Posted at 11.01.2018
In the long term, city getaways and weekend breaks will still be a captivating and growing portion of the global tourism market. City tourism is one of the fastest growing tourism sectors in the world. The unexploited opportunities and the increasing harmful results on the urban communities, however, highlight the value of interacting with the sector with regards to the urban overall economy, environment and communal and cultural local specifics. In these days it's true that what is projected as the 'image' of an city, can become more important than the truth of metropolis itself, in shaping visitors', investors', and even its inhabitants' opinion than it. Marketing techniques are often used to help a city's transformation into a post-industrial centre of tourism, culture and re-development. In addition, City tourism is playing an increasingly important role in deciding monetary development strategies by the neighborhood governance authorities. In today's platform of the globalised overall economy, competition for attracting tourists is even greater. In this context, the role of city marketing is crucial. This paper examines the importance of city travel and leisure marketing for the metropolitan development.
Introduction Today, the image of your city sometimes seems to play a more important role than its certainty in shaping the thoughts and opinions held by site visitors, investors and its residents in regards to to the area. Marketing techniques can be used to help towards the transformation of a city into a post-industrial centre of travel and leisure, culture and development. Urban tourism or city tourism plays an increasingly central role in defining the approaches for monetary development that the particular local regulators process. On the other hand, in today's conditions of the globalised market, your competition for attracting travellers is sustained. City marketing takes on a decisive role in this admiration.
Cities, to be able to generate more opportunities, will need to have the capability to entice more investment, business, residents and tourists. Places, just like products, must be advertised with precision and appeal. City marketing is successful when staff, residents and companies are satisfied with their living conditions, and when tourists, new businesses and new investors have their targets achieved. (Kotler et al. 1999). Furthermore, the type of metropolitan areas as tourism destinations is extremely complicated. A full study of urban travel and leisure includes the examination of the reasons for going to a city, the type of tourists, the impact of travel and leisure on the metropolitan environment, management and planning techniques and an examination of planning and marketing a city as a travel and leisure destination. Also, the results of the emergence of new tourism resources and places on urban environments should be considered, as well as the importance of your time planning in urban and tourism planning.
City marketing is a relatively new clinical field. Many think than it just as group of tools and methods in order to market the "product" of your city. But city marketing is more than that. It entails the definition of the city's product (the town as a product) and its own image, so that its recipients will dsicover it as to the marketing planned. So, city marketing performs an important role, developing a bridge between a city's potential and the utilization of this potential for the good thing about the local modern culture. This is specifically true in the case of European cities, which are on the main one hand ethnical centres with strong local identities, and on the other side, have a cosmopolitan figure, not only because of their guests, but also because they are in your brain of men and women who live far away from them or even people that may never reach visit them. You will find cities with great history potential that are not successful. A rationally made up and responsibly completed online marketing strategy could invert this fact. (Karmowska, 2002). The main reasons for which a marketing strategy occurs are as follows (Karmowska, 2002):
To attract tourists
To entice investment and develop industry and entrepreneurship
To catch the attention of new residents
To effect local contemporary society - 'inner marketing'.
There is of course another argument, corresponding to which there are six strategies that a city or region can follow to be able to boost its place in the competition (Kotler et al. 1993):
Attract travellers and people to its businesses
Attract business from elsewhere
Maintain and broaden existing business
Promote small company and help create new ones
Expansion of its exports and its assets of abroad
Expansion of its human population or change in its population's circulation.
It is clear that these two views don't really vary; the second is simply more analytical in its explanation, without referring to 'inside marketing'. This idea of interior marketing is widely known, which is argued that successful social projects could empower local societies, in this way becoming an internal marketing pressure that promotes local development. (Russo, 2003). Inner marketing can also be a determining factor in how the residents of your city understand their standard of living in that city (Rogerson, 1998).
City marketing includes four main activities (Kotler et al. , 1993):
· Designing the provided services and defining this characteristics of the city
· Determining motives for the potential buyers of its goods and services
· Efficient circulation of its products
· Campaign of its image and values so that the audience know its distinctive advantages.
A strategic city marketing plan must include improvements in metropolitan planning, infrastructures, basic services like health, protection and education, destinations and people. The importance of marketing in planning is even bigger as it pertains to tourism planning. Urban travel and leisure is based mainly on brief breaks (over night stays of 1 to three times), somewhat than on long term vacations. As folks have busy lifestyles and difficulty in leaving for long breaks, urban tourism increases. Relating to Jansen-Verbeke there are a variety of primary travel and leisure elements that contain the ability to attract visitors and visitors (Ejigu et al. , 2004). They are:
· Night clubs
· Organized events
· Museums and art galleries
· Concert halls
· Fairs & Festivals
· Place livelihood
· Local customs
· Cultural heritage
· Historical routes traces
· Interesting buildings
· Old monuments and statues
· Spiritual buildings
· Parks and green areas
· Normal water, canals, beaches
There are also supplementary or additional elements, such as:
· Catering facilities
· Commercial centres or areas
· Internal transfer network
· Parking facilities
· Tourism facilities, e. g. information offices, maps, leaflets, manuals etc.
