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Marketing Operations at Marks and Spencer

The organization I'm going to be concentrating on will be Tesco Store and Grades and Spencer. I chose to study organisation behaviour in Tesco and Markings Spencer due to having communication access. I would perfectly get information about these organizations.

Tesco plc can be an UK- centered international grocery and general merchandising retail chain. It's the largest British dealer by both global sales and domestic market show, is the world's third-largest grocery retailer, and is also the fourth- largest retailer behind Wal-Mart of america, Carrefour of France, and the home depot of the United States.

M&S can be an international company, which spreads through Europe, THE UNITED STATES and Asia. M&S is the most significant and the leading variety store shop in the united kingdom. New brand and product development during the last ten years in fast-moving consumer goods sectors in the united kingdom is that lots of of the most original and successful initiatives have been considered not by manufacturers but by sellers.

The aim of this statement is to examine organisation behaviour in nervous about the understanding of those factors that impact people's behaviour at work.

2. 1Different organisational structures

Every organisation with an increase of than one person needs a structure so that employees have clearly described roles and are obvious about the roles of others.

An organisation's framework is often provided as an organisational chart which shows how management is organised vertically with layers of hierarchy and horizontally by function, product or division. The chart will make clear who's accountable for what, who is liable to who and who to go with problems and queries.

There are three main types of organisational framework: large hierarchical, chiseled and matrix hierarchical.

Tall - this type of composition will have more than 4 levels of structures and period of control is average of 6 people confirming. This causes a distraction in communicating because there are a few people in charge in this long stretches triangle. Bureaucracy has control in this type of organisation. Role culture is just how they work, good promotional aspects.

Example of High Structure

Flat - this type of composition will have less than 4 levels and spam of control is approximately 25 people, usually higher. They have a good level of communication because they have got only one or two people in control that they can are accountable to. Use electricity culture kind of team work framework, have less promotional aspects. Huge and short triangle appears if drawn.

Example of Level Structure

Matrix - Matrix kind of framework is when the work is spread out to other employees. They often work in teams so their culture is task. Advantages are they can work more proficiently and focused

Example of Matrix structure

Project 1

Project 2

Project 3

Project 4

Project 5

Project 6

Project 7

Project 8

Employee 1

-

-

Employee 2

-

-

Employee 3

-

-

Employee 4

-

-

Network - Autonomy (doctors, lawyers, dentists etc). Everyone has equivalent electric power so clash of powers and conflicts can occur.

Organisational Culture

Organisational culture is sophisticated and multi-faceted. Culture is intangible and imprecise. It also changes over time. Culture encompasses standard habits of behavior and performs an important role in shaping our purchasing patterns. It is due to traditions, values and beliefs of the community where people live. It is the complex of principles, ideas, attitudes and other meaningful symbols that acts humans to communicate, interpret, and examine as associates of society. You can find four types of organisation culture role, vitality, and job and person culture.

Role culture is known as a 'bureaucracy'. In role culture job comes first so that it creates an extremely structured, stable company.

Power culture is similar to the spider's web. One person is in charge of the organisation in the centre surrounded by others involved.

Task culture is job or project orientated. Individuals empowered with discretion and control over their work, is flexible and adaptable.

Person culture is where in fact the individual is the focus of the organisation. Examples are doctors, solicitors and dentists.

Tesco structure

Tesco structure seems to be a tall framework. You can find six work levels within the company. This gives a structure for handling and controlling the organisation. Each level requires particular skills and behaviours.

Work level 1 - frontline jobs staff who works directly with customers doing various tasks in store, such as filling shelves with stock. They require the ability to work effectively and with passion and to have interaction well with others.

Work level 2 - business lead a team of employees who package directly with customers. They require the capability to manage resources, to set targets, to control and motivate others.

Work level 3 - working and operating product. They requires management skills, including: Planning, Concentrate on setting up and Reporting

Work level 4 - supporting operating units and recommending proper change. They might need good understanding of the business, the abilities to investigate information and also to make decisions, and the capability to lead others.

Work level 5 - accountable for the performance of Tesco all together. They require the capability to lead and immediate others, and make major decisions.

Work level 6 - creating the reason, ideals and goals for Tesco plc. Responsibility for Tesco's performance. They might need a good overview of retailing, and the ability to build a vision for the future and lead the complete Organization.

Marks and Spencer has a set organisational structure. The business enterprise lost a number of layers of authority through delayering meaning employees throughout the business have significantly more responsibility. This enables those to make quick decisions and justifying actions which may have been taken. The organisational framework of M&S means that a lot of employees was required to account for your choice made. Besides this, it is also essential to make those decisions quickly since there is a lot that one single employee was likely to do. Training and development is therefore necessary to ensure these employees. It should be noted that almost all of the roles taken up within M&S are specialised. Therefore, employees have to be empowered by instructing them new skills in their new area or profession.

First of best practice requires that there should be lean organisation structures within the business to be able to encourage team work. This is exactly what M&S has done; it includes included this within its strategy. Decision making is not as centralised as it was before thus necessitating the need for training and development.

