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Managing absenteeism ideas in OB

Absenteeism is the term generally used to spread to impulsive staff absences from the work environment. Many causes of absenteeism are respectable personal health issues or family issues for example but absenteeism can also often be traced to other factors like a poor work place or workers who aren't focused on their jobs. If such absences become unnecessary they can have a critically adverse impact on a business's businesses and in the end its success.

A three component model of organizational determination was used to review job withdrawal intentions turnover and absenteeism. Affective dedication emerged as the utmost consistent predictor of these outcome variables and was the only view of dedication related to turnover and to absenteeism. In contrast normative dedication was related and then withdrawal intentions while no direct effects for continuance commitment were seen. Persistence dedication however interacts with affective determination in predicting job removal intentions and absenteeism. The proper execution of the interaction was in a way that high sunk costs tempered human relationships between moving dedication and the related results variables.

Recent thinking about top management has been unfair by option types of man. Economic approaches to governance such as organization theory have a tendency to assume some form of homo-economicus, which depict subordinates as abnormal opportunistic and self serving. Alternatively sociological and emotional methods to governance such as stewardship theory depict subordinates as collectivists pro-organizational and reliable. Through this research we attempt to reconcile the difference between these assumptions by proposing a model established after the subordinate's internal attributes and the organization's situational characteristics.

Absenteeism Measure

Absence measurement is essential in order for management to compare between individual absence and departmental absences. Measuring lack is critical to identify the different patterns of employee lack and concentrate on the variables impacting on it. There are many ways to evaluate absenteeism the most commonly used are the lost time rate formulation and the individual frequency formulation.

Absenteeism rate = Range of Man times lost *100

Individual occurrence = amount of absent employees/average quantity of employees*100

Limitations do are present when wanting to assess absenteeism whether with data collection or data correctness thus professionals should be aware of stay on top of such restrictions and handle them with care and accuracy and reliability.

Types of absenteeism

Absenteeism are classified in to four types

Authorized Absenteeism

if and employee absent himself from work by taking agreement form his superior and applying for leave.

Unauthorized Absenteeism

If an employee absent himself from work without informing or taking agreement and without trying to get leave.

Willful Absenteeism

If a worker absents himself from duty willfully.

Absenteeism triggered by circumstances beyond one's control

If a worker absent himself from responsibility due to the circumstances beyond his control like accidents or sickness.

Causes for Absenteeism

In order to identify the causes and extent of absenteeism proper information should be held in every department for various causes of absenteeism such as time sex times of the week and classes of careers by each section. Generally pursuing reasons are attributable for absenteeism at work

Nature of the work

Poor working conditions

Absence of regular leave arrangements


Poor control

Irregular travel facilities

Lack of interest

Indebt ness

Alcoholism and gambling habits

Low degree of wages

Miscellaneous causes

The tasks of the supervisor regarding absenteeism. In addition to ensuring that work is correctly covered through the employee's absence there are a variety of her critical activities that supervisors need to take to manage absenteeism, they must: ensure that all employees are fully aware of the organization's policies and methods for interacting with absence be the first point of contact when a worker phones in tired, maintain appropriately complete accreted up to date absence records for their personnel identify any patterns or styles of absence which cause concern conduct return to work interviews and Use disciplinary strategies where necessary.

Looking at known reasons for unscheduled absence the CCH survey found only 34 percent were for personal health problems but more than two out of three 66% were for other reasons including family issues 22% personal needs 18% entitlement mentality 13% and office demands said Wolf. Another key finding of the study was how important staff morale was in the workplace. The survey discovered a strong link between staff morale and absenteeism. "For example, twice as many employers with poor or fair morale view absenteeism as a significant problem (44%), on the other hand with 21 percent of employers whose firm has employees with good or very good morale, " said Wolf. And in addition, absenteeism is higher in companies where morale is low. In 2007, the higher rate was 2. 7 percent, and the average was 2. 3 percent. The continuing future of a company's absenteeism is also conditioned by employee morale. The survey found one in three companies (36%) with low or poor staff morale expected a rise of absenteeism within the next 2 yrs, whereas only 19 percent of businesses with good morale expected this increase.

Effects of Absenteeism

Absenteeism cause bad for both the employees and the personnel for the next reasons.

Normal work - stream in the factory is disturbed.

Overall production in the manufacturer falls.

Difficulty is confronted in executing the orders with time.

