Posted at 10.31.2018
In order to carefully evaluate, Jason it would be very helpful in case a Mental Status Evaluation is conducted. The MSE would give understanding to the examinees way of thinking, thought content, belief, and cognition. Also, the examiner would be able to file the examinee's appearance, ambiance, and have an effect on. A semi-structural interview style would be the best method of perform the MSE. This approach would have standard questions but also give an opportunity for the examiner to create a rapport with the examinee. Therefore, the examiner could create a host that would promote comfort and ease which should allow the examinee to be less guarded.
A overview of material that could unveil indications of potential maladaptive tendencies would be useful to improve the examiners understanding of the examinee. Information such as prior subconscious assessments and medical files would be very useful components in unveiling indications. This information would find out any medical or internal problems previously identified that may have contributed to the examinee's patterns. Because it has been uncovered that the examinee is taking the medication diazepam, it would be beneficial for the examiner to perform research on the side effects and its own response with other drugs. Perhaps, the results from a blood vessels toxicology test would definitively determine all the drugs in Jason's body at the time he was arrested. This medication related information can give valuable indications that may make clear the examinee's behavior.
A overview of the examinee's family mental health and medical history could give data on hereditary attributes which could have added to the examinee's action. In addition, a review of the examinee's criminal history could provide a timeline of how Jason's legal activity progresses or digresses over the years. Thus, a review of the examinee's criminal record could give insight to fads in the examinee's maladaptive patterns.
Other resources of information that can pose as good use are results of any intelligence test like the WAIS-III and a personality test like the MMPI-2. The WAIS-III will look at Jason's vocabulary level, abstract thinking, concentration, immediate memory, judgment, alertness to details and a host of other cleverness actions (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2005). In essence, the WAIS-III will show if Jason can act with goal, to believe logically and to deal effectively with his surroundings (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2005). The MMPI-2, on the other hands, measures Jason's trend to possess some form of psychopathy. The MMPI-2 is a do it yourself- statement that examines Jason's degree of over concern of physical symptoms, degree of depression, level of over dramatization, level of psychopathic deviates, degree of paranoia, level of schizophrenic tendencies, and degree of impulse control (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2005). It ought to be mentioned that the MMPI-2 only gives a hypothesis of psychopathy and does not give a identification. An extensive psychological examination would be needed to be able to properly diagnosis the hypothesis.
Lastly, collateral contacts which is information compiled from individuals carefully associated or related to the examinee could give useful information to the examiner. Some of the people that could be interviewed are family, employers, co-workers, friends, and friends and neighbors. By interviewing people in several facets of the subject's life the examiner can get an idea of how the subject's patterns diverges in various environments. In turn this would supply the examiner a wholistic view of Jason's emotional state.
Axis I of the DSM-IV-TR multiaxial assessment lists scientific disorders and other conditions that may be a focus of medical attention (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
One scientific condition that may be considered is Intermittent Explosive Disorder (Code Quantity 312. 34) (North american Psychiatric Relationship, 2000). This is an Impulse-Control Disorder that is seen as a discrete episodes of failure to resist competitive impulses resulting in serious assaults or destruction of property (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The DSM IV-TR state governments that those who have problems with Intermittent Explosive Disorder usually exhibit signs of being annoyed, remorseful, regretful or ashamed after an ambitious incident (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). It's been reported that Jason has had problems controlling aggressive impulse in the past. The vignette records that indicators of remorse were seen after ambitious incidents before such as after Jason threatened his Aunt with a knife it was reported he was remorseful about the event. Also, after stabbing the victim, Jason's act of covering the body could be interpreted as a sign of remorse.
Before Intermittent Explosive Disorder is officially diagnosis other scientific condition should be eliminated. One condition that may be considered is Jason ingestion of a number of different types of substances in a 24-48 hour time frame. The vignette shows that Jason may experienced diazepam, acid, and alcoholic beverages in his system at the time of the criminal offense. As suggested recently, a toxicology test will definitively reveal the substances present in Jason's body during his offense. After it's been identified that Jason's habit was not induced by a reaction to a chemical a medical diagnosis of Intermittent Explosive Disorder can be more confidently advised.
