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Methods Of Categorising Diseases


At the start of my written project I have already been asked to do a research about communicable and non- communicable disease and choose one communicable and one non-communicable disease by detailing the similarities and the difference between both. My chosen diseases are malaria which is communicable and skin area malignancy which is non-communicable disease.

However my rationale for choosing malaria is because malaria affects many people in the UK and around the world. Malaria occurs where the Anopheles mosquito breeds, mainly in rural exotic areas. From a UK point of view, it's a threat to people travelling to malarial regions in Africa. Asia, the center East, central and southern America.

Also my logical of skin cancers is because skin cancer impacts many people in the UK and around the world. Which means that skin cancer is becoming more prevalent in many elements of the world because people are spending additional time in the Sun and are revealing more of their epidermis in the process. For example Australia, with high sunlight levels, has very high skin tumor rates. An estimated 2 from every 3 people in most places will develop some type of skin malignancy.

Definition of health, Health is seen as a resource for everyday activity and not only the aim of living also it is a positive concept emphasising sociable and personal recourses, as well as physical capacities.

Definition of disease, Disease is excessive state of your body and mind that causes discomfort or distress to the individual affected or those in touch with the person.

For example the term is employed broadly to include injury, disabilities, syndromes, symptoms, deviant behaviours, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts these may be looked at distinguishable categories.

Different methods of categorising diseases, including:

Physical diseases or disorder are those which affect the working of parts of the body, for example physical diseases are;

  • Coronary heart disease
  • Bronchitis
  • Nephritis
  • Arthritis

Psychological disease, more usually regarded as mental health disorder and the ones affect brain or intellect. The include;

  • Depression
  • Anxiety disorder
  • Bipolar disorder

Social disease, or conditions associated with personal lifestyle alternatives and the surroundings disorders are those that raise from public deprivation also relationships those which have their root base in our personal activities, such as;

  • Alcoholism
  • Substance abuse
  • Sexually sent disease

Similarly, alcoholism effects and melancholy and bulimia can be seen as having foundations in modern society. However the other way of classifying disease is merely into communicable and non communicable diseases. Also to be able to prevent communicable disease this is essential to closely investigate all the factors adding to the infection and its own spread.

The similarities and different between communicable and non communicable are; both are a kind of disease and communicable diseases are caused by micro-organisms such as, infections, bacterias, fungi and protozoa. However communicable disease is not induced by factors, however, many factors may affect the results and spread of an communicable disease for example, tuberculosis is more prevalence in poor living conditions and influenza speeds quickly in overcrowded situations.

Non communicable disease may induced by explained tissue deterioration, defiency of a matter needed for health, genetic makeup also lifestyle options or environmentally friendly effect.

Spread of disease

Communicable disease multiply in one organism to some other, this means that it usually from individuals to real human. Although Non communicable diseases do not propagate from one person to some other.

Life stage of effected person;

Communicable disease can generally influence people at any life stage. As many microbe infections result in immunity of a variety of lengths. This means that the average person is never invaded by the micro-organisms again, but rather that full-blown disease which never evolves because your body defence speedily overcome chlamydia. For example some microbe infections have a larger impact at specific the life span level such as infancy and childhood, a (Measles and Diphtheria).

Non communicable diseases tend to be associated with specific life phases for example Alzheimer's disease and osteoarthritis are also linked with adulthood and CF and haemophilia with infancy and childhood.

The similarities and the difference between communicable and non-communicable disease

Communicable diseases are highly infectious and can be sent to other individuals through different methods like close physical contact, touching the items an afflicted person touched,

Non-communicable diseases can't be transmitted by these methods but are inherited, brought about, or developed through healthy deficiencies and other causes.

The symptoms are measurable and noticeable. Some of the most usual symptoms of communicable diseases include:

The symptoms would depend on the sort of infection a person is interacting with. Non-communicable disease includes;

Muscle aches, problems, fever, coughing and chills

Obesity, diabetes, epidermis cancer, Gaining of excess weight, unexplained excessive being hungry and thirst

For sexually sent infections, the medical indications include smelly release, greenish or grayish discharge, ulcers in the genital areas, Lesions positioned in the erotic organ and different parts of the body especially when chlamydia has already disperse and used in other areas of the body.

