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Management And Command Across Culture Management Essay

Leadership and desire has been very important associated with reaching company goals. We are able to find plenty of ideas in leadership and motivation. The main purpose of the study is to critically examine theories of management and motivation and how this relates to managing cultural variety and the way the company apply the techniques of command and desire in corporation.

These days' hospitality and tourism has been recognised as a communal phenomenon with a variety of social-cultural impacts at both person and global levels, and is a diverse and momentous actuality that all cultural sciences think. The study of tourism and its changes indicate the entrance of new approaches and means of thinking in modern society as the changes in tourism indicate the changes from society to postmodern world. The organisational troubles of tourism are reviewed contextualizing the examination within the principles of leadership, inspiration, work performance, ethics, personality, and rewards. (www. environmental challenges tourism).

Most of business organisations could actually achieve their business goals and objectives by incorporating creative leadership and motivating personnel. There are observations which claim that companies are constantly challenge by the actual fact that the control and creative facet of business are diametrically opposed. As a result, effective planning, control, company, and coordination within hospitality and tourism industry must be clear from the efficiency and efficiency of the services offered. Business control and management characterises the procedure of leading and directing the systems in a company by shattering available resources generally so as to achieve the targets of the business enterprise operation. It most of the time includes the conceptualization of business programs and monitoring its execution for diagnosis and analysis of the efficiency and performance of the business transactions. Good leadership assist in effectively reaching job-related demands, co ordinations, determination, in creating higher-performing clubs, in fostering renewed devotion and determination, in increasing motivational level and in reducing absence and turnover of employees. Effective command and employee determination is very essential and crucial to the survival and continued lifestyle of service industry. It really is this important and wide field of analysis, and therefore has enjoyed contributions from a bunch of writers and scholars. This research endeavors a synopsis of some of the most insightful theories within the field of workplace inspiration and control (Meyer and Allen, 1997). The nature of the theme resides on the crossover between mindset and management, and ideas from both of these genres will be looked into with a view to arranging this research project against some kind of meaningful context. It really is hard to pay all facet of that effect in the success of hospitality and tourism industry but in this assay author tried to explore management and determination of employee's factors.

Chapter 2: Critiquing theories of Control and Motivation

The effective innovator should think and react about his own Control style, strengths, and development needs. Team head should make the individuals, feel proud to participate the team then people will work harder and achieve more. Goals of the company achieved or not depended on how effective the first choice was. So management play important role in the organisation. Control is the core of organisations, and quality communication is the avenue by which leaders clarify their visions and foster participative management within organisations, whichever approach best describes their control styles

Management and authority across cultures

The international nature of the hospitality and tourism industry requires managers into the future to be aware of a variety of issues relating to leading people.

They need the knowledge and skills essential to lead and motivate workforces across many different cultural backgrounds. This problem is one of great importance and incredibly highly relevant to effective management of organisations in a global setting.

Indicative content

Leadership in organisations

Culture and leadership

Theories of motivation

Managing diversity

According to Wright & Taylor (1994), Command is an activity which affected the Behaviour, beliefs and thoughts of other group customers in an planned direction. Influence might take place at a distance without any personal interaction between the people concerned. Leader can acquisitive the social skills through practice with opinions and guidance. Matching to Vecchio (1997) view Leadership is a sense-making heuristic to take into account organisational performance and is important primarily for its symbolic role in organisations. Zaccaro (2001) said "Management is a process of giving goal to collective effort, and causing eager work to be expended to accomplish purpose"

The first responsibility of an innovator is to determine reality. The very last is to say thank you. Among the two, the first choice must turn into a servant and a debtor. That sums up the improvement associated with an artful leader

Concept, ideas of authority and leadership practices are the subject matter of much thought, dialogue, writing, teaching, and learning. True market leaders are popular and cultivated. Control is not an easy subject to clarify. A pal of mine characterizes leaders simply such as this: "Leaders don`t inflict pain; they keep pain. "