The need for marketing in tourism planning rises, as tourism destinations are dealt with as products. Until just lately, metropolitan areas were discriminated because of their resources, but with the reputation of the importance of the travel and leisure sector, the pattern has changed. The prevailing resources are becoming a unified offer for selling the town. An essential part of tourism planning is the evaluation of the appeal towards the visitor and the decision of actions to empower it (Ejigu et al. , 2004).
Tourism planning, according to marketing principles, is a sophisticated process that includes marketing research, segmentation of the tourism market, tourism product policy, prices of the travel and leisure product, communication and sales types of procedures, the distribution system meaning, advertising, educational leaflets, sales advertising of moves and tourism, immediate marketing, public relations and marketing process control. (Holloway and Robinson, 1995) Finally, each city can be sold in many various ways to different tourists. The produced sales packages are not secure, but they advance as the location changes. The city gets the chance to choose the kind of tourists it wishes to entice, but this means that to begin with it really needs all the required prerequisites.
Theoretical Framework Through the decade of the 80's, City tourism has increased in a substantial way throughout the world. For economical reasons mainly, the governments and ministries of market of several countries have considered tourism as an important income source generation. With this context, metropolis tourism promotion represents an chance to revitalize the town and regional economy, and at exactly the same time, to dignify and preserve the architectonic and social richness of the towns regarded as centers of vacationer development (Rules, 1993).
From this aspect of view, Jansen-Verbeke (1988) as well as Buckley and Witt (1985, 1989), (cited for legal reasons, 1993) postulate that urban regeneration for traveler purposes is not really a solitary and valid procedure for the great towns, but that also for additional small cities and areas offering places of interest quite different from the original recreational locations like sea and beaches.
The urban tourist product has well been described by Jansen-Verbeke (1988) as historical buildings, urban landscapes, museums and free galleries, theatres, sport and occasions. She classifies the elements of urban travel and leisure in most important elements (cultural facilities, physical characteristics, activities and amusements facilities and socio-cultural features), extra elements (hotel and wedding caterers facilities and market segments) and extra elements (convenience, parking, information offices, signposts courses, maps, etc. ).
On the other side, considering the vast recreational options that the metropolitan tourism represents, the governments and ministries of tourism must be able to create strategic tourist marketing plans to be able to assure the supply of infrastructure services adding to create more job and, therefore, to economic development.
Ashworth (1994) considers that the marketing of holiday destinations is a distinguishing form of commercialization of services that is founded on the traveller's interpersonal dimension. Heath and Wall membrane (1992), Kotler, Haider and Rein (1993) as well as Athiyaman (1995) create that the strategy of tourism commercialization of a specific destination is based on the image that the traveller has in his mind's eye concerning the capabilities of the site.
Crompton et al. (1993) consider that images constitute the foundation of the tourist destinations choice process. Thus, every city, as a holiday destination, can be considered as a global image, which is integrated by climatic factors, tourism infrastructure, tourism superstructure, services and cultural qualities that the traveller patterns from his perceptions and his symbolic interpretation of the global image (Telisman-Kosuta, 1989).
Gunn, 1972, (cited by Chon, 1991) establishes that holiday destinations can express images that are artificially created by a specific marketing strategy. Then, the existing contrast between the created image and the perceived the truth is, often, the cause of the tourist's dissatisfaction. Upon this point, Bourdeau (1991) considers that images and behaviour that the traveler adopts towards certain holiday destinations is determined by the differences caused by the tourist's experiences lived in situ and his tourism background.
Methodology The research on the worried subject examines the marketing strategies you can use for marketing a city for the metropolitan developemnt. It specially investigates marketing areas of city travel and leisure that will lead to the introduction of the city itself. Rourkela City in american Orissa was preferred as the case study area, as it has tremendous tourism potentials to be promoted which may bring in this way many perks on the monetary improvement of the location in European Orissa. The researcher mainly were required to depend upon the secondary data for carrying out the research.