The second axis on the DSM-IV-TR multiaxial assessment lists and details personality disorders and indications of mental retardation (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). The examiner can explore the possibility of Jason exhibiting signals of Borderline Personality Disorder. The DSM-IV-TR explains Borderline Personality Disorder as a pattern of instability in social connections, self-image, and impacts and pronounced impulsivity. Jason's parents assert he didn't develop stable peer friendships throughout his formative school years. In adulthood, Jason do have a sweetheart and the relationship was referred to as a stabilizing influence; however the romantic relationship was short-lived. Once Jason's romance with his girlfriend dissipated he reacted by leading to havoc at his grandmother's cottage. It had been noted that several cottages were destroyed and vandalized cottages. This outburst of uncontrolled emotion and aggression after having a break-up is typical habit of the person suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder. The DSM-IV-TR expresses that patients with Borderline Personality Disorder " experience strong abandonment fears and inappropriate anger even when faced with practical time-limited parting (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). "
Although the diagnostic standards for Borderline Personality Disorder gives an starting point of early adulthood, Jason may have shown features of the disorder in his early on teens after the death of his maternal grandfather. It really is reported that Jason initiated his use of Marijuana and begin to steal from his father or mother the same time his grandfather died. This habit might have been indicative of his failure to handle separation from someone he previously idealized which really is a attribute of someone experiencing Borderline Personality Disorder.
However, the DSM-IV-TR will specify that adults with identification problems and which may be involved in compound use could fleetingly screen behaviors that might falsely supply the impression of Borderline Personality Disorder (American Psychiatric Relationship, 2000). Therefore, observation and more comprehensive research on Jason would be had a need to definitively diagnosis Borderline Personality Disorder. An examination of Jason's results from the MMPI-2 could give insight for a far more conclusive diagnosis. One more thing to consider in diagnosing Jason with Borderline Personality Disorder is the fact approximately 75% of people identified as having the disorder are women. Therefore, Jason being identified as having the disorder would place him as a minority and the medical diagnosis under consideration.
The third axis on the multiaxial analysis details general medical ailments that could have an impact on ones psychological efficiency (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). It is not reported that Jason is suffering from any specific physical condition that could influence his psychological features. However, an intensive overview of his medical record would be had a need to definitively exclude any medical conditional that could have related to his behavior. A number of the regions of medical matter would be head injuries and diseases that have an effect on the anxious system. These types of medical conditions are well known to affect someone's psyche. It really is known that a few of our feelings are regulated through the frontal lobe of the mind. For instance, individuals that have endured a personal injury to the frontal lobe may have anger management problems or trouble managing their emotion.
The fourth axis targets psychosocial and environmental problems such as problems with primary support group, occupational problems, educational problems and monetary problems (North american Psychiatric Association, 2000). Jason seems to have problems maintaining important romantic relationships. Jason's break-up with his girlfriend could have been a contributing catalyst in his competitive habit. This break-up may have disrupted Jason's support system and caused him to own feelings of abandonment. It can be inferred that the abandonment would have caused him to have thoughts of instability and lack of control. The examiner would have to discuss Jason's feeling about the break-up during assessment sessions to be able to confidently record its relationship with the criminal offense at hand. Another issue that can be explored is Jason's lack of ability to maintain attendance while in formative university which continuing into his lack of ability to keep up attendance at a job in adulthood. This inconsistent attendance could be related to Jason's chemical use which indirectly influences his capacity to productively operate in his interpersonal environment. The examiner would need to explore Jason's product use and thoughts of his self-image to address this matter.
The fifth axis quantifies a features level the use of the GAF range varies from 0-100 with 0 being inadequate information and 100 being superior functioning (American Psychiatric Relationship, 2000. ) Jason shows indications that he could damage others or herself. He is very coherent of his area. However, Jason has difficulty keeping in mind details regarding the stabbing. The examinee appears to understand place, time and current occurrences. Alternatively, Jason has difficulty being self-sufficient and keeping employment which is partly due to his element use. Thus, Jason has a mid-level GAF with a variety of 40-60.