Casual workers may have to be used to meet production schedules. Such staff are not trained properly.

Overtime allowance charge increases considerably because of higher absenteeism.

When a number of staff absent themselves there exists extra pressure of focus on their co-workers who are present.

Workers lose pay for the unauthorized absence from work.

Habitual absentees may be removed from services causing them great hardship.

Motivation Theory

Motives initiate support and channel behaviour.

Managers and employees may often confuse them they are separate and particular concepts. Performance signifies analysis after it occurs and therefore it implies the occurrence of some sort of measuring system. Motivation on the other side is only one of several psychological areas that influence performance. For instance an engineer's performance is reflected in the grade of his designs the number of patents he obtains and the clients satisfaction with cost and performance of his new product. While we would expect a highly motivated engineer to create excellent products that gratify the needs of customers it could also be true that his performance could be damaged by a great many other factors besides his inspiration level. Such factors include

His capability.

His dependence on achievements or his type.

The difficultly of the design task.

The magnitude of job resources available.

His working conditions.

His organizational dedication and job involvement.

Content theory of Motivation

Motivation ideas are of two types

content theory

process theory

a content theory of determination specifies those individuals needs which activate behaviours aimed at need decrease. Therefore a content theory of desire answers the question what specific needs cause drive?

Maslow's Hierarchy

Abraham Maslow relating to professor's Lawler and suttle 1972 thought that drive could be explained by organizing human being needs into five levels. He made his theory sufficiently broad to address human being behaviour in all settings. Not to his delight his theory was quickly put on the narrower selection of human behaviour in organizational configurations. The five degrees of Maslow's hierarchy are shown

The five needs

Physiological needs are regarding the maintenance of the body. If we are unwell then little else matters until we retrieve.

Safety needs are about placing a roof covering over our heads and keeping us from injury. If we are wealthy strong and powerful, or have good friends we can make ourselves safe.

Belonging needs create our tribal character. If we are helpful and kind to others they will want us as friends.

Esteem needs are for an increased position within a group. If people respect us, we've greater ability.

Self-actualization needs are to be what we can handle becoming which would our greatest achievement.

Managing absenteeism and Maslow's hierarchy

The need hierarchy tends to parallel employee career development. Early career stages are characterized by security concerns and learning organizational values. After five years roughly the employee's matter shifts to the establishment of a professional personal information in the company and in his chosen job both forms of recognition help to meet esteem needs. At exactly the same time that esteem needs become active the employee will pursue increased autonomy via promotion and choice task assignments. Rises in specialist and responsibility at the expected times on a career path can help employees gratify esteem needs. Self-actualisation is lively during career progress but it evolves in scope. Originally it is job targeted but in later career stages it becomes group targeted if the staff rises to a top management position. In this way we manage the absence of manager and staff. There needs are increase and effort. -+

ERG Theory

Clayton Alderfer long and simplified Maslow's Hierarchy into a shorter set of three needs




At the lowest level is the need to stay alive and safe now and later on. When we have satisfied life needs we feel safe and physically comfortable. Another level after we are safe and sound we consider our communal needs. We aren't interested in romantic relationships with other people and what they think folks. Whenever we are related we feel a feeling of id and position in your immediate world. This includes Maslow's love/owed and Esteem needs. At the highest level we seek to expand be creative for ourselves and for our environment. Whenever we are successfully growing we feel a feeling of wholeness achievement and fulfillment. This addresses Maslow's self-actualization and transcendence.

Hertzberg's two factor theory of motivation

A content theory of work determination which is carefully related to Maslow's hierarchy is Professor Herzberg's two factor theory or the motivator cleanliness theory. Within this study of engineers and accountants, Herzberg learned that the reason why these professionals provided for experiencing desire were quite different. The employee's determination range between: unmotivated dissatisfaction: to natural: to desire/satisfaction with the job. The amount of experience job inspiration/satisfaction depends upon the option of hygiene and motivators. It is apparent that cleanliness by them is inadequate to sustain drive and satisfaction. The many motivators must also be there to maintain the employee's inspiration and satisfaction. In other words hygiene is necessary but not sufficient to preserve high determination.

Process theories of motivation

Now we transform our attention to those process ideas of desire that help us know how employees opt to be encouraged. Process theories aim for decision making belief and factor of the task environment: especially the available rewards. On this section we will go back to equity theory and discuss its important efforts to managers knowledge of employee desire in organizations.