KONOPASKE (2008) said considering and dialogue about leadership developed from a trait-based method of the concept of groups without bosses. Trait approach can be an try to identify specific characteristics (physical, mental, personality) associated with management success. Characteristic theory of command is based on intellect, personality, physical characteristics and supervisory capability. In trait strategy leaders are blessed, not made because many people are born with their charisma and other personality qualities, appears to be natural born leaders whom others will observe automatically. People having charismatic traits should try to learn to utilize and develop those control attributes consciously. Many successful market leaders do not possess a body of personality qualities which make clear their leadership expertise. Actually, many great

Quality leadership relies neither on charisma nor on personality qualities (www. 1). Research of early trait research by stodgily (1948) and Mann (1959) reported that many studies discovered personality characteristics that appear to differentiate leaders from fans (www. 2). Peter Wright (1996) has commented, 'others found no variations between leaders and followers regarding these characteristics, or even found people who possessed them were less inclined to become leaders' Central to effective authority.


According to Taylor (1994) behavioural strategy of leadership concerned with the behaviour, somewhat than personality characteristics. Behavioural theories worried about the leader in the framework of organisation and identify behaviours exhibited by market leaders that raise the effectiveness of the organisation. In understanding the role of control, leaders must discern between behavior modification and frame of mind modification. Behaviour modification implies that people change their outward actions, while their attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and opinions continue to be the same. Frame of mind modification implies that supporters change their inward thinking; hence, their attitudes, feelings, and views are helped bring into range with those of the first choice. It is clear that frame of mind changes is more important to influence prolonged change than behaviour changes (www. 3). Two sub-categories:

Examines how professionals spend their time and the typical style of activities, responsibilities, and functions of managerial jobs

Leadership effectiveness will depend in part on how well a supervisor resolves role conflicts, copes with demands, recognizes opportunities, and overcomes constraints

2) Identifying effective leadership behaviour

Purpose of Leadership

Leadership is entails making employees into group and being accountable, responsible for concentrating and motivating to attain goals.

A leader should:

provide continuity and momentum

be adaptable in allowing changes of direction

Ideally, a innovator should be a few steps before their team, however, not too far for the team to have the ability to understand and follow them.

a. Skills needed

b. Different Ideas of Leadership

Skills Needed

Leaders must have an array of skills, techniques and strategies. Included in these are:


Communication skills


Awareness of the wider environment

As hospitality and tourism industry established entirely on service quality so director need to work with their communication skill as there are customers and employees from across the world they have got different language backdrop so it is important to use effective communication skill also aware of wider environment.

Different Ideas of Leadership

Leadership should be focused in a single person or allocated among members of the team. Leader was appointed by more mature degrees of management or elected by the group. This technique depends on the assumption that one single person has all the advantages required. [www. 5]

Olmsyead (2000) said directing the team is critical tests of leadership skills since it is an evergrowing and shifting relationship between the two people. Relating to Olmsyead (2000) directing the team is motivating the subordinates Inspiration means

"Cause (person) to act in a particular way; stimulate interest of (person in activity) [www. 3].

The effective innovator should think and take action about his own Authority style, talents, and development needs. Team leader should make the individuals, feel proud to participate the team then people will continue to work harder and achieve more. Goals of the company achieved or not depended on how effective the first choice was. So command play important role in the organisation. Leadership is the core of organisations, and quality communication is the avenue where leaders clarify their visions and foster participative management within organisations, whichever approach best represents their command styles


Hospitality industry is a major industry on the globe and the world's most significant employer. It really is a labour intense Industry. Wherever you need human input, desire is crucial for success, specifically for service industry. Folks are the part of the product in delivery service. If employees aren't motivated, their performance will drop or customers will know and complain. The question for hospitality industry businesses is how to get the best from employees, how to encourage and persuade these to do what they are supposed to be doing to the best of their potential on a regular basis. In order that, it is highly demonstrated that motivating the employees is vital key to boost the competitiveness in the company environment.