A ideal way to describe the living of maladaptive behavior such as over exertion of aggression as provided by Jason is through the Diathesis-Stress Model. The term diathesis means, in basic terms, a health that fashions a person more than usually susceptible to certain diseases (Merriam-Webster's online dictionary, n. d. ). Thus, the Diathesis-Stress Model says that all person inherits certain physical weaknesses to problems that may or may well not surface contingent on what tensions occur in his or her life (Eberhart, Auerbach, Bigda-Peyton, & Abela, 2011). Thus, the diathesis-stress model would say a person may have a neurotransmitter breakdown however the symptoms of the malfunction will not surface unless some life stressor is presented. A life inflicted stressor could be misuse, neglect or simply disappointment.
an educational diathesis-stress examination when defendants who appear to be functioning quite well at the moment are claiming short-term insanity during an alleged offense. Current indications of characterologically limited resources for dealing with stress, combined with obviously demanding circumstances or environment at the time of an offense, raise the likelihood a defendant may have experienced a transient episode of cognitive incapacity or behavioral dyscontrol. Conversely, the better the coping resources shown by the defendant's current test responses, and the less stress the accused appeared to be experiencing prior to and during the commission of any alleged criminal offense, the less likely the person could have been at that previous time to suffer a psychological breakdown accompanied by lack of cognitive or volitional capacities. (Goldstein 132)
A person is qualified to stand trial when there is a knowledge of the trial process, the capability to assist counsel for protection, and the capability to make important decisions to waive constitutional privileges (Poythress, 2006). The benchmarks of competence were created during the landmark case, Dusky v. USA, 362 U. S. 402 (1960) (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). During this case it was figured the defendant really needs sufficient present capability to consult with his lawyer with a reasonable degree of logical understanding and a rational as well as factual knowledge of the proceedings against him in order to stand (Bartol & Bartol, 2008).
However, since competency can transform, if Jason shows signs or symptoms of incompetency he can be medicated to restore competency even if he will not want to take the medication. This required medication for competency was proven in the court case United States v. Sell (2003), which organised that if certain requirements are achieved, those defendants adjudicated as incompetent to stand trial might be medicated contrary to their will for the solitary image resolution of instituting or repairing trial competency (Goldstein, 2006). It should be noted that the situation Jackson v. Indiana (1972) founded the limits on the length of time of commitments for competency restoration. This judge ruling mentioned that, "due process requires that the type and period of commitment keep some reasonable regards to the purpose that the average person is determined. " Quite simply, incompetent defendants cannot be held indefinitely when there is no likelihood that the defendant will be restored and criminal proceedings resumed. They can, however, be focused on mental companies under the civil laws (Bartol 161-162).
The establishment of criminal responsibility is contingent on the sanity of a person during their alleged criminal offense (Goldstein, 2006). Being sane during an criminal offense can be delineated to be able to acknowledge the criminality of your respective illegal activities and understand the wrongfulness of the tendencies (Goldstein, 2006). A Forensic psychologist could look at Jason using internal instruments that support the right/incorrect test for sanity or the Amazing Impulse test for sanity. The right/wrong test also called the M'Naghten Guideline, offers emphasis to the cognitive components of human beings (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). First the individual should be aware and really know what she or he was doing during the illegal work (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). Second the individual must know or understand right from wrong in the moral sense (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). The right/wrong test has no examples of incapacity; therefore one is either right or wrong, with no grey area.
On the other hand, the Amazing Impulse test considers a person may be familiar with the wrongfulness with their conduct, be aware of what's right or incorrect in a specific set of circumstances, but nonetheless be incapable to do right in the face of overpowering makes from irrepressible impulses ( Bartol & Bartol, 2008). Quite simply, certain circumstances cause the person to uncontrollably commit a offense, almost just like a crazy beast ( Bartol & Bartol, 2008).
The judge system has generated that in case a person had not been in control of his or her mental processes at the time of the criminal offense, then there are grounds for absolving see your face of some or all responsibility for the offense (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). However, each jurisdiction differs in the scope they recognize both these requirements. (Bartol & Bartol, 2008). For example the Formal Code of Georgia ("O. C. G. A. ") 16-3-2 claims, "A person shall not be found guilty of a offense if, at the time of the work, omission, or negligence constituting the offense, the person did not have mental capacity to distinguish between right and incorrect with regards to such work, omission, or neglectfulness. " Also, the O. C. G. A. 16-3-3 states, " A person shall not be found guilty of a crime when, during the function, omission, or negligence constituting the crime, the person, because of mental disease, personal injury, or congenital deficit, acted as he does due to a delusional compulsion as to such take action which overmastered his will to resist committing the criminal offenses. " Both of these statutes institute a standard for mitigating circumstances in unlawful responsibility and so ground work with the insanity plea. If it can be proven that Jason was in fact experiencing some form of a delusional compulsion then it could be argued that there are mitigating circumstances to his unlawful responsibility as proven by O. C. G. A. 16-3-3.