Equity Theory

Equity theory as developed by Professor Stacy Adams (1965) makes a contribution to understanding how employees react to incentives and outcomes in the context of the performance job satisfaction romantic relationship. On its own collateral theory is a prominent process theory of desire. The idea proposes that employees gauge the fairness of the work outcomes compared to the work outcomes received by others who perform comparable jobs. To the degree that employees feel that their rewards are insufficient they experience circumstances of imbalance or understand inequity. Felt or identified inequity motivates the worker to take action to address his dissatisfaction. Inequities at the job exist whenever employees feel that their rewards for his or her efforts are less than the rewards or inducements received by others because of their efforts or efforts. Both of these mental claims are motivating and the employee in question seeks to eliminate the felt inequity and go back to a state of balance or collateral. To restore circumstances of collateral and staff might:

change work inputs and reduce performance efforts

change the outcomes received

exist the circumstances

change the individuals who are used for comparison

mentally distort or alter the comparison

take a choice to alter the inputs or results of the comparability other

Expectancy Theory

Expectancy theory is a good managerial tool for understanding employee behavior. It specifies the connections between effort performance and rewards. The theory articulates the importance of expectancy instrumentality and valence. These principles can be applied to work to help employees understand the key relationship between performance and rewards. The the different parts of expectancy theory are delicate to individual variations and organizational factors.

Goal Theory (Locke)


emotions and desires

goals or intentions

responses, actions, work behaviour, performance

consequences, feedback

challenging goals expand goals lead to raised performance

specific goals lead to higher performance

participation in goal setting increases performance

knowledge of ends in necessary for effective obtaining of goals

X and Y theory

Theory X

The average person dislikes work and can avoid it he/she can.

Therefore most people must have no choice but with the risk of punishment to work at organizational goals.

The person with average skills prefers to be directed to avoid responsibility is relatively unambitious and desires security above all else.

Theory Y

Effort in work is as natural as work and play.

People will apply self control and personal course in the quest for organizational aims without exterior control or the threat of punishment.

Commitment to targets is a function of rewards associated with their achievement.

People usually agree to and frequently seek responsibility.

The capacity to use a high degree of imagination ingenuity and creativeness in handling organizational problem is extensively not narrowly distributed in the population.

In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utillised.

Organizational Life- Circuit Theory

Like the individuals who work in them organizations progress through stages. Organizations are started and if indeed they avoid early failing they expand and mature. Through these various periods the challenges and questions they face change. Understanding the companies life circuit helps managers to identify indications of an ageing and less relevant business design. They have to realize that the type of structures and activities which work in a single level of a company's life routine might not work in another. Therefore the criteria used to judge success and competitiveness may vary with a firm level of development. Organizational life circuit theory has four periods of development.

There are five level/levels in any corporation.






Locus of Control

Locus of control identifies one's beliefs about what cause benefits in life. Internals have confidence in the causality of personal behavior while externals believe in the causality of environmental causes. Internals connect responsibility to results in life while externals imagine outcomes are manufactured by forces and situations outside themselves.

Survey Qualifications and analysis

The unscheduled lack rate for 2007 was 2. 3 percent down somewhat from 2006 when it was at 2. 5 percent according to the CCH survey. Divided in working hours which means that for each and every 100 hours of paid effective time companies are also paying for 2. 3 time for unproductive time scheduled to a unscheduled absence. Although this rate seems low initially. Wolf said when taken into account the economical costs to a business can be extensive. The survey monitored rates costs and reasons for unscheduled absences programs used to regulate these absences most and least effective programs impact of morale on unscheduled absenteeism and presenteeism. If the company suffers from high absenteeism, Wolf suggests measuring and checking it to target efforts to reduce absence identifying wallets of absenteeism specifically groupings within departments and growing objectives.

Absence control and work/life programs

Most companies must nip the situation at the bud if they want this developing problem to be curbed. According to the survey nearly 66 percent of study respondents offer flu shot programs to employees. This number has risen from 2006 64 percent. Another option being provided by many firms are health maintenance programs such as proper fitness diet and hygiene classes. These are offered independently or within a wellness program or a worker assistance program.

Gorovsky advised these tips for managing absenteeism and presenteeism:

Use absence control programs, such as paid leave lenders. This eliminates the differentiation between lack types such as holiday condition or personal leave. This also provides employees with more discretion overall flexibility and control. The survey findings disclosed that 69 percent of employers use paid leave finance institutions or paid time off to regulate presenteeism.