Hypertension. Blood pressure that reaches up to 140/90, mostly, hypertension does not have any obvious signs and symptoms that are why it called 'silent killer. '

Communicable disease can be pass on from individual to individual, either through pores and skin to pores and skin contact or through contaminated materials. You can find various kinds of communicable diseases, with varying symptoms.

Do not necessarily require long term support and treatment

Could happen at any years, although impact of the condition may differ in each life level and transmitted in a variety of various ways. But the primary communicable disease I've chosen is malaria.

What is malaria?

Malaria can be an infectious disease the effect of a parasite, which infects red bloodstream skin cells. Malaria is seen as a cycles of chills, fever, pain, and perspiration. Historical files suggest malaria has afflicted humans since the starting of mankind.

Key facts

Malaria is a life-threatening disease induced by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of contaminated mosquitoes.

Malaria caused almost one million fatalities, mainly among African children and it's really preventable and curable. Although malaria can reduce gross domestic product by as much as 1. 3% in countries with high disease rates.

Non-immune travellers from malaria-free areas are very vulnerable to the condition when they get infected.

What are the signs and symptoms of malaria?

People with malaria typically have cycles of chills, fever, and sweating that recurs every 1, 2, or 3 days and nights. The assault of the malaria parasites on the person's red blood cells makes the person's temperature rise and the person feel hot. The next bursting of red blood vessels cells makes the individual feel cold and have hard, shaking chills.



Diarrhea often moves combined with the fever.

The damage of red blood cells can also cause jaundice (yellowing of the skin or whites of the sight) and anaemia.

How soon after exposure do symptoms seem?

The time taken between a mosquito bite and the beginning of condition is usually 7 to 21 days, however, many types of malaria parasites take much longer to cause symptoms. When illness occurs by blood transfusion, the time to the start of symptoms depends upon the amount of parasites in the transfusion.

Causes It?

Malaria is triggered by anybody of four varieties of one-celled parasites, called Plasmodium. The parasite is disperse to the people by the feminine Anopheles mosquito, which feeds on real human blood vessels. Although four species of malaria parasites can infect humans and cause disease, only malaria triggered by Plasmodium falciparum is potentially life-threatening.

How is malaria pass on?

Malaria is propagate when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person. This is actually the only kind of mosquito that can multiply malaria. The mosquito becomes attacked by biting an afflicted person and drawing blood which has the parasite. When that mosquito bites another person, see your face becomes infected. For instance on the planet, people who develop malaria are nearly always found to obtain contracted it while going in elements of the earth where malaria is common.

Non-communicable disease is disease that is caused by something apart from a pathogen. Cardiovascular disease is an exemplory case of a no communicable disease. It could result from hereditary factors, improper diet, smoking, or other factors. Although most non-communicable diseases are persistent diseases, which means they are present either continuously off and on over quite a while. A person may be delivered with the condition or a propensity to build up it. The condition may develop therefore of a person's lifestyle behaviours

Usually require long-term support and treatment

Are often associated with different life stage

But the key non-communication disease I have chosen is lung cancer

What is pores and skin cancer?

Skin cancer is a malignant progress on the skin which can have many triggers. Although skin malignancy is actually one of easy and simple forms of the disease to treat, the effectiveness of those treatments depends on how early the disease is caught. Pores and skin cancers treatments can be less radical when the cancer is merely in its early stages.

How does it affect your body?

The effects of skin cancer can vary; basal cell carcinoma is the most frequent form of skin cancer and it'll often appear to be a make on your skin that may be dark brown or red. Although it might be raised from the skin or even to start with. It generally doesn't spread and is considered to be always a benign cancer. It could appear everywhere on the body but mainly on areas that are immediately exposed to the sunlight.

For example epidermis tumors can be extremely damaging to anyone however, particularly if it is left without having to be seen and untreated for a long period of time. It is because the longer pores and skin tumor - or any type of cancer for that matter - is still left untreated, the longer with the ability to negatively affect your body and possibly propagate to other parts of the body as well.

What are the symptoms?

