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Media Representation On Political Changes Of Myanmar Politics Essay

A year after Myanmar's first elections in 20 years, the country has considered important steps towards reforming its politics system and its economy. It includes surprised Myanmar people and the earth with some important liberalizing methods.

The 2011-2012 Myanmar democratic reforms are an ongoing series of politics, economic and administrative reforms in Myanmar undertaken by the military-backed government. These reforms include the release of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest and subsequent dialogues with her, establishment of the Country wide Human Rights Commission payment, general amnesties greater than 200 political prisoners, organization of new labour laws that allow labour unions and strikes, relaxation of press censorship, and restrictions of currency routines. Because of the reforms, ASEAN has approved Myanmar's bid for the chairmanship in 2014. United States Secretary of Express Hillary Clinton stopped at Myanmar on December 2011, to encourage further progress; it was the first visit with a Secretary of Express in more than fifty years. USA Leader Barack Obama went to twelve months later, becoming the first chief executive to visit the country.

Aung San Suu Kyi's party, the National Little league for Democracy, participated in by-elections held on 1 April 2012 following the government abolished regulations that led to the NLD's boycott of the 2010 basic election. She led the NLD in winning the by-elections in a landside, receiving 41 out of 44 of the contested chairs, with Aung San Suu Kyi herself earning a chair representing Kawhmu Constituency in the low house of the Myanmar Parliament. However, uncertainties exist as some other political prisoners never have been released and clashes between Myanmar soldiers and local insurgent categories continue.


Myanmar was under military rule from 1962 to 2010. In 2008, the ruling Junta, Condition Calmness and Development Council, released the new constitution as part of roadmap to democracy. The constitution, which reserves 25% of the Hluttaw legislature's seats for military, sometimes appears by the opposition as a tool for continuing armed service control of the country. A constitution referendum happened in 2008 amid Cyclone Nargis. Observers criticized the referendum for voter intimidation, electoral scam and progress voting. Nevertheless, on 15 May 2008, the junta announced that the constitution had been approved by 92. 4% turnout in the two-thirds of the region that had performed the vote. An election happened this year 2010. The military guaranteed Union Solidarity and Development Party declared success. The US and American countries have condemned the elections as deceptive.

National League for Democracy

Aung San Su Kyi popularly in Myanmar can't be doubted. She is one of several applicants for the National Category for Democracy (NLD). She has campaigned in the united states, in a American fashion, to the idea of exhaustion to be able to secure voter support.

The by-election are also a test for the NLD, contesting elections for the very first time since it triumphed in a majority of seats in Myanmar's 1990 elections, having refused to participate in a 2008 referendum on a fresh constitution and in the next general elections.


Nevertheless, the federal government has embarked reforms toward liberal democracy, mixed current economic climate, and reconciliation although the motives of such reforms remain debated.


In March 2012, the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw handed a law that will raise the wages of most public sector employees, including military, as additional cost-of-living allowance of 30, 000 kyat ($38USD), along with a daily income increase of just one 1, 100 to 2, 100 kyat ($1. 40-$2. 70) for full-time employees, purportedly to deal with corruption in the government. Regulations will succeed 1 Apr 2012, when the Myanmar by-election, 2012 happen.

Political Reforms

The pro-democracy innovator, Aung San Suu Kyi was released from house arrest on 13 November 2010. After her release, she presented a series of dialogues with Leader U Thein Sein and Minister U Aung Kyi. Even though discussions were not publicized, the state of hawaii marketing reported that "the two sides have agreed to reserve the dissimilarities and work together in concerns of common passions that will really profit the country and the individuals" Aung San Suu Kyi's ability to travel easily throughout the united states sometimes appears as a noticable difference in comparison to her travels in 2003 which attained with a administration sponsored massacre. Aung San Suu Kyi's get together, National League for Democracy boycotted the 2010 election. The election legislations enacted by the SPDC didn't allow ex-prisoners to become members of documented political celebrations. If NLD decided to register, it would have to expel its users who have been imprisoned. But in November, the government erased the clause in a parliamentary section. After the amendments, NLD leaders have unanimously decided to register for the by-election.

How Myanmar Changed and What It Means

Myanmar, which includes been one of the most repressive states on the planet for five decades, launched a sudden political transition before year. The government, run by President U Thein Sein, is preparing for by-election in Apr in which longtime dissident Aung San Suu Kyi will run. The federal government is inviting outside experts, observers, and even individuals privileges activists to see the elections. It is also apparently trying to get rid of its numerous civil issues with ethnic minority armies and freeing a large number of politics prisoners.

