One of the ancient cultures and their books that our category mentioned was the Mesopotamians. The initial piece of books that we know of is out of this time frame, The Epic of Gilgamesh. Out of this work, we get an information into the characteristics of the culture.
One cultural characteristic that we see in the Epic of Gilgamesh is their spiritual values. The Mesopotamians we polytheistic, they thought in many Gods. This is noticeable in many events in the story. The main character, Gilgamesh, is himself two thirds God. While explaining how he was made they tell us some of the several gods they presumed in. "The Great Goddess Aruru designed him, planned his body, prepared his form, a perfect body the gods for the creation of Gilgamesh, Shamash sunlight offered beauty, Adad the Surprise gave courage" If the folks of Uruk are enraged at the action of Gilgamesh they transform with their Gods to help them, displaying us that the folks of the Mesopotamian culture also turned to their gods when these were in despair. We also observe how the people looked at their gods. In a single area of the history Gilgamesh is contacted by the Goddess of Love and War, Inanna. She wishes Gilgamesh to be her lover and he rejects her. While doing so her names a lot of her past flaws. "But what benefits would it be to me to adopt you in marriage? In the cold season you would surely are unsuccessful me! You are but a rear door which will not stay shut but flies open in the raging wind flowWhat lover do you ever love forever? Come, I will tell you the tales of you addicts: For Tammuz, you young spouse for him we wail every year! He who dies each fall months and comes home each spring and coil! The noticed shepherd-bird you liked, that parrot which rolls and tumbles in its airline flight, and you simply struck him, broke his wingThen you enjoyed the lion, perfect in its power, but you dug him seven pits and again seven, they you liked the stallion, great in challenge but you designed for him the whip and thong and spurIf you loved me you'll treat me exactly like them. " This face shows us the way the Mesopotamians viewed their Gods. They did not think they were all-knowing and never made mistakes. Most of their gods weren't perfect and acquired at least one bad flaw but were extremely bad for the reason that flaw. Gilgamesh himself is example. His arrogance makes the people upset and they go against him. Once Gilgamesh rejects Inanna she becomes very angry. She would go to her father An, the Sky God, needing him to punish Gilgamesh. She requests the Bull of Heaven and she delivers it to harm Gilgamesh and Enkidu. They eliminate the bull and the Gods gather in council to decide what must be done to punish the two. They decide to wipe out Enkidu as abuse, although they were defending themselves from the bull the Inanna delivered upon them. Folks knew the gods weren't always right and reasonable but also knew not to annoyed them because these were powerful and could discipline them equally they does Gilgamesh and Enkidu.
Another aspect of their culture we live shown in The Epic of Gilgamesh is that of women. When Enkidu continues to be wild and living with the pets a trapper says his boy to "require a temple hierodule from the Temple of Love, such a child of pleasure, bring her and let her electricity of female subdue this untamed man. When he goes to the wells, he will accept the priestess and the untamed beast will reject him". After Enkidu considers the priestess and has relations with her, he tries to go back to the crazy beasts plus they run from him. He returns to her and she contains his side and leads him such as a child out of the wilderness. She also instructs him about how to eat and drink the civilized people do. This demonstrates perhaps at one point in their civilization the women were dominant over the men, however this seems to change. Once Enkidu become a "man" after eating loaf of bread and ingesting the strong drink he determines to visit Uruk and face Gilgamesh. But instead of the woman leading the person Enkidu is leading her, "Enkidu set out for Uruk. Enkidu strolled in front, the girl walked behind. " Now it seems the culture is dominated by the man which is also how our culture is today. We have a patriarchal society where the men is usually head of the household. Once Enkidu has fallen ill and is dying as consequence for getting rid of the Bull of Heaven, he curses the priestess who tamed his untamed ways. "O you, priestess, I pronounce you fate- A destiny which shall be yours for many eternity! Hearken, for I curse you now with a great curse and may my curses assault you now on the instant: You shall not create a house where to offer your charms. You shall never type in the tavern where in fact the young girls are. Your lovely breastsMay the drunkard defile you trysting place with vomit, May you be violated by all the troops. The desert shall be you bed. The darkness of the wall structure is where you shall linger, your feet torn by thorns and bramblesBecause you have. . me and because you have brought death upon me. " Enkidu blames the woman for his loss of life but as Shamash the Sun points out the girl created him to good drink and food, clothed him, and provided him such a buddy as Gilgamesh. It appears that women were sometimes objects for men to blame for their downfalls. This opinion is true is some religions today where women are to blame for the first sins. We also note that the ladies were also sometimes viewed as wise numbers. Gilgamesh's mom, Ninsun, is called the "Custodian of Knowledge. " When Gilgamesh could have dreams he'd consider his mother for interpretation and assistance.
The Mesopotamians seem to be to have intensely relied on person to person to keep their testimonies passing between decades in the old times. The truth is this throughout the Epic of Gilgamesh. Most of the words and elements of the story seem to be to repeat the same words and meanings. "Father, just what a man! No other like him! He come from the hills, strongest alive! A legend in heaven his strength, of the superstar essence of your, the Sky Father, over the hills with the beasts eating lawn, ranges across your land, would go to the wells. I dread him, stay far away. He fill in my pits, tears up my game traps, helps the beast get away; now all the fame slips away- through my fingers. " The trapper instructs this tale to his daddy. He later explains to almost the precise story to Gilgamesh, "Like no other, crazy, roaming the pastures, a superstar in heaven his strength of the celebrity essence of your, the Sky Dad. I am reluctant, stay a long way away; he helps the beasts escape, fills in my pits, tears up my game traps. " In these lines from the story, we see that that the majority of the same words are repeated. Instead of just saying that the trapper advised Gilgamesh about the man he found he tells the storyplot again. That is a good example of how the Mesopotamians would do it again the same words and meanings in a smooth, rhythmic way to help memorize the testimonies.
From the work The Epic of Gilgamesh we see cultural characteristics of the historic civilization of Mesopotamia. We observe some of their religious values, the view of women in their society, and how they told stories in order that they were able to be kept in mind and distributed to others.