Summary

Here even as can easily see Tesco has a large structure and role culture is just how they work whereas M&S has a flat structure and ability culture team work. Both company framework and culture will vary.

Relationship between organisations framework and culture and the effects on business performance

Organisations will need to have a formal framework in order for work to be completed efficiently. It is necessary to divide work into groups or sections into a particular function to prevent duplication of attempts in order to maximise their limited resources. Because an company compromises of individuals addititionally there is an informal company with different interlocking interactions, which gives climb to different behaviours, attitudes, individual perceptions and level of ability and aptitude. When people deliberately come together to fulfil a specific goal there are specific accepted ways to behave, speak and interact. This gives surge to organisational culture where it can be produced intentionally or unknowingly to its people by the behaviours of influential customers, not necessarily personnel high up the hierarchy but by associates who exercise different varieties of electricity within the company. This marriage will now be separately examined in the different types of organisational structure associated culture and their influence on their employees leading to their degree of business performance.

Business performance in a large organisation structure can be affected by the length of time it requires for the flow of information through the degrees of hierarchy making the organisation inflexible gradual to adapt to the political, monetary, socio-cultural, scientific, environmental and legal factors. It has a slim period of control leading to limited control restricting independence and empowerment which impacts motivation. The amount of desire employees possesses impacts their output impacting on business performance. Employees do not have a clear idea of the big picture. It's highly bureaucratic mother nature affect role culture.

In contrast a set organisational framework possesses greater versatility to the PESTLE factors anticipated to it's reduce degrees of management, ensuring greater survival. The wider the period of control and better degrees of communication may encourage creativeness, initiative and potential to make decisions providing the feeling of empowerment, resulting in motivated individuals, which impacts business performance. This is also dependent upon the individual's personalities and networking connections within the organisation. If people refuse to work together or perceive what others say it could affect employee relationships and productivity affecting business performance. The culture found in flat organisation framework is that of vitality culture.

The relationship between culture and business performance rely upon how strong culture companies learn from and behave both their own experience and changes in their environment. It also confirms behavioural regularity so that there is less room for argument between different teams about the organisation goals.

Factors that influence individual behavior at work

The capacity to learn from experience will impact individual at work, other factors that influence an individual behaviour at work including capability and aptitude, skills are things that folks can do, or are proficient at, and this is believed to be inherited. Aptitude is the capability to learn and develop capabilities or skill. Another factor is the individual attitude. Firstly specific to work that is their point of view on working, management, acquaintances and the company and the organisation and their frame of mind at the job which is their stance or standpoint about politics, faith, education, and whether they choose to consent or disagree.

Perception is the way a person mentally perceives things which explains why people have different views because they perceive things differently. That is why communication within the organisation has to clear so the particular one will get the same key intent of the note.

The previous factor is the individual personality. Personality is the total pattern of characteristic ways of thinking; sense and behaving that constitute the average person distinctive approach to relating to the surroundings.

Approaches to management and leadership

One of the most important functions of an organisation is the management. Without this function or office you will see no rules, methods, discipline, drive, culture etc. The rules of management and command will be divided into a number of parts to be analysed at length. Most of these theories and styles will be related to TESCO and Markings AND SPENCER for a wider debate and explanation.

Management Styles

Managers have to execute many roles in an organisation and exactly how they handle various situations will rely upon their design of management. A management style is an overall approach to leadership employed by a supervisor.

The most frequent style theories are grouped under the classification: autocratic style, democratic style and laissez faire style.

Autocratic style is sometime known as exploitative, authoritative or military-style. Autocratic style is the type of management where there is only one person in control that has total control. Under this style of leadership all procedures and decisions are laid down by the leaders. Subordinates have just to apply. They aren't permitted to give their thoughts and opinions or recommendation thus the leader is likely to do everything in conditions of decision making.

A democratic style of management has many advantages as it motivates employees through job satisfaction and team heart. It makes them feel appreciated if they're getting involved in decision-making, which can help the organisation to achieve its objectives. There may be more contact between professionals and its workforce. They will be able to become familiar with each other and this could lead to them being able to work better alongside one another if they socialise. However, there are drawbacks to this kind of management style. Talking to the labor force can be frustrating which will slow down decision-making.

Laissez-faire style is a method where most of the decision and procedures are made a decision by subordinates. Managers intervene very seldom in emergency cases. Almost anything is left upon subordinates. Every member of the organisation judgment is taken into account when making decision.

Different motivational theories Motivation is a process where people between substitute behaviour to be able to achieve personal goal. Desire is the result of an interaction between the person and a situation; it is not a personal trait. It is the process where a person's work are energized, directed, and suffered towards attaining a goal.

Energy: a way of measuring strength or drive.

Direction: toward organizational goals

Persistence: exerting work to attain goals.

Motivation is most effective when specific needs are compatible with organizational goals.

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

There are numerous motivation theories that attempt to explain the nature of motivation. Some of the theories may be partly true and help explain the behavior of certain people at certain times.