Bartol and Bartol define risk analysis as the effort where clinicians offer probabilities that a given individual will take part in violent or elsewhere antisocial behavior predicated on known factors relating to the average person. (Bartol- criminal behavior, 649). In 1976, the California Supreme Judge created what many regarded as the countrywide standard for mental medical researchers when a client presents a hazard to an identified person. In Tarasoff v. Regents of the School of California (1976), the best California state court ruled that the psychotherapist of an feasibly violent patient possessed a duty to safeguard any person determined as a potential victim ( ). The California Supreme Court ruling helped bring forth the theory that society's need for coverage overshadowed a client's to confidentiality ( ).
The Tarasoff circumstance replied the question of what responsibility therapists needed to third parties in cautioning them of potential injurious action from other clients. However, over the years many claims have declined the ruling in the Tarasoff case. Despite the questionable statutory duty to alert, many experts have incorporated the typical arranged by Tarasoff as a standard of practice. (Bartol- unlawful behavior 269) The APA Code of Ethics section 4. 05 (2002) gives reference to this notion of a obligation to alert by indicating that psychologist may disclose private information minus the consent of the individual to protect the consumer/patient, psychologist or others from harm.
The examiner may use a three prong evaluation to determine if the examinee is proficient to stand trial. The first prong evaluates if the individual can understand the functions of the many officers of the court. The second prong evaluates if the individual can recognize that he or he is charged with a crime and could possibly go to jail or be put on probation. The final prong evaluates if the defendant can rationally and effectively assist his / her attorney to aid in protection.
Numerous assessment equipment have been developed so that they can quantify and measure trial competency. One tool that has been popular is the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) (Steinberg, 2003). This is a forensic analysis instrument created to determine the three skills regarded as described in the Dusky standard for competency which can be understanding, understanding, and reasoning (Steinberg, 2003). The MaCAT-CA is comprised of 22 items which breakdown into three subscales to delineate the three skills before pointed out (Jacobs, Ryba & Zapf, 2008).
At this time around, Jason appears to be experienced to stand trial predicated on the fact he's literate, can give written consent for the analysis, and is able to rationalize that something adversely could happen depending on courts belief of him. To officially build competency in Jason the three prong examination as described previously would have to be given.
Risk assessments have two components the fresh quantities from an actuarial tool and ideals (Szmukler, 2003). Figures refer to the probability a confrontational occurrence will transpire in a certain time frame (Szmukler, 2003). The techniques in determining these figures are mathematical and statistical (Szmukler, 2003). Quite simply volumes are just the results from a risk analysis instrument. A just lately developed risk assessment instrument is the Historical/Clinical/Risk Management (HCR-20) range; developed by Christopher Webster and his colleagues (Webster, Douglas, Eaves, & Hart, 1997). The HCR bases its predictive vitality on three major areas: previous or historical factors, professional medical or current factors, and risk management factors. The HCR contains 10 historical items, 5 scientific items, and 5 risk management items, for a complete of 20 items. The historical items include "previous violence, " which, as we have discovered, is one of the most powerful predictors of future violence. Another historical or "H" item is "early age initially violent incident" (Webster et al. , 1997, p. 267). Quite simply, a person's early age during the first violent incident can predict a violent design will persist in to the future. "Early maladjustment" at home, at university, or locally is another predictive H item. Other H items in the HCR-20 are romantic relationship instability, employment problems, compound use problems, and major mental disorder (particularly psychotic or mood disorders). Clinical or "C" items include insufficient insight, negative attitudes (antisocial, hostile, irritated), and "active symptoms of major mental disease" (Webster et al. , 1997, p. 263). Active symptoms of serious mental illness that include delusional systems seen as a sadistic fantasies and homicidal and suicidal ideation are specially related to assault prediction. Risk management or "R" variables are related to the future circumstances of the individuals these are evaluating-that is, if the person being assessed will probably have adequate casing, meals, day to day activities, and finances. Research shows that individuals without these essentials are in higher risk for violence than those people who have these needs been able and looked after. Types of R items are lack of personal support, noncompliance with remediation attempts, feasibility of future programs, and stress. The analysts of the HCR-20 discover that the historical (H) items will be the most powerful for predicting future violent action (Webster et al. , 1997), and C items are second best (Borum, 1996). The HCR-20 continues to be relatively new and will need ongoing research before it will get widespread acceptance as a valid risk-assessment tool. (Bartol - unlawful behavior 275)
Values represent the methods of attaching a value to the risk and deciding what should be done about the risk (Szmukler, 2003). Thus, values can be seen as the pace at which violent acts occur in the populace of interest. This value is significant to the predictive abilities of any risk analysis tool. This value is sometimes known as the bottom rate.
