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Marks and Spencer: Individual Resource Management

In 1998 it became the first British isles retailer to produce a pre-tax revenue of over £1 billion, though a few years later it plunged into a crisis which lasted for several years. In November 2009, it was released that Marc Bolland, previously of Morrisons, will take over as leader from Stuart Rose in early 2010; Rose will continue as chairman until mid-2011.

As M&S persist to expand the business and invest for the future, it is more essential than ever before to keep amplification the team of employees at every level, from the shop-floor to management. To catch the attention of and wthhold the best talent in the industry, HRM must exhibit every day that M&S is a good employer, focused on creating all the individuals feel well known and providing them with profession opportunities and quality training.

Recruitment and retention:

The company utilizes around 71, 000 people in the UK, 75, 000 worldwide. M&S has one of the cheapest employee turnover rates in UK retail, at 27% for customer assistants and 12% for management. Around 40% of the folks have been with it for over 5 years and 22% for more than ten years.

M&S can provide graduates a fast record into management and last year HRM received an archive 8, 500 applications in only over 8 weeks. Each year the business employ between 150 and 200 graduates and business placement designed undergraduates for positions in retail, food technology, design, HR, buying, IT and other specialist tasks. M&S gained four major graduate recruitment awards, including the 2008 Times' 'Graduate Employer of Choice' for retail.

Training and development:

The company needs to train people comprehensively to do their jobs, but also want to keep their skills and experience giving them real opportunities to plan and create a career with Markings & Spencer. M&S has described career paths in place for many of its people, including Customer Assistants and store management. During the year it presented new career paths for store Section Managers and HR and marketing clubs. Everyone taking part the stores completes an intensive induction or more to 26 weeks' ongoing training - the longest on the high street. M&S has over 7, 500 people in stores who act as coaches to train and support their less experienced acquaintances.

This year the company has also run specialist training for people moving into senior management assignments or taking up international assignments. On top of that, more than 4, 000 people completed Buying Academy and Food Academy courses. M&S now examining similar types of academies for womenswear and merchandisers.

M&S's Ethics and Code is communicated across the company and older management is asked to confirm acceptance annually with breaches reported to the Audit Committee.

The recruitment and selection procedure for human resource in the business go through in two parts, Store and Head Office.


Retail Sales M&S has two strategies available in the stores: Selling and HR. Selling is where almost all of the graduates join, and will be offering the chance to be fast-tracked into older level retail management. HR is where employees train to be an HR manager, getting experience into from managing recruitment to carrying out disciplinary procedures. Number - 4

Store Roles

Store management

Managing HR in store

Store stock management

Head office

In a hq role, the workers get the possibility to develop professional skills and features, and then use that acquaintance to influence strategies and confine progress across the rest of the business. M&S provides opportunities in IT, design, merchandising, garment, buying and food technology and product development. Body - 5


Store development

Accounts and finance

Head office Roles


Product development

Information technology

UK and International marketing

Information technology

Human tool management

Figure - 6

Job centre

Recruitment Agencies

Recruitment Sources


On-line application

Schools, schools, universities

Friends and family members of existing employees

Executive search agencies

Figure - 7


Work-based tests

Selection Procedures

Bio-data analysis

Psychological analysis


Analytical capability test

Training and development process:

M&S wants its visitors to enjoy their work and feel they may have all the skills they need to do their job to the best of their capacity. Therefore, the business offers in-depth training and performance coaching, and regularly determine the people's development must ensure everyone has the support to achieve their potential.

"For once in my life I could truly say that I enjoy heading to work every day and I like the buzz you are feeling all over the store. " Brian - M&S Staff

It does not a matter where area of the business someone joins, he/she will receive an induction that will help to settle in to the team, presenting a feel for what role calls for and leave to feel keen, inspired and excited about the career with Grades & Spencer.

The following provides the dynamics of training one can expect in M&S's stores with hq, and the way the company talks about developing future leaders of the business enterprise.

Marks & Spencer offers the majority of the training for store teams is on-the-job. It helps them learn in 'real life' situations. The section professionals also get specific training on stock management, driving a car sales and motivating their teams, as the store managers are regularly evaluated to handle any mature level development needs they could have.

Finally, the retail business transforms fast and making sure each of the employees has a flexible and diverse range of skills is really as significant to the continuing future of M&S's business as it is to the people who work in it. That's true whether a worker joins the company for a short period of time or to pursue a long-term job. The training M&S offer is designed to help individuals build up their talents and capacities, develop their experience and fulfill their career ambitions. M&S aim is to ensure that the employees have the abilities they need to deliver the type of service that customers expect from M&S.

