of these services is to connect those settlements by main sources of water. Therefore, when these shanty towns lack pipes of water that will lead to some other problem which is lack of sewerage system. Due to insufficient sewerage system, sewage is drained directly to rivers and main resources of water which is in charge of bringing a wide array of bacteria and disease for squatters who are in those towns.

Furthermore, these settlements lack to transportation because these were built in illegitimate ways which make governments struggling to construct infrastructures in these shanty towns. Quite simply, if governments want to destroy these towns and rebuild it in modern techniques would cost them a massive amount of money. This step may be unaffordable for some governments in particular for developing countries.

This issue has led to another consequence, the lack of infrastructures encourages settlers use their own cars which lead to traffic congestion, air pollution then healthy problems for folks who have a home in shanty towns and surrounded areas. Moreover, the reasonable prices of cars and fuels encourage people to buy private automobiles because they have an illustration which says" having an automobile will save time and money", but sometimes this illustration may be wrong. Hence, many countries attempt to reduce cars uses by encouraging visitors to use public transportation as the ultimate way to solve the situation of air pollution and traffic congestion.

To reduce cars uses, some solutions have been suggested; one of them is to hook up every area by one system of public transportation. This step is quite costly for a few governments, but it will reduce the uses of private vehicles. Moreover, issuing a uniform ticket for buses and railways can make public transportation more desirable than using private cars.

On the other hand, some solutions have been suggested to resolve the problems of urbanisation in general. One of these solutions is to encourage visitors to stay static in rural areas by establishing all the desirable facilities which exist in large cities such as schools, hospitals and public transportation in countryside. Also governments must produce informative programmes for those squatters who want to migrate from rural areas to megacities. For all those people who want to continue searching in this area, this project recommends them to find how governments can setup informative programmes effectively to persuade migrants to stay in rural areas.

BIBIOLGRAPHY

Adams, W. M. (1999). Sustainability. In P. Cloke, P. Crang & M. Goodwin (Eds. ), Introducing human geographies (pp. 125-130). London: Arnold.

Bilham-Boult, Blades, H. , Hancock, J. , Keeling, W. & Ridout, M. (1999). People, places and themes (pp. 202-205; P. 208). Oxford: Heinemann.

Elliot, J. A (1999). An introduction to sustainable development. London: Routledge.

Newman, P. (1999). Transport: reducing automobile dependence. In D. Satterthwaite (Ed. ), The Earthscan reader in sustainable cities (pp. 67-92). London: Earthscan Publications.

UK Government. (2004). Sustainable development; the united kingdom government's veiw. Retrieved October 10, 2004, from government website: http://www. sustainable-development. gov. uk

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