Using only the info from a risk analysis tool without considering the environmental factors or society can make an examination skewed. The bottom rate takes under consideration the population of which the assessed specific is apart. In case the rate of violence in the population is low it should in a natural way lower the likelihood of vulnerable behavior. A simple explanation because of this logic is that the people of this low violent rate human population might not have ideologies that comprise of violent patterns. This insufficient cognitive thoughts of violence and insufficient examples of violent acts lower the individual's potential to act violently.
Therefore, it's possible a risk assessment tool that is standardized based on a more substantial more diverse human population can render results that show high dangers for violence for a person in an inferior less diverse human population. A standard view of both raw numbers from the examination and a awareness of the population's basic rate would give a better result in calculating risk assessments. Thus, the chance assessment tool provides hypothesis or informed prediction for a potential risk and really should be completed. The bottom rate gives course and depth to the hypothesis. Thus, both components are needed and valuable to the diagnosis.
A treatment solution carrying out a Cognitive behavioral therapy model could be utilized to help Jason with his cycles of aggressive habit. Cognitive behavioral remedy (CBT) is a healing modality that combines various areas of several different healing strategies including behavioral, cognitive, rational, emotive, and others. The hallmark of CBT is the assumption that stress is because improper or faulty cognitive framing that delivers the building blocks for self-defeating thoughts that lead to maladaptive behaviours. Over the last couple of years CBT has been the target of extensive research targeted at validating its theoretical groundwork and therapeutic techniques. Much of the research records favorable benefits within a number of options as CBT is often considered among the most diverse therapeutic modalities available to experts. (Hanser 116)
Most research concludes that it has been reasonably successful or shows sizeable promise in lowering recidivism in violent offenders and serious repeated offenders (Gacono et al. , 2001). However, one of the major shortcomings of the existing research is the overreliance on self-report measures to find out treatment gain (Serin & Preston, 2001). Although self-report information is important because it may indicate an offender's self-perception, additionally it is fraught with many serious problems, in particular when given under duress in a correctional environment. (Bartol 623). Cognitive behavior remedies (CBT) rely on changing specific behavioral habits by changing the person's thoughts, beliefs, and behaviour. CBT emerged in the past 30 years as a result of dissatisfaction with the theoretical and empirical bases of strictly tendencies therapy methodology. CBT has become the preferred remedy approach for coping with certain groups of offenders, including sex offenders, violent offenders, and a variety of continual property offenders. Bonta and Cormier (1999) rightfully remember that, "The research on the cognitive-behavioural treatment of offenders has led to wide acceptance of this approach as the most well-liked method for treating offenders. (Bartol 621-622)
In a psychological examination for analysis and treat culture can impact on the exhibition of subconscious disorders and the examiner's interpretation of the patterns being exhibited. Also, information being compiled from an diagnosis for diagnoses can be misconstrued if the examiner does not have a good understanding of the cultural social practices of the individual being examined. The examiner should obtain the maximum amount of cultural information on the client as possible before a prognosis or treatment plan is created. The cultural Also, if the customers cultural history is tremendously outside the world of the examiners understanding it may be wise to consult with a specialist in reducing the cultural impediment.
Some of the issues that affect analysis in regards to culture differences are the clinician attitudes, beliefs, and biases. No-one is exempt from having bias beliefs, thus an examiner should completely inspect his / her biases before being involved in a psychological diagnosis. The bias could skew the examiner's record and make the analysis invalid. For instance if a clinician is diagnosing a person from another type of cultural history and does not have an clear knowledge of the customs of that culture then the clinician may interpret some action as being negative. However, the person may just be following the traditions of their culture. Thus, multicultural competence is of major importance in the event conceptualization.