Don't discipline employees for reputable absences such as conditions when they have depleted their regularly scheduled leave.

Allow employees to transport over unused ill days.

Allow employees to telecommute the survey found 30 percent employers use telecommuting programs to regulate presenteeism.

Absenteeism can't be eliminated completely, so methods should be studied to minimize the speed of absenteeism. Procedures are as follows

Popper hiring

It is essential that people with rights skills and experience are picked. Every staff should so far as possible be designated work corresponding to capabilities aptitude and interest.

Good working condition

Proper sanitation normal water canteen first aid leftovers pauses and mechanization can help reduce absenteeism by making work environment pleasant.

Housing and Travel facilities

Provision of casing accommodation preferably neat the manufacturing plant and bus center will ensure regular attendance of individuals.

Safety programmes

Adequate safety measures help to decrease industrial incidents and reduce concern with injury among employees. As a result attendance becomes upgraded.


Special benefit cash prizes and choice in advertising to regular employees encourage personnel to be regular in their attendance.

Effective supervision

Supervisors can noticeably reduce absenteeism by earning the self-assurance and commitment of staff.

Disciplinary Action

Suitable action should be studied against chronic absentees. Punitive action may be in the proper execution of publishing their titles in company house mags fines withholding pay increatment denial of advertising suspension dismissal etc.

Regular leave provision

A provision should be produced wherein every staff member can avail a couple of days of leave throughout a year. Holidays with pay will allow a worker to wait to his private affairs.

Employee counseling

Guidance and counseling help employees to eliminate negative traits like taking in and playing. Habitual absentees can be persuaded become regulate by impressing after them losing arising to them anticipated to absenteeism. Education and training may be used to create a sense of responsibility.

proper records

Detailed and update documents of absenteeism should be maintained. Absenteeism above the predetermined level should be carefully analyzed age wise sex month smart and other bases.

Organizational behaviour theory

Completion of this task, reflect In general relates to everyday practice.

Orgaianisation behaviour is used big or small firms. It is techniques used ideas. All ideas of organization behaviour are extremely use full. To begin with I express the drive theory is effective to the management to resolve the condition of absenteeism. The effect of absenteeism in the whole world in daily normal work. In this case the production of the organizations goes down. If director apply the inspiration theory they get positive final result. The management is aware of the employee's behaviour. They can be motivating all employees. In Maslow's Hierarchy needs theory is vital because management has learned that the situation of employees they are absent. Management complete or fulfill the basic needs of employees. In equity theory the supervisor checks the employer and if they are in dribble or bad performs and absenteeism are increasing the management change work and reduce performance attempts. Yet another thing they change the people who are used for assessment and less stimulated. Expectancy theory is useful full for supervisor because it helps the supervisor to comprehend the employee behaviour. In organization must be used praise system because all employee work hard and good performance in organization. Prize system is good tool to reduce the absenteeism. In firm have positive consequence which is decrease the absenteeism. In corporation behaviour locus of control is vital. Locus of control is basically thought of management or employers. Some employees are believes in internal or a few of them externals. So management knows the employee is convinced and solves the condition which staff is confronted in organization. Corporation achieve aim for when they gets the interest of employee and known about staff values, emotions, desires, work behaviour, action and higher performance. If organization give specific goals of staff then it'll depends of these factor. All businesses have two types of management or staff divided in two categories are X and Y. In every corporation have five stags. If firm is going good and everything employees are encouraged and present good consequence. If organization is certainly going down then worker are absent or other result occurred. Organization needs to commute the employee they makes a record of most employees and kept up to date. Management makes a regular scheduled of employee. They provided good working condition as like fresh normal water, clear and nice canteen and provide work place pleasant. In business arrange proper safety of worker. Make a disciplinary program. In case study office practice implies that the mind of folks is working different fundamentally from the ways of organization theory. Organizations that work in guides training programs that illustrate the job descriptions. Organization theories are reply on the second option in their efforts to understand and improve work practice. It is conclusions to different method of learning of theories that information of jobs. You'll be able to reconceived of and redesign organizations to improve. In modern age all organizations used ideas daily established that's way they give a good end result. Any organizational which they used OB basic ideas that will be successful result. All theories are important for organizational and they used everyday in practice.

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