The motivational theorists focus on examining human being needs considering the way the needs are met and can be better met in work. It might be defined as the "processes that makes up about an individual's level, course and persistence of effort towards attaining an objective". Organisational behavior (9th edition) by Stephen P Robbins pg 155

Among various behavioral ideas embraced by American business are those of Frederick Herzberg and Abraham Maslow. Herzberg, a psychologist, suggested a theory about job factors that stimulate employees. Maslow, a behavioral scientist and modern of Herzberg's, developed a theory about the list and satisfaction of various human needs and exactly how people pursue these needs. These ideas are generally cited in the business literature.

MASLOW'S MOTIVATION

Abraham Maslow recommended that human being needs operate at a variety of levels. Actually he classified human need under five different levels particularly: physiological needs, security needs. Social needs, esteem needs and personal realisation/actualisation. This different of need can be presented the following:

Physiological needs: - For Maslow this is actually the first level of needs that folks have to meet because these needs are primary / basic. Physiological needs are those necessary to support life, such as: Air, Water, Food, and Sleep.

Safety/Security Needs: - Provided that physiological are sufficiently satisfied that security needs will influence on behaviour. Security needs include security against physical and physiological damage. Such needs include the need for job security, era, industrial accidents, and illness. Many organisations try to satisfy these needs by providing a desire to have steady employment, medical health insurance, safe neighbourhoods and shelter from the environment.

Social needs: - This level of needs can be involved with man's need for love, friendship; acceptance, attachments and households help fulfil this dependence on companionship and acceptance, as does participation in sociable, community or spiritual organizations. In organizations people have a tendency to join different groupings to satisfy their sociable needs. By developing groups and pushing sufficient relationship among employees. Professionals can ensure that their subordinate's cultural needs are satisfied.

Esteem needs: -. This level represents peoples higher order needs that is man needs for do it yourself respect, and identification by others. The need for success self confidence, recognition and gratitude of achievement are all types of esteem needs. It really is this area specifically that professionals can play a substantial role in gratifying the needs of their workers, namely by rewarding high achievement with acceptance and appreciation.

Self actualisation needs: - The highest of Maslow's hierarchy of needs is the need for do it yourself actualisation. This symbolizes the apex of all men needs. Self-actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal development, less worried about the thoughts of others and interested rewarding their potential. Maslow details the personal actualisation needs as follows "a musician must make music" and at least must coloring, a poet must write, if he is to be in the end happy. The home actualisation need is the most challenging to address. In an organisation context, a supervisor can help by impressing and challenging job to master so that they can in their work.

Criticism of Maslow's theory

Maslow theory is too rigid, that could it be is believe all people have five level of need and most of them follow the same order. It is not a full theory of motivation, since it only explains inspiration of individuals needs.

3. 7 FREDERICK HERZBERG'S Desire AND Cleanliness FACTORS

Frederick Herzberg examined desire in the light of job content and contest. His dual process theory is a job enrichment theory of motivation. It represents needs in terms of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. It is a two-step process. First provide hygiene's and then motivators. Onetime ranges from no satisfaction to satisfaction. The other time ranges from dissatisfaction to no dissatisfaction. (Buelens M. , Broeck H. , Vanderheyden K. , Kreitner R. & Kinicki A. , 2006, p: 186). Therefore, Herzberg's theory is also known as "two-factor desire theory".

Hygiene factors

According to Herzberg hygiene are those that do not lead to motivation but these factors prevent de-motivation. At a more simple level firm managers should ensure that the employees have the necessary health factors so that there will not be any dissatisfaction at work bringing on a decrease in motivation. His study reveals the following as cleanliness factors:

Company policy and administration

Supervision

Relation with supervisor

Working conditions

Salary

Personal life

Relation with subordinates

Status

Security

Motivators

According to Herzberg motivators are those factors which lead to satisfaction and hence can motivate employees at the job. When employees are deprived of these factors you will see dissatisfaction resulting in reduction to determination. However if employees are provided with these factors, they will surely be motivated. The primary motivators are

Achievement

Recognition

The work itself

Responsibility

Advancement

Growth

Criticism of Herzberg theory

The finish about factors that caused unhappiness and motivators aren't totally acceptable. Matching to critics the difference in sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction are the result of intrinsic defence device. People are inclined to seek their own successes and ascribe their dissatisfaction more to obstacle on the part of management.

Relationship between motivational ideas and the practice of management

Maslow theory will not fully explain motivation his hierarchy of needs is generally accepted and applied in practice mainly for the following reasons:

The hierarchy is not hard to understand and seem sensible.

The theory highlights important group of needs.

The distinction is made between higher and lower needs.

The need for personal development and self-actualisation in the work context is impressing upon managers.

In most countries company are really successful in satisfying company lower order needs. Physiological are satisfied by paying salary and providing fringe benefit, communal needs are satisfied by allowing employees to work together and associate with each other. Esteem needs is of offering responsibility a subject that commands respect, important work, activities, identification at high accomplishment.

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