This rapid change has shocked many political activists in the country; only a year ago, most top U. S. officials argued the country's generals would never voluntarily give power. At exactly the same time, it will probably be worth noting the almost negligible impact folks and EU initiatives to sanction and pressure the regime within the last two decades.

Real reform?

As essentially, the by-elections are generally regarded as a critical signal of the genuineness of the remarkable process of politics reform that has been gathering momentum in Myanmar for days gone by 12 months. The new, quasi-civilian Myanmar Authorities under reforming President U Thein Sein has publicly dedicated itself for an election process that is preferable to that of 2010, when ballot bins were famously stuffed with "early ballots" which (unsurprisingly) favoured government-party individuals.

To ensure this, they may have for the very first time ever invited international election observers from Myanmar's ASEAN-plus network, including Australia. Evidently, the process of the elections is as important as the politics results. The election process will most likely receive a mixed report, rather than an unqualified "free and reasonable" rating, as many relatively minimal problems have been completely reported (however, not verified).

A Political Opportunity

The speed of change in Myanmar has increased since countrywide elections were kept in November 2010. At that time, the international community condemned the polls as a way for the military to make a front authorities behind which it could continue wielding vitality. Aung San Suu Kyi's Country wide Category for Democracy (NLD) declined to participate. Yet the elections do seem to have opened up some politics space and provided a modicum of expect change. The elections were accompanied by installing U Thein Sein as chief executive and the creation of any civilian parliament.

Since then, both parliament and U Thein Sein have shown significant signs of reform, while former junta leader Than Shwe has vanished from general population sight. Free of house arrest, Aung San Suu Kyi started out a dialogue with U Thein Sein that led to the reintegration of her NLD into politics and the rebuilding of the get together. The parliament, though dominated by ex - armed service men, has been unexpectedly productive in questioning federal policies. The government also has create a national individuals rights commission, invited political exiles to return, and dramatically loosened censorship of the domestic media.

Aung San Suu kyi and Myanmar's small steps towards change

Only 2 yrs after standard elections this year 2010, the earth had been watching Myanmar's by-elections to be held in Apr 2012. Although the results cannot change the overall political balance of power with only 45 chairs contested, the interest is there for two reasons. First, to see if the election points to real democratic reform and second, to view the Nobel Peacefulness Prize-winning opposition leader, Aung San Suu Kyi are a symbol of election for the very first time.

Aung San Suu Kyi's new role

Aung San Suu Kyi is a member of the National Assembly for the very first time (however, not in the government). She could continue steadily to contribute positively but carefully to the new environment of public plan debate, criticizing administration policy every once in awhile, but essentially from within the parliamentary system and without implying she is contacting for the government's overthrow.

Even with out a "government of nationwide unity", today's casual understanding between President U Thein Sein and Aung San Suu Kyi will probably continue. It really is conceivable they will cooperate every once in awhile.

The reaction of the Myanmar Military to Aung San Suu Kyi's presence in the parliament will also bear watching. At this point it seems unlikely that they would be enticed to level a counter-coup. Although no more directly responsible for governing the country, the military still exercises certain "reserve forces" under the constitution, which it has not yet was required to resort to.

Nor could it be absolutely certain that President U Thein Sein will continue indefinitely to take pleasure from sufficient support among his ex - military acquaintances. But equally, there are no symptoms up to now of active opposition to him, particularly when the new regulations are demonstrably so popular among Myanmar people.

Myanmar's first steps

Whatever happens among all these "firsts", Myanmar's will have a fresh paradigm for its elections. They are really a firm base for a move to "democracy", without foreshadowing what precise shape this might take. Within the immediate future, some form of assistance between Myanmar's political leaders would help provide stability to the process of change and reform, as well as of land building, that Myanmar terribly needs.

The Record of Xinhua Media Agency

The Xinhua Media Agency is the state press agency of the People's Republic of China and the biggest centre for collecting information and press conferences in China. It's the largest news agency in China, ahead of the China Media Service. Xinhua is subordinate to the State Council and reviews to the Communist Party of China's Propaganda and Consumer Information Team. The Xinhua press firm was began November 1931 as the Red China Media Agency and modified to its current name in 1937.