Motivation is the key for employees to run the hospitality industry effectively, if the industry does not possess the ability to motivate its employees, the knowledge within the company is not almost used to a maximum. Therefore, it becomes the aim of every successful learning hotel industry to get the factors that enable it to encourage its employees to continuous learning and also to take advantage of this knowledge to ensure its living. Many motivational ideas have been designed to find these motivational factors, but the beliefs of the employees in the specific organisation like tourism are rarely included in the theories. Since a suitable combo of motivational factors only can be created through an understanding of the prices in the measured subject (i. e. employees), this can be seen as a risk for validity problems in the calculating instrument.

Significance of Motivation in Hospitality and Tourism Industry:

Motivation refers to the key reason why we do things. A dictionary defines motivation as:

"The internal feature that arouses an organism to action towards a desired goal, the explanation for that action". (Source: Dictionary. com)

A simple explanation of desire is the capability to change behaviour. It really is a drive that compels one to act because human being behaviour is aimed toward some goal. . Motivation is inner; it originates from within predicated on personal interests, wants, and need for fulfilment. However, external factors such as rewards, compliment, and campaigns also influence drive. As defined by Daft (1997), drive refers to "the forces either within or exterior to a person that arouse eagerness and persistence to follow a certain plan of action".

Here is this importance with the desire, because the organisations always expect a superior quality performance. On a regular basis it isn't possible to the employees, so the training needs and determination is essential to the employees. Motivation can do such things as they are

1. Direct behaviour towards to particular goals.

2. Its business lead to increase effort and energy.

3. Increase their initiation, persistence and activities.

4. Improve the cognitive handling.

5. Determine what effects are reinforcing.

6. Lead to improve their performance.

The folks in their career they usually try to stimulate themselves, even though company can keep up with the crucial role to inspire the employees.


The employees can be motivated by different facets in a learning company, such they are

The works itself that many people believe in their work and feel they are really making a notable difference. that is enough to inspire them

Recognition - being recognised for the contribution that you are making is something that lots of folks want and need

Achievement - finding the results of what we do and understanding that we had a component for the reason that result

Responsibility - being given responsibility is something that individuals enjoy, they react to being given responsibility

Advancement and personal progress - part of reputation is the opportunity to be able to move forward yourself - to get more challenging tasks and be viewed as being with the capacity of doing such responsibilities.


The employees who are committed to achieving organisational aims generally outperform those who are not committed. Those who find themselves intrinsically rewarded by achievements in the workplace are satisfied with their careers and are individuals with high self-esteem. Therefore, an important part of management is to help make work as pleasing and satisfying for employees and also to keep employee motivation consistent with organisational goals. With the diversity of modern day workplaces, this is a complicated job. Many factors, like the affects of different civilizations, affect what people value and what is rewarding to them.

From a manager's perspective, it's important to understand what prompts people, what affects them, and just why they persist in particular activities. Quick (1985) shown these four main principles that are important to understanding motivation:

People have reasons for everything they are doing.

Whatever people choose as an objective is something they believe that is good for them.

The goal people choose must be observed as attainable.

The conditions under that your work is performed make a difference its value to the employee and his or her perceptions of attainability or success.


Process theories help to describe how individuals determination of a worker to select particular behaviours and how individuals determine if these behaviours meet their needs. Because these ideas involve rational selection, concepts of cognition are used. Cognition, corresponding to Petri (1996), "is normally used to describe those intellectual or perceptual techniques developing within us whenever we assess and interpret both world all around us and our own thoughts and actions.

The expectancy theory is dependant on an individual's effort and performance, as well as the desirability of effects associated with powerful. The worthiness of or preference for a particular outcome is named valence. To ascertain valence, people will ask themselves whether or not they can accomplish an objective, how important is the goal to them (in the immediate as well as the long term), and what plan of action will provide the best reward. An individual's expectation of actually achieving the outcome is vital to success, and many factors effect this.