Spot or sore that does not repair within 4 weeks

A area or sore that continues to itch, hurt, scab, crust or bleed for more than 4 weeks

Areas where the skin has broken down or varieties an ulcer with no evident cause, and does not heal within 4 weeks.

What causes skin area cancer?

Sun visibility is the main cause of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. Other factors that affect the chance of skin cancers are: People with light sight or head of hair, who sunburn easily or do not tan, have an elevated risk of epidermis cancer.

People with a great deal of moles, unusually formed or large moles, or a lot of freckles have an increased risk of melanoma.

A background of sunburn doubles the risk of melanoma and also increases the threat of non-melanoma skin tumor.

Use of sunshine mattresses, especially by teenagers, increases the risk of skin cancer.

People with a past non-melanoma skin tumor have a higher risk of creating a second one.

People with a close relative diagnosed with skin cancer tumor have a higher risk of growing it themselves.

Comparison of both diseases


Causative Organism

Type of illness



Serious disease influencing organs and high fever

Skin cancer


The skin cancer is merely in the very best part of skin


Every time between 350 and 500 million people are afflicted with the condition and 1 million die (mainly in sub-Saharan Africa).

Malaria affects many organs of people's body. It can affect their brain, center, lungs, kidneys, and liver, along with tough side results. The spleen and the liver enlarge. Malaria can affect many organs in the torso, like the brain, lungs, kidneys, and liver.

Skin cancer

More than 3. 5 million skin area cancers in over two million people are diagnosed on a yearly basis.

Skin influences many organs people's body. It could impact their brain, bone and lung; due to pass on of the malignancy cells through the blood


Malaria is pass on from person to person by ( parts from) a mosquito-specifically Anopheles, and in African one main types; anopheles gambiae

Malaria is a topical ointment disease, impacting 300 million people and triggering 1-15. 5million death per time, although such estimations vary. As a global killer it is second and then TB (tuberculosis). It's especially dangerous to small children and women that are pregnant in sub-Saharan Africa.

Skin cancer

Skin tumor never spread, apart from the slow growth of the rodent ulcer itself. Even in advanced conditions, treatment is nearly always successful.

Skin cancers is a disease, in which unusual and potentially cancerous cells are located on the exterior layers of your skin. Your skin is the greatest organ in the torso. Many parasites have life-cycles including two hot varieties, within which they pass through a range of different periods, often blinking between using asexual procedures in order to develop quantities when conditions work and using erotic procedures in other levels. Which means that when person is bitten by the mosquito, parasites enter into the blood and proceed to the liver where they multiply over another one to three weeks.

They are then released back into the blood vessels where they infect red blood vessels cells. The parasites increase in debt blood cells until ready for the next stage of their life cycle. They then cause the host skin cells to rupture, releasing contaminants which can cause malaria symptoms and inability of body mechanisms. Male and female gametes are released in to the blood vessels where will be sucked up by the next mosquito to bite.

Malaria is a significant killer and deserves value. Every year between 350 and 500 million people are afflicted with the disease and 1 million die mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. This means that many travellers ignore the need to take anti-malarial medication or fail to take it properly. Of 80 million travellers to areas with a high malaria risk, 30, 000 will long term contract the disease and many stay ignorant of the severe nature of malaria symptoms and malaria triggers.

Skin tumor is the most frequent form of cancer tumor in the united kingdom and USA also across the world. A lot more than 3. 5 million epidermis malignancies in over two million people are diagnosed annually. Although each year there are more new situations of skin malignancy than the put together incidence of cancers of the breasts, prostate, lung and intestines. However one in five People in the usa will develop skin area cancer throughout an eternity.

Over the past 31 years, more folks have had pores and skin cancer than all the cancers mixed. 4 Practically 800, 000 Us citizens are living with a history of melanoma and 13 million you live with a brief history of no melanoma skin cancers, typically diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma or squalors cell carcinoma

What is prognosis?

Medical diagnosis relates both to the process of attempting to determine and/or individuality a possible disease or disorder and the opinion reached by this process.

For example; the word diagnostic criterion designates the blend of signs or symptoms, symptoms, and test results that the clinician uses to attempt to determine the right diagnosis.

What is professional medical diagnosis?