Evaluation of the People Relations University of management in relation to Motivation of staff:

In 1920 an test conducted by the Hawthorne flower of European Electric (in Cicero, IL) known as the Hawthorne Experiments that the human relationships management developed. This human relations management strategy includes different models, ways and ideas.

Through this test an important observation was mentioned. As the employees were divided in to two groups for the purpose of experiment groups got mixed attention from the management. And it was found that the group which acquired majority of attention received highly motivated and looked their are significant one and grow to be more productive. Because of this particular work people grasped that personnel also need special attention as they were cared for as some force which will get the job done normally would be terminated at that period. And this observation helped to create a fresh horizon in the view of professionals and help come into view human relationships management.

This college of management is now there for quite a long time and withstands the test of time. This view is sometimes regarded as theory of determination and the treat people employed in the organization quite differently than other theories such as autocratic. Among different ideas McGregor's X and Y Theories presume workers can respond in both techniques is some workers may be unmotivated and hesitant about the work imposed to them (Theory-X) and some may seem encouraged and treat the work as trust vested after them (Theory-Y). So management must be just about careful in managing staff. Management should design its different program by keeping individual relations management. In this particular modern world staff are not only used like machines to make the job done rather they will have to nourish that will subsequently provide nourishment to the business.

To stimulate employees to the task this approach advises some steps that management can follow:

To treat employees as though work is as common as doing daily activities in normal method.

The aim for of the employees work is aimed share those targets to make the work more familiar with the employees.

Make sure employees may take major decision independently and can show their own probable.

Provide proper training and increase work load as they are more capable.

Appreciate and motivate employees on doing successful assignments and set benchmarks which are attainable.

This approach says us that employees are not encouraged only by monetary profit but also by different fringe benefits such as understanding, sense of togetherness etc.

Program of Motivational Factors for a little to MID-SIZED Business:.

Motivational program is defined to achieve the following targets:

To Perform jobs as proficiently and timely as you can and

Be prepared to take latest difficulties as they are provided to them and stood self-assured to handle those difficulties.

So to design an application for a tiny to medium business the next factors or observations have to be addressed:

Ability and inspiration: The program designed must be able to discover the areas that will motivate employees and the goal of the program is to motivate employees. The program should include something that raises employees' eagerness to do the job willingly.

Reinforce employees positively and educate them as it becomes necessary.

Always maintain and ensure fairness, esteem, and integrity in treating employees. It really is one of requirements of the program.

Identify, understand and talk to employees about their miseries, provide assistance if needed.

Job rotation, job redesign, restructuring or reorganizing job explanations when necessary will make the employees more capable of doing different careers and will reduce dependency on some key employees.

Based on the performance establish incentive system which might range between providing financial to non monetary benefits.

After the inclusion of most these factors or observations you will see a turnaround in the way of doing things in a little or medium sized business.

Classical and Scientific College of Management:

To manage work and coach the workers to lessen dissatisfaction of the personnel Classical management theory advanced during the Industrial Trend. It mainly find the best way to perform the job allocated. You will find two branches of Classical University of Management: traditional scientific and traditional administrative.

Classical scientific institution:

The classical medical branch deals with the process of work and the skills of the personnel and increase output. Taylor, Henry Gantt, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were the key contributors of the school.

Taylor thought that organizations should analyze jobs and develop correct procedures.

Henry Gantt is the originator of the Gantt graph, a pub graph that actions planned and completed work along each level of production.

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, researched job movements. Frank was an apprentice bricklayer, he was considering standardization and method analysis. He analyzed about the staff' slowness and inefficiency. The medical management was developed to split work between employees, methods of doing jobs, the teamwork building and training and expanding workers.

Classical administrative institution:

The classical administrative School offers on the full total organization including the development of managerial ideas rather than work methods. Maximum Weber, Henri Fayol, Mary Parker Follett, and Chester I. Barnard were the main contributors.

Utmost Weber thought that the organization should be run by structured rules and it will not be run as family-like basis. He didn't think that specialist should be predicated on someone's personality. He thought expert should be something that was part of a person's job and approved from person to person as one person remaining and another required over. This nonpersonal, objective form of company was called a bureaucracy.

All bureaucracies have characteristics as Division of work, A good hierarchy and Rule and restrictions, competence and the relationships between professionals and employees.