The expectancy theory says that folks have different packages of goals and can be encouraged if they believe that:

There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance,

Favourable performance will result in a desirable prize,

The incentive will meet an important need,

The wish to satisfy the necessity is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile.

Valence identifies the psychological orientations people carry with respect to results like rewards. The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic money, campaign, time-off, benefits or basic satisfaction rewards. Management must discover what employee's value.

Expectancy Employees have different goals and degrees of confidence in what they are capable of doing. Management must discover what resources, training, or guidance employees need.

Instrumentality The awareness of employees if they will in actuality get what they desire even if it has been promised by the manager. Management must ensure that guarantees of rewards are satisfied and that employees are aware of that

The expectancy theory can be employed through incentive systems that identify desired results and present all employees the same opportunities to achieve rewards, such as stock possession or other popularity for achievement. Considering that communication satisfaction performs an influential role in motivating employees, it might be important for hotel professionals to pay attention to interacting with employees. In this respect, it would be good for hotel managers to comprehend how well satisfied employees are with communication. managers needs to most probably to new ideas; managers listen and focus on employee; manager's marketing communications with employee to make sure they are feel an important part of hotel also offers guidance for handling job-related problems and receive on-time information needed to do job. Issues are handled properly through proper communication stations; management's communications with employees are correct and organised; managers know and understand the problems confronted by employees. Overall, professionals are willing to pay attention to employees and agree to ideas from employees, so employees feel they are simply area of the organisation.

Other concern employees may face is whose first dialect is not British work in the hotel industry. Here, communication might play a far more important role in motivating employees. Professionals should respect employees and understand ethnic differences. In particular, managers should give clear and exact instructions to let employees know their job description, performance evaluation, service quality, and hotel beliefs. Always providing fast feedback, encouraging job involvement, and truly looking after employees make communication successful.

The equity theory focuses on individuals' perceptions of how pretty they are treated in comparison to others. The equity is accessible when people consider their payment add up to the compensation of other people who perform similar work. People assess equity by looking at inputs (such as education, experience, work, and capacity) to outputs (such as pay, identification, benefits, and promotion).


A theory of encouragement explains employee must have time maintenance as well the motivation organised by management. This theory founded not on need but on the partnership between behaviour and its own consequences. At work, these theories can be employed to change or change on-the-job behavior through rewards and punishments.

This theory calls for into consideration both motivation and the environment, focusing on stimulus and response relationships. Through his research, Skinner known a stimulus will initiate behavior; thus, the stimulus is an antecedent to behaviour. The behaviour will create a result; therefore, results are consequences of behaviour. (McCoy, 1992)

The four types of support are the pursuing:

Positive encouragement: The application of a pleasant and rewarding result following a desired behavior, such as supplying praise.

Negative reinforcement: Removing an unpleasant consequence carrying out a desired behaviour, such as a manager no longer reminding a worker about a each week deadline when the employee matches the deadline. This support is also known as avoidance.

Punishment: The use of an unpleasant end result when an unhealthy behaviour occurs to lessen the likelihood of that behaviour occurring again. This form of encouragement does not show a correct behaviour, so its use in business is not usually appropriate.

Extinction: The withdrawal of a positive reward. In the event the behaviour is no more positively strengthened, then it is less inclined to occur in the future and it will gradually vanish.

From the discussion plainly conclude that determination is the essential need to the employees to enhance their abilities, additionally it is important to the management, to supply the training must motivate the folks and involve them specifically in socio ethnic things.

Chapter 3 :A Case of Control and Drive in Hilton Manchester Deansgate

The management and authority method of Hilton Manchester Deansgate has a huge influence on its working atmosphere and the employees' ideas. The progress of an finest leadership style and exec skills that is the most proper to a business is vital, having an integral effect on its life length. Hilton's Managers top notch management style helps the hotel to achieve its goals. A couple of two types of command styles, one that is task-oriented and the other that is employee-oriented. A supervisor with a task-oriented style will have work results as his major concerns; and therefore, he will enlarge rigid policy that would lead the subordinates into working their chores to attain his preferred results.