Clinical medical diagnosis is occurs when a person usually a doctor or another health care workers is able to establish the type of disease mainly by giving the condition a name, such advertising meningitis,

What is differential examination?

The differential identification are a few conditions which may appears to a similar and the doctor cannot give a cline diagnosis she or he may struggling to recognize one from the other. Which means that consists of a more universal label or name, for example breasts contamination or kidney infections.

Type of examination and recommendations:

Self analysis, is when individuals diagnose an illness for themselves, such as headache, pain or sort out neck, individuals may be masking more serious illness by treating the condition with over-the-counter medications. Unless the individuals contact local health services, investigations will never be completed and support will not offered.

For example in a few circumstances may have serious repercussions and a correct treatment examination will be made too late for correct treatment and support

Although self medical diagnosis and treatment of small problems will release more time for doctors, or laboratory technicians and support personnel spend on individuals experiencing more serious complains.

GP prognosis, means when a person feels that he or she is unable to deal with a medical condition, an appointment is manufactured with GP or practice nurse in the neighborhood health centre. Most service users expect to get a identification and medication because of this visit. Also the appointment can be subject to a couple of days hold off when the problem is not deemed to be immediate. For example GP may refer a patient to a clinic for a variety of reasons. Some of these are;

When an individual has a serious non communicable disease that requires specialist health care, such as heart and renal failure, cancers plus some inherited disease,

When an individual is unwell and has no one at home to do something as good care. Also if patient has serious infection, such as tuberculosis or malaria, requiring specialist care and treatment

For more descriptive investigations such as X-rays, scans, ultrasound scans, electrocardiograms, special laboratory investigation to test about the condition. Also for closer monitoring and treatment.

Referral to hospital for specialist treatment. There are several common conditions that can be diagnosed and treated by the affect individuals without the need for visits with the doctor or hospital sessions.

For example there are moreover the counter arrangements for treating common health problems and service users may use NHS direct or internet to aid them with a medical diagnosis and treatment.

Methods of diagnosing disease can be a different kind of diagnoses those includes are a lot more specialised investigative techniques that can used if diagnosis may never be reached and the patients gradually recovers, probably anticipated to an immune system response.

Facilities to support people with disease as well as the key medical personnel generally speaking practice and clinics, although there are a great many other agencies offering support to individuals, and specifically those individuals with non communicable disease may need long-term support. As support may be of the self applied help type because where information is or to provide information. For example some agencies try to enhance the equality of life by the provision of public activities, including finance- raising events and outings.

Usually assistance with every day living task may be too provided by categories, such as public services.

Support from local care this might involves with family, relative and friends there are also people utilized by other agencies, that will support people who have disorder such as malaria and skin cancer.

Patients can be approved by their doctor who can do blood test and when testing for malaria is done the test results can be influenced by the length of the illness the awareness of malaria parasites in the bloodstream as well as the know-how of the laboratory specialist and the methodology found in the test process.

Although anti-malarial drugs aren't a 100% warranty in preventing the condition, but it can help if the patients are afflicted by malaria and a milder and less severe illness has experience.

A local story states that taking anti-malarial drugs cover the symptoms of malaria, but this is merely a misconception. Types of testing to ascertain malaria infections

Home testing with a test kit

Laboratory testing

Other tests that can assist when malaria infection is suspected

General information

Patients can be tested by their doctor who may remove a small sample of suspicious-looking pores and skin for laboratory testing. An study of tissue from a full time income body to look for the cause can determine whether person have pores and skin tumor and, if so, what type of skin cancer they may have. Although the deciding the extent of your skin tumor if patient's doctor establishes they have skin cancer, she or he may recommend additional assessments to look for the extent, or stage, of the skin cancer. Because superficial skin area cancers such as basal or squamous cell carcinoma hardly ever spread, an assessment happens to be the only test needed to determine the malignancy stage.

But if person have a huge growth or one that's existed for quite a while, their doctor may recommend further exams to look for the extent of the cancer

Skin cancer is generally split into two levels:

Local. In this stage, cancer impacts only the skin.

Metastatic. At this time, cancer has spread beyond your skin.