Henri Fayol's 14 guidelines of management gives clear idea what sort of administrator manage his office and personnel. The 14 principles are:

Division of work, Authority and responsibility, Self-control, Unity of command word, Unity of course, Subordination of individual interest to general interest, Remuneration of staff, Centralization, Scalar chain, Order, Equity, Steadiness of tenure of employees, Effort, Esprit de corps.

Mary Parker Follett motivated managers to talk about their power with the employees. She started out to talk about specific things like ethics, ability, and authority. She stressed the importance of people alternatively than techniques - an idea very much before her time. As a result, she was a pioneer and frequently not taken really by management scholars of her time. But times change, and innovative ideas from days gone by suddenly undertake new meanings. A lot of what professionals do today is based on the basics that Follett established more than 80 years ago.

Relevance of Maslow's Theory in the current Workforce:

The dynamic world of business needs to inspire employees which contradict the past dictatorship by the very best management. Through this process of development different perspectives occur and made their mark in motivating employees. Maslow's hierarchy of needs additionally known as the theory Z is one particular remarkable development that never lost its eminent potential client in motivating employees but still followed all over the world.

The Maslow's hierarchy demands the hook up of employees physiological needs on the first side. Nowadays firms' focus on issues such as food, real estate etc which falls in the physiological category to encourage employees. In USA Toyota has a town because of its employees offering housing facilities because of its employees.

The second parameter is basic safety. Employees need job security, health support on their behalf and because of their households so if this is ensured employees will surely be encouraged. The exemplory case of Toyota town can be described once more here.

People are naturally eager for love so that humans employees also need love and love. Therefore the insurance of understanding, sense of belongingness will inspire them and theory Z is very much appropriate in identifying it.

In self-confidence case employees act as confident contenders in carrying out a job. They'll want achieve something for these people also to obtain respect from others. Maslow rightly discovered this need as low and middle level managers always make an effort to be achievers. Plus they want top management to believe in these to take some decisions for which they'll be responsible.

Employees at certain time are more creative in what they usually do. In this process of personal actualization employees will need to be taken care of carefully as they can take the business to a complete new level. So Maslow's theory is very much indeed in line with the today's workforce.

Evaluation of the autocratic and democratic means of putting into action changes within the business:

Every company always will try to manage the changes by using democratic or participatory managerial style. Change management is a personal journey combined with the organization changes. So each stakeholder's views, complaints and concerns needed to be heard and this input must be incorporated into the change management process. In case the organizational changes are enforced on the individuals without displaying much value towards the individual employees the company should at the same time be ready for a lot resistance.

Change management is difficult as there are negative effect from the employees. The professionals should be quite definitely intelligent and proficient to change plus they must take care of employees that they can not be damaged badly.

People should get information - be open and honest about the facts, but don't give overoptimistic speculation. The info should be given everyone in the organization.

People should be given time, expressing their views, and support their decision making, providing instruction, counseling or information as appropriate.

Where the change will involve a loss, recognizes what will or might replace that loss - damage is much easier to cope with when there is something to replace it. This can help assuage potential fears.

Where you'll be able to accomplish that, give individuals chance to exhibit their concerns and offer reassurances - also to help assuage potential worries.

Linkage between management Style and motivational programs:

Generally with the democratic style of management, employees are highly encouraged and inverse is the situation with the autocratic style of management. But this simple affirmation needs better changes. While responding to this question I am going to try to focus on the different motivational practice guaranteed by the motivational theory and its own linkage with the management style.

According to the Maslow's hierarchy of need theory people at a specific point of your time has a particular degree of need. Following the fulfillment of that desire a second stage need occurs. Staff who currently has basic safety and subconscious needs won't care about the style of management for getting motivated. However in circumstance of employees, who have love, esteem or do it yourself- actualization needs cares about the motivational level at the labor force and they'll be much motivated with the clinical design of management.

According to Douglas McGregor of MIT Sloan University of Management Employees can be narrowly divided into two common classes- one collection of men and women who are progressive and wish to are to them working is equivalent to play. For motivating them he proposed democratic management, flatten hierarchy and team work (components of modem management strategy). According to McGregor, another group of employee do not work hard since they find no real curiosity about the work and prefer to follow the order instead of thinking creatively. For motivating those types of employees he proposed autocratic management, strong chain of command line (the different parts of classical management technique).

Frederick Herzberg, a psychologist, has segregated different facets at the place of work that have an impact on the efficiency - motivators and health factors. If there are no motivators like challenging work, responsibility, good management although he doesn't leave the job but still he is not motivated. Companies which are more worried about the efficiency not retention should include methodical management to stimulate people.

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