Today, Xinhua Media Agency provides its news around the world in six dialects: Chinese, British, People from france, Russian, Spanish, and Arabic, as well as information pictures and other kinds of news. It includes made contracts to switch news and reports pictures with an increase of than eighty international news organizations or political reports departments. Xinhua is also responsible for handling, and in some cases, censoring records from foreign media destined release a in China.

The agency started out to coverage its reports and electronic mass media coverage and has increased its English coverage through its cable service and chinaview. cn site. Xinhua purchased commercial real real estate on New York's Times Square and it is developing a staff of top-tier English-language reporters. Xinhua has started out an English-language satellite television information network. The Xinhua Reports Agency works the prominent news website Xinhusnet. com, which gives news in six different dialects. The domain name xinhuanet. com drawn 430'000 unique guests between Feb 2008 and Feb 2009 regarding to a Compete. com survey

Research Question

To what degree does Xinhua Information Agency website reported on the political changes in Myanmar?

Did the multimedia framework the Governmental move positively or adversely?

Statement of the problem (logical)

Rationale and priorities

While Western governments might be tempted to credit the sanctions they may have enforced for the change of Myanmar's politics, the changes have recently come out of an internal process, and have been affected by local and local realities. Myanmar has fallen far behind most other Southeast Parts of asia in its socio-economic development. Its leaders could also have experienced uneasy about their country's increasing dependence on China. More specifically, the new federal has evidently reassessed the country's position in light of three priorities for future years. Firstly, Myanmar is because of hold the couch of the Relationship of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2014, and wishes to ensure so it can do it - it was anticipated to hold the position in 2006, but withdrew pursuing international pressure. Second of all, for its market to thrive it needs to ensure that it matches the conditions for becoming a member of the ASEAN free-trade area prepared for 2015. Thirdly, the USDP needs to win the next elections in 2015. More generally, there appears to have been a fundamental change of view and an approval that the best way to assure the security and stableness of their state is through reform alternatively than repression.


This topic is going to present just how of information presenting by website xinhuanet. com related to news of by-election presented on 1st Apr, 2012, highlighting prominent political transformation of new Myanmar Administration.

The significant of political reforms of Myanmar being made by the President's, U Thein Sein, new government acquired not only interest of Myanmar people but also have been valued and observed by other nations across the world. Especially citizen want citizenships to learn the real conditions of his/her country's politics and economic industries. The government has been obliged to reveal their handling transparently to the public from time to time. Moreover, the press should act as a bridge between the public and government plus they should notify real transformation progress of the government to the public exercise of marketing laws and journalist ethic without the bias.

As a media publication about the by - election surged, general public awareness and curiosity of whether this by-election will cause political change or not had been raised. Mass media magazines on such politics occurrences increase not only public interests and consciousness but also valuable assistance from the public. It is therefore very important to monitor and assess political transformation information that boosts public's understanding and interest from time to time.

Nowadays, more and more powerful and updated multimedia have been used. So, information can be propagate around the world immediately when it was online site. Therefore, the press should think about well and press important information such as Politics and Economic media which can be effect to the public.

Brief Literature Review

Media performs an important role round the world and also in Myanmar. Today, Information Technology age, the energy of mass media is biger and biger day by day and placed as one of the essential parts for each and every country. For the betterment of the country, people should apply advertising effectively. Media is principally seperated into two main types; such as paper media and electric media. Electronic press is the communication shipped via electronic or electromechanical energy. Communication today is fast-pace and interactive scheduled to modern tools. Global audiences swap information though modern online solutions that are interactive and fast-changing. Advancements in marketing and communication technology include interactive websites and use of videos and exclusive enviroments insted of printed content to convey information.

The new advertising, including the internet offer higher opportunities for relationship with the public participation, beyond enough time and space constraints of traditional press. In additional, new advertising solutions easily by passing national and international limitations, thus bringing people of each country into connection with diverse culture and distant events. In the centre and late time of 1990, internet becomes important in journalism. Internet individual ought to know the believable website of the news sources. The web site is the main one kind of online journalism. Today, online journalism is popular on the planet. The majority of online journalism has been the extension of existing print and broadcast multimedia in to the web via web editions of their most important products.

Online journalism is thought as the reporting of facts produced and allocated via the internet. By 2009, followers for online journalism continue steadily to develop in 2008, for the first time, more Americans reported getting their countrywide and international reports from the web, rather than magazines, and viewers to news sites persisted to grow due to the kick off of new news sites, prolonged investment in reports online by typical news group, and the continued development in internet people overall, with new people discovering the internet's advantages of convenience, rate and depth.