The pores and skin cancer's level helps determine which treatment options will be most effective. The impact of my two chosen diseases on contemporary society and the folks are;

Malaria is one of the very most severe public health problems worldwide. It is a leading cause of fatality and disease in many producing countries, where small children and women that are pregnant are the categories most affected.

3. 3 billion people (half the world's population) are in areas vulnerable to malaria transmission in 109 countries and territories

35 countries (30 in sub-Saharan Africa and 5 in Asia) take into account 98% of global malaria fatalities.

In 2008, malaria triggered around 190 - 311 million specialized medical episodes, and 708, 000 - 1, 003, 000 deaths.

89% of the malaria fatalities worldwide take place in Africa.

Malaria is the 5th reason behind fatality from infectious diseases worldwide (after respiratory infections, HIV/Assists, diarrheal diseases, and tuberculosis) in low-income countries.

Malaria is the next leading reason behind fatality from infectious diseases in Africa, after HIV/AIDS

Malaria imposes considerable costs to both individuals and government authorities. This means the costs to individuals and their families include:

Purchase of drugs for dealing with malaria at home;

Expenses for travel to, and treatment at, dispensaries and treatment centers;

Lost days of work; lack from university;

Expenses for preventive measures;

Expenses for burial in case there is deaths.

Costs to government authorities include: the work of retaining of health facilities; purchase of drugs and items; public health interventions against malaria, such as insecticide spraying or distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets; lost days of use resulting lack of income; and lost opportunities for joint economic ventures and tourism.

Skin Cancer affects millions of UK and around the world because is positioned as one of the top ten dangerous cancers. Unlike many other cancers, the amount of new cases is constantly on the increase, as will its effect on youthful patients. UV radiation is a known factor in skin cancers development and the very best method of cutting down one's risk is to prevent unnecessary coverage, such as use of tanning bedrooms.

One in five UK and the round the world will establish skin tumor in their life-time.

The occurrence of melanoma, the deadliest kind of epidermis malignancy, has been progressively increasing for days gone by 30 years. Since 1992, melanoma has increased 3. 1% each year in non-Hispanic Caucasians, however in recent years is increasing quicker in young white women (3. 8% since 1995) and men age group 65 and more aged (8. 8% since 2003).

Melanoma is the most frequent form of tumors for adults 25-29 years old and the next most common form of cancer for adolescents and adults 15-29 years old.

Comparison of skin cancer and malaria about the prognosis and impact

The diagnosis and the impact of both diseases are extremely common because Skin area cancer is one of the main malignancy concerns of the world when the area is very warming. This implies that people with skin tumors get most is melanoma. Although most curable which can even be prevented. Early finding is vital. If person have moles that are bothering them or are doing odd things such as changing size, form, colour, or if they bleed constantly, they ought to consult a doctor.

Malaria is an illness that will increase when the area is very warming. It is one of the earliest recorded human diseases, which is disperse by the bite of a lady mosquito. Mosquitoes breed in warm, damp places. Together with the increase of rain and warmth during the warming, the populace of mosquitoes will increase, making the risk of getting this disease also increase when people are bitten by an afflicted mosquito, it transmits parasites into their bloodstream. These parasites keep reproducing, making the disease more destructive. Symptoms are fever and chills that come and go, headaches, weakness, and an enlarged spleen. An enlarged spleen could rupture, or require surgery to remove. People can live with out a spleen, however, not having one increases the risk of infections or other problems.

Tests and diagnosis

Tests and diagnosis

To diagnose malaria, the individual's doctor may:

To diagnose skin area tumors, the individual's doctor may:

Examine their bloodstream lab tests can help tailor treatment by determining:

Examine their epidermis. Their doctor may take a look at their skin to determine whether their pores and skin changes will tend to be skin tumors. Further testing may be had a need to confirm that medical diagnosis.

Whether they have malaria and which type of malaria parasite is triggering their symptoms

Local. Within this stage, cancer influences only your skin.

If they disease is caused by a parasite resilient to certain drugs or if the disease has effects on any of their essential organs

Metastatic. At this time, cancer has multiply beyond your skin.

Some blood assessments can take several days to complete, while some can produce results in under quarter-hour.

The epidermis cancer's level helps determine which treatment options will be most effective.

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