Situated amidst natural surroundings, Rourkela is counted amidst the beautiful cities of Orissa. It emerged on the nationwide panorama with the onset of steel crops in 1955. Located on the bankers of Brahmani River, Rourkela retains the distinction of being the second major city of Orissa. In the neighborhood dialect, the word 'Rourkela' means 'our village'. Though this city has come a much way from the impression of town, it offers still retained the cultural roots of India. Situated in the Sundargarh district in Orissa; it is the second most significant city and a modern industrial town that has been able to sustain its natural splendor. Ornamented by wooded hillsides and on the confluence of waterways Bramhani, Koel and Sankha, Rourkela has emerged a beautiful town. It really is known for its rich calcium deposits and arrived to limelight in 1955 with the establishment of Rourkela Material Plant. Made in collaboration with Germany, the metal plant is held by Steel Power of India. As the center of industrial activities, Rourkela has advertised development of diverse business around the town such as Kalunga, Rajgangpur and Kanshbahal. Rourkela will serve as the utmost convenient base for visiting the tourist destinations in the area of Sundargarh. Following are the Key travel and leisure products of Rourkela city located in the city and its surrounding areas:
Junagarh Fort, Vedvyas, Ushakothi rock cut caves
Vedavyas Mela, Dola Yatra, Chaitra Mela, Rath Yatra, Sravana Mela, Viswakarma Puja, Dusserah, Deepavali
The Indira Gandhi Park, Nehru Traffic Recreation area, Jubilee Playground & Mrig Bihar, Green Park
Theatres: Apsara Talkies, Deepak Talkies, Konark Talkies, RajakTalkies, Uma Talkies
Dance & Music: Bhanja Bhawan and Civic Center
Sports Hostel, Ispat Stadium, Biju Pattnaik Hockey Stadium, G Stadium
The city has a great number of accommodations suiting to all or any categories of tourists and also restaurants offering variety of cuisines:
Hotel ShyamHotel Anurag
Marketing Rourkela city as travel and leisure destination Destination promotional initiatives are typically evaluated by transformation studies or by advertising monitoring studies. The change study model practices "a sequential stream over time leading from the production of advertisements to visitor understanding, positive image development, inquiry/fulfillment, drive and conversion" (Siegel and Ziff- Levine, 1990; McWilliams and Crompton, 1997: 127 in Kantanen, 2005). The advertising traffic monitoring model identifies "changes in the levels of awareness of the destination and its own image in the target market segments, before and after those markets have been subjected to an advertising campaign"(McWilliams and Crompton, 1997: 129 in Kantanen, 2005).
Rourkela's tourism products cover a wide range of historical, spiritual, natural and ethnic destinations and the holiday amenities. Marketing the location travel and leisure in Rourkela must be as both knowledge and artwork, or a intricate interplay of the two. Right marketing stations have to be developed and the network for distribution and advertising of for the tourism products at regional and national level must be understood. Achieving the blend right in the framework of a local destination and preserving flexibility in the approach will most certainly drive performance (Smiths, 2003).
Marketing and advertising a certain physical area in Rourkela city is vital for informing and convincing potential holidaymakers to visit that area. As target group orientation is known as a prerequisite for good market communication, it is essential for the town to understand the frame of reference point within which its promotional attempts are interpreted.
Tourism basically entails a seek out that which is amazing (Urry, 1990) in comparison to one's everyday activities and environment. Hence contrasts would be materialized between your orientations of the supply side and the demand aspect in a travel and leisure context in the town. This type of reasoning is suffered by Viken & Jacobsen (1997), who hold that culture specific activities are a required contrast to our standardized everyday activity. Confronted with the growing global competition where vacation spots are becoming highly substitutable, destination marketing organizations (DMOs) are in a continuous battle to attract travelers (Pike and Ryan, 2004 in Ekinci, 2006). As places seek to become distinctive, Rourkela as a city will be looked at as a viable metaphor for understanding visitors' perceptions of its places as well as for crafting a distinctive destination identity. The town tourist vacation spot may be looked at as an amalgam of individual products and experiences which will be combined to form the total experience of the area went to. Past research has exhibited that vacation spot image has both cognitive and affective components. (Kotler in Ekinci, 2006) Although vacation spot image has been recognized to contain both affective and cognitive components, previous research in addition has shown a direct connection between a destination's image and the style of tourists recommending it through word of mouth, (Ekinci, 2006) and also a direct connection between the destination's image and holidaymakers prospects (Middleton, 2001). So, it is essential to make and view Rourkela's personality to be able to position and distinguish it on the visitor market. This can be done through a complete set of marketing techniques including promotion and imaging. Very often, mature destinations slumber on past laurels, forgetting that re-examination of these marketing and communication strategies and the willingness to use change are their last hope in an increasing global market, where world-wide competition brings difficulties everyday (Minghetti, 2001). Just as, the destination Rourkela must identify target marketplaces and create a unique brand system to enter in competition. Moreover, the gain of a global competitive benefits also requires the development of local partnerships which allow the location to gain higher market vitality on intermediaries and other exterior factors. To make sure competitive advantage, the city provides its potential vacationers a certain amount of attraction and tourist experience superior to other alternative areas. The competitive benefits would relate to such created items as the tourism infrastructure (hotels, attractions, transport network) and amenities, celebrations and events, the quality of management, skills of staff, etc.