A significant tools of online journalism are internet community forums, message boards and chats, especially those representing the internet version of recognized media. The common use of the internet worldwide created a unique chance to create a gathering place for both attributes in many issues, like the Israeli-Palestinian discord and the First and Second Chechen Wars. Often thus giving a unique chance to find new, alternative answers to the turmoil, but often the internet is turned into the battlefield by contradicting gatherings creating endless "online battles". The declare that online options are less biased and even more informative than the official mass media is often supported with the fact that online journalists are simply just volunteers and freelancers who are not paid for their activity, and therefore are free from commercial ethics. But recently many internet forums began to moderate their planks because of threat of vandalism. Some online journalists own an ambition to replace the mainstream advertising over time. Some independent community forums and message boards have already achieved a level of popularity much like mainstream news firms such as tv stations and newspaper publishers. Internet radio and Broadcast are other growing independent media based on the internet.

Covering politics news

Parliament and Express legislature become major information centres when in program. The Government is bound to make all announcements in the house. Political information also originates from in and around the house in procedure as political functions exhibit their views on various problems and the comparative strength of various parties is tested in the house. There are moves and counter-moves by ruling and Opposition get-togethers which find devote news columns. A reporter should know the rules and types of procedures of Parliament. Point out legislatures follow similar guidelines and steps with hook difference occasionally. During inter-session cycles there are meetings of presiding officials of all the properties presided over by the presenter of the home of individuals. This makes rules and procedures pretty much uniform.

Political confirming: This could be called the most tough portion of reporting. Here you have to comprehend the political process and the actors involved in it. The analysis of the problem or personality mey go wrong and this can lead to humiliation of the correspondent. A correspondent covering a political party should always locate key individuals who matter in the party. Then he should cultivate a few of them just by meeting them occasionally and consult with them nationwide or get together affairs. Such meetings may yield news also but they will surely help the correspondent in making an analysis of the man and his role in the party affairs.

The correspondent should also be on good terms with any office personnel of the get together. Sometimes these folks can be of much assist in getting information or a story. At times politicians try to use reporters. They could flower something with a vested interest at heart. A reporter should be careful about such moves of politicians. A reporter must have a broad field of associates in a political party. If one has just one or two sources they are not enough. You have to continue looking for media sources all the time.

A political correspondent with profound understanding of get together affairs can do interpretative studies. He should always be mindful while interpreting alignments and movements of various political pushes within the get together. Coverage of political get together conventions or conferences requires move forward planning. A team of reporters or correspondents is dispatched to the site of the meeting. Normally a mature political correspondent will a curtain-raiser sharing with what will come up at the meeting.

Such conferences have a whole lot of usual speechs and resolutions to be covered but they offer an opportunity to political correspondents to meet and discuss various issues with promonent politicians of the get together. Information or equations arising out of such conferences assist in understanding the party politics and trends that may help in future. Many parties have a system of regular press briefings. The worried correspondent shouldn't miss such briefings. Sometimes these briefings may not produce much but on other situations they could give crucial news tales. But a correspondent shouldn't confine himself to recognized get together briefings. He should try to contact other sources or groups to more info.

Political correspondents can also look at 'situationers' on the health and dynamism of the political party and various trends and alignments within the party. Political correspondents have to deal withrelationships and politics alignments of different political parties. When the legislatures are in treatment their strength and alignment could become crucial.

During elections political correspondents have to travel to key constituencies where dominant market leaders may be contesting and evaluate the situation. At times, based on quick surveys or assessments of varied correspondents in several areas, a nationwide interpretative history may emerge. (K. M. SHRIVASTAVA, 2007)


This study applied a content analysis to look at the website's coverage of the political changes of Myanmar (by-election).

This is quantitative analysis. It'll use a content analysis method to look at the website's coverage of the political changes of Myanmar.

About sampling, available sampling will be used. Reports will be chosen from the website to get sufficient amount that will assist to make clear analyzation and generalization. This is important because the coverage is not daily and could be it could take many days difference between the two coverage.

Data will be shown and examined quantitatively using mathematical suggestions like graphs and percentages. The results will provide answers to questions about how precisely news websites protected issues related to Myanmar's political changes with by-election.

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