Case Study

The purpose of this analysis was to explore the similarities and dissimilarities in drive and organisational determination of employees and worker inspiration and their degree of organizational commitment.

Interviews are extracted from the basic level of work group in Hilton hotel. Those interviews are by means of face to face interviews, direct interviews. Interview questions by means of multiple options with agree, strongly agree, disagree, firmly disagree and not applicable. So that involving employees can exhibit their views by choosing the options, in this study, over 25 employees from Manchester, included and responded for the next 16 questions. It offers the view of control and employee inspiration level in company.

1Q:- My work gives me sense of personal success.

A: Organizational success is eventually depends on employee motivation and participation. Every job design will explain the employee responsibilities, the majority of the employees feel that they are supplying a good performance. 25 employees responded, for the reason that 19 employees arranged, 2 strongly arranged, 4 disagreed.

2Q:- I love the sort of work I do

A: company responsibility to build the likely environment, so that all the employees can prefer to work. 25 employees responded for the reason that 21 arranged, 2 strongly arranged, 2 disagreed.

3Q:- I know how my work pertains to organisation quest and goals

A: management must make aware their workers of organisation eye-sight, mission, and goals. Employees should need to know what the purpose of organisation is so that performs their work towards to organisation goals. 17 employees responded as decided, 1 strongly agreed, 7 disagreed,

4Q:- I really do give importance for my work

A: it describes the organisation frame of mind and having influences on final results. If employees feel their job is a lot important to them, than they can require with much effectively. In higher range 23 employees decided and 2 employees are disagreed.

5Q:- I feel my team gets support and teamwork from other areas within the business.

A: organisational development will depend on worker training and development. Employees need proper training relating to their jobs, to effective participation. 18 arranged, 2 strongly arranged, 5 disagreed.

6Q:- Overall I am very much content with my job at organisation.

A: satisfaction does indeed cost much in organisation. It effects on staff performance. 22 employees were arranged, , 3 disagreed, .

7Q:- My manager clearly identifies my job duties.

A: job enrichment is the main element factor to feel employees more dependable. Employees need to know their job obligations, management need to assign responsibilities to their employees. 24 employees responded as decided only one worker disagrees with this issue.

8Q:-My manager/supervisor motivates high achievements by reducing worries of failure.

A: employees need desire, encouragement to produce effective performance. 25 employees responded as decided.

9Q:- My supervisor/supervisor will take responsibility for shaping the behaviour and relationships within our department.

A: employee relations key process in company run successful for managers, they want maintain a good connection with employees, so that they can easily form their attitude. 20 employees decided 5 disagreed.

10Q:- My manager/supervisor plainly communicates what is expected of me.

A: Employee communications mechanisms require the provision and exchange of information and instructions, which permits an organisation to function effectively and its own employees to be properly enlightened about developments. 24 employees responded decided, 1disagreed.

11Q:- My administrator/supervisor provides me with continuous feedback to help me achieve.

A: every organisation need to supply the responses so that staff can improve his performance to attain company goals. 14 employees responded as arranged, 1 strongly decided, 10 disagreed.

12Q:- Employees have a sense of personal empowerment and possession of work techniques.

A: empowerment offers to employees having autonomous decision-making features and behaving as partners available. 16 employees responded as decided, 6 disagreed, 3 strongly disagreed.

13Q:- Satisfaction with involvement in decisions that have an effect on work

A: Worker satisfaction can be an emotional state resulting from the experiences an employee feels at the job. 17 employees responded as decided, 1 employee highly decided, 7 employees disagreed with a kind of disappointment.

14Q:- I have a high level of admiration for my organisation's senior leaders and my co-workers.