The city destination's image and Brand image "In terms of tourism destination branding, provenance is even more critical because countries pre-exist any identities constructed for the kids by marketers and neither their advertisers nor consumers can have objective views of them" (Morgan & Pritchard, 2001, p. 281 in Therkelsen, 2001). Informing tourists before and after they reach a destination is known as a marketing part. Within a city like Rourkela, it's important to produce and transfer an satisfactory image of the town, based on the principal sights, the facilities and the other available services. The image must be as near to reality as possible, so that holidaymakers won't be disappointed but carefully in order that they don't get an incorrect idea either. Beerli and Mart±n (2003) created nine proportions with attributes determining the perceived tourist vacation spot image, such as natural resources, basic infrastructure, holiday infrastructure, tourist leisure and recreation, culture, record and art, political and economical factors, natural environment, public environment and the atmosphere of the place. All these proportions need to be included in Rourkela for creating the brand image of the town. The organic and natural image of metropolis should be based on the non-commercial resources of information, such as news of the destination in the advertising, information received, and views of friends and family. The induced image must be based on commercial resources of information, like different varieties of advertising and information from travel companies and tour providers. As Hannigan (2003) advises,
'A successful brand of the city's tourism should be instantly recognizable, play on the desire for comfort and certainty and provide a spot of recognition for consumers in a congested market-place". Major events have become a particular valuable form of cultural currency, specifically in terms of these image results. As Hall (1992, p. 14) areas that major happenings of the Rourkela city also have the effect of an shaping a graphic of the coordinator community or country, resulting in its favourable notion as a potential travel destination". This probable has been a reason for situations being used as an image- development tool, particularly for large metropolitan areas" (Laws, 1993; Holcomb, 1993; 1999; Sassen and Roost, 1999; Judd and Fainstein, 1999; Selby, 2003 in Richards, 2004).
Competence is characterized by traits such as cleverness, dependability, security and assurance. Sophistication is personified by traits such as glamor, upper class, visual appearance and allure. Finally, ruggedness is typified by features such as difficult, outdoorsy, masculine and american! (Ekinci, 2006). Confronted with growing global competition where vacation spots have become highly substitutable, places are progressively more embracing branding initiatives such as the use of taglines and logos in order to attract site visitors and expenditures to their respective destination (Blain, Levy and Ritchie, 2005 in Ekincy, 2006). As places seek to be distinctive, destination personality of the Rourkela city will be viewed as a practical metaphor for understanding holidaymakers' perceptions of places and then for crafting a distinctive id (Caprara in Ekinci, 2006).
In the modern day conditions of globalised current economic climate, towns are in sustained competition, than they were recently, in endeavoring to attract purchases, business, residents and tourism. To cope with this competition, metropolitan management must be made with entrepreneurial rationale. It must be proper and market-oriented. Thus, it was inescapable that marketing strategies in Rourkela city would be presented into all degrees of planning, but mainly into urban planning and tourism planning. The primary targets of an marketing strategy will be the success in bringing in tourists, shareholders & the firms in field of travel and leisure. The four main activities of marketing city travel and leisure in Rourkela must include the design of the provided services and the particular characteristics of the town, this is of motives because of its potential vacationers, the efficient syndication of its tourism products and the efficient advertising of its image. Further segmentation of the marketplace will play important role in the right choice of concentrate on markets.
The most usual city tourism marketing strategies are city travel and leisure branding, flagship task construction and mega-event hosting. To be able to achieve this goal, the Rourkela city must use actions as tools; factors like the acknowledgement of its strengths and weaknesses, market surveys, promotional policies and assistance between local actors.
Marketing process must be examined within the platform of urban management. Marketing city travel and leisure plays a much greater role as tourism destinations are now dealt with as products. Inside the framework of marketing processes, time planning also offers an important impact. So far as it concerns urban governance, the role and contribution of local government bodies is specially important in building promotional approaches for the city and promoting its image at a global level. Co-operation between local stakeholders is of great significance. How the town must be administrated is a networked system of metropolitan governance, where all areas and physical levels take part, each with their own specific role.
In order to be successful, a marketing strategy must gratify certain requirements, this means the city must understand the changes in the wider environment, the needs, needs and choice behaviours with their target-markets, to create a realistic vision for his or her future and regeneration, to create an action plan in order to achieve this vision, to achieve consensus of the included actors also to evaluate at each stage the progress made.
Marketing city tourism is an important part of metropolitan planning for towns that desire to be really competitive in today's conditions. A properly designed and integrated marketing plan can help metropolis to promote its competitive advantages, to be able to succeed in the sector that is indeed stronger than its global opponents. It appears that, if the prior years were those of human being field of expertise, now we are in the era of city specialty area.