Another cultural impact on diagnosing and creating treatment plans is language obstacles. Since terms is the primary source of communication the examiner and your client must be able to properly communicate in order to obtain information for the assessment. Language barriers are not only limited by different languages sometimes the examiner and examinee may have different understandings of words or phrases. Of most significant concern to examination is the idea of conceptual equivalence or if the underlying build (construct definition: an image, idea, or theory, especially a complex one shaped from a number of simpler elements. ) retains the same interpretation across groups. A exemplory case of difficulty is when one group defines (i. e. specific behaviors as mental health problems or psychopathology while another group views the same conducts as normative) and not associated with a cluster of diagnostic symptoms.
The APA(North american Psychological Association) created a couple of recommendations known as the Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists to move towards more multicultural competence individuals. These rules aid in spotting biases and misconception found in research and identification. Once recognized the clinician can effectively change their behaviour, change just how interviews are conducted and change the interpretation of habit. In conclusion, in order to effectively evaluate individuals in diverse populations clinicians must adhere to the guideline for Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change and make sure the assessment devices take cross-cultural equivalency under consideration.
The APA Code of Ethics section 3. 09 (2002) states, "When suggested and appropriately appropriate, psychologist cooperate with other pros in order to provide their clients/patients effectively and properly. In order for this standard to be upheld the examiner will need to cooperate with courtroom official and much more specifically Jason's protection law firm. The examiner would need to write a comprehensive article that answers all the legal questions that contain arisen. An example of the legalities that would have to be attended to in the survey is the problem of competency and the issue of criminal responsibility.
Along with the court docket officers, the examiner would have to cooperatively use health professionals and psychiatrist. The medical professionals would give understanding to any neurological or brain malfunctions that could have related to Jason's aggressive habit. In the medical genre, another professional which will be needed is a toxicologist. The toxicologist can give an account of the substances present in Jason's body. He or she can give a report on how each of these substances effects the body and possibly effects human patterns.
section 9. 01(a) of the American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Concepts of Psychologists and Code of Carry out, which claims a "psychologist should bottom the opinions within their recommendations, reviews, and diagnostic or evaluative statements, including forensic testimony, on information and techniques sufficient to substantiate their studies" (2002).
Working under the disciplines of Regulation and Psychology can cause several moral issues for a Forensic Psychologist. Regulations requires someone to work under one group of rules and the APA code of ethics is the group of rules psychologist must follow. A lawyer is called to zealously symbolize each consumer and a psychologist is compelled to gain those with whom they work and take care to do no injury. Once the worlds of legislation and psychology intertwine the plan for just one may conflict with the plan of the other.
An example of the issue of the agendas is seen in the following scenario. A Psychologist can be appointed by a protection attorney as an expert see. However, the results of the assessment may conflict with the defense of the circumstance. The lawyer would want to minimize the importance of the results of the assessment. The lawyer may want the psychologist to improve the are accountable to sway the results more in favour for the protection.
However, the Psychologist would like to effectively, neutrally and precisely article the results. You can straightforwardly see how the agendas of the two parties result in a conflict. Because the Psychologist must follow the APA code of ethics it might be in his/her best interest to overlook the question of the legal professional and correctly record the results.
Another example of a conflict between the law and psychology is the law is penalizing and sometimes without compassion. However, psychology is empathetic and rehabilitating. The law looks for to punish and bring restitution for those which have wronged society. On the other hand, Psychology seeks to modify behavior and make clear the wrongs done to world. Sometimes the punishments imposed on someone by regulations may have a detrimental influence on the rehabilitative process being facilitated by way of a psychologist. At these times the psychologist can only modify the healing procedures to fit within the required punishment. For example, session may need to be achieved within the wall space of a jail instead of the clinician's office.
Hartsell areas that the rules of confidentiality state that what is said to the therapist in therapy is private and can't be voluntarily repeated, but under the way of a judge or other magistrate, or when aimed under other guidelines of legislations, the therapist may be compelled to testify regarding the consumer, the client's data, or the client's history as contained in the therapist's records and absorption data ( 2008, pp36-37).