A: organisations principles give feel employees to be respectful, so that everyone reputable with another. 24 employees responded as arranged, 1 worker disagreed.

15Q:- In the last 3 weeks, I received acknowledgement or reward for doing good work?

A: Performance appraisals have a great impact on worker performance. Performance review can provide clear indicator to employee's performance popularity and possibility to increase performance. 18 employees responded as agreed, 7 employees responded as disagreed.

16Q: - Since yearly, I got more opportunities to learn and expand my skills.

A: employee involvement and involvement is an integral task to company. For high participation practices, employee must get proper training and development. 12 employees responded as agreed, 10 disagreed and 3 employees highly disagreed.

Summary of findings

Survey realizes that how organisation motivates their employees to effect on their success. Questionnaire pointed out the main element factors such like employee engagement, organisational success, job responsibility, how organisation determine the eye-sight includes within the employees, organisation culture, employee development towards to organisation development, job enrichment, performance appraisal, empowerment levels, worker satisfaction, and communications. Employees at the Hilton hotel most of them are aware of what the company wanting from them, and they felt these are satisfactory with their organisation.

Quantitative data of study providing the whole descriptions, Job satisfaction at there was, 80% employees content with their job, least 20% having unsatisfied. It shows that organisation need to develop more ways of make the job interesting and create healthy environmental at work. Organisational success also higher at Hilton, they like their workers as an integral assets, it is quite interesting about only 60% employees content with organisational strategies. This means that the company must reach more employees to be able to obtain additional success. Training and development types of procedures at higher level and should leading as example to others, overall 89% employees satisfied with their types of procedures and low level group of employees highly argued that they are not really impacting on their work. It explains that management needs more focus on develop their training strategies useful to all the employees. Communications among different role of employees were too poor, 45% people satisfied and 55% employees firmly disagreed using their superior's communications, it indicates that there is a no perfect communication systems are following, so organisation needs to develop more communication and worker relation strategies The study of Marchington et al (2001) showed that employers in the 18 organisations they researched valued the voice of the staff in contributing to management decision making because they thought it added to business performance.

Chapter 4: Tips and Conclusion

Employee motivation is essential to the success of organisations. A lack of employee motivation may cause organizational problems in turnover and retention, morale, and poor productivity. Hotel industry is not not really acquainted with these human tool issues, however, many restaurants choose to simply accept these issues as part of the business or utilize inadequate, outdated inspiration techniques. Identification of the challenge of employee determination is the first step a restaurant. Organisation may choose to handle the problem

Today almost all of the organisations turning out to be staff voluntary programs like a key strategy to increase their business goals while positively involving their employees to meet the needs of the organisation. Management should ensure that, employees are devoted about getting involved, it's important to find most acceptable way for those to participate so that their work can really make a difference to company. Having a number of perspectives, it is clear that staff motivation is central to the present day organisational practices. Moreover, the great things about employee drive and effective command are definitely more if company implement effectively.

In implementing worker motivation ideas in practices, a number of general principles apply the needs of tourism industry, the provision of education and training, the multiplicity of preparations, top management determination and enough resources.

Wilkinson (2001) has also remarked that the theory assumes that participative decision making will probably lead to better quality management decisions, so that empowerment signifies a gain or get situation with gains open to both employers and employee to get increased efficiency and job satisfaction.

Training, information and appropriate power to do the job well, Regular and effective team conferences, and need to acceptance for successes and reasonable reward predicated on performance also have to create an equality of opportunity predicated on merit.

Concluding the study organisation is following the high level participation strategies to show their impact on employees to produce a higher success. There have been many areas of notable strength one of the most outstanding was engaging with people and having a vast combination section. There were also quite strong results demonstrating that personnel possessed the best instruction available and believed their professionals were strong leaders and inspiring market leaders.

Employee satisfaction needs more determination through their own performance and communication of these expectations.

Chapter 5 : References

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