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Malaria: Causes and Effects

A parasite lives with another organism, its number, and causes it harm because of the close romance it includes with the web host. Some parasitic romantic relationships are safe, while in other circumstances a parasite can harm or even wipe out its web host. The parasite is reliant on its host for its life behaviour and functions, also to remain alive. For example, viruses are common parasites. The parasite should be in its number to live, grow, contain shelter, and multiply. In this specific article, the Plasmodium Parasite will be explored and scrutinized. Some questions that will be answered are; exactly what does this Parasite cause to the body? Who or what is accountable for this illness? The way the parasite operates and behaves? And how have humans acted upon improving the position of this illness? The Plasmodium parasite causes a very damaging but curable disease. That is well-known as 'malaria'. This disease will also be discussed variously throughout this article. (Encyclopedia, 2008)

Malaria can cause several different effects on the human body. Being truly a serious and infectious disease pass on by certain mosquitoes, it can be characterized by repeated symptoms of chills, fever, and an enlarged spleen. It is most common in exotic climates (e. g. Africa, South America, Asia etc. ) This disease is treatable with medication, but it often recurs scheduled to it being endemic (occurs frequently in a particular locality) in many third world countries. (Malaria)

Life Cycle

When a lady Anopheles mosquito penetrates real human skin to secure a blood meals, it injects saliva mixed with an anticoagulant (blood clot preventer). When the mosquito is contaminated with Plasmodium, it will also inject elongated sporozoites (motile, spindle formed asexual cells) in to the blood vessels of its sufferer. The sporozoites travel to the liver where they go into liver cells and rapidly divide asexually. This asexual division, to create schizogony, generates another life circuit form, called merozoites. The released merozoites invade other liver cells and get into the host's bloodstream, where they invade erythrocytes (red bloodstream skin cells). Once inside the erythrocyte, the merozoite commences to expand as a uninucleate cell termed a diamond ring trophozoite. The trophozoite's nucleus then divides asexually to make a schizont which has several nuclei. The schizont then divides and produces mononucleated merozoites. The erythrocyte then ruptures and releases toxins throughout the body of the sponsor, bringing about the well-known cycle of fever and chills that is characteristic of malaria.

Plasmodium gets into a sexual phase when some merozoites in the erythrocytes become gametocytes, cells with the capacity of producing both male and female gametes. Erythrocytes filled with gametocytes do not rapture. Gametocytes are incapable of producing gametes within their individual hosts and do so only once these are extracted from and contaminated human host by the mosquito. In the gut of the mosquito, the gametocytes form male and female gametes. The resultant diploid zygotes develop within the mosquito's intestinal wall space and in the end differentiate into oocysts. In the oocysts, repeated mitotic divisions take place, producing large numbers of sporozoites. These sporozoites migrate to the salivary glands of the mosquito, and following that are injected by the mosquito in to the bloodstream of the people, thus starting the life circuit of the parasite again.

Taxonomy

Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Four types of Plasmodium can produce the condition and impact humans in its various varieties:

Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium ovale

Plasmodium malariae

P. falciparum

P. malariae

P. ovale

P. vivax

Location

Tropical and Subtropical areas of C. &S. America, Africa, and S. E. Asia

Tropical and subtropical areas of C. &S. America, Africa, and S. E. Asia

Primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa

C. &S. America, India and S. E. Asia

Taxonomic Classification

Kingdom

Sub-Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

Plasmodium belongs to the kingdom Protista, characterized as a unicellular organism which is neither herb nor pet, being eukaryotic. It belongs in the school Sporozoasida which really is a Sub-Kingdom of Protozoa exhibiting both sexual and asexual phases. (Sporozoasida, 2010), (Protists)

Plasmodium is one of the family Plasmodiidae, order Eucoccidiorida and phylum Apicomplexa. With 450 currently recognised species in this order, many species of this order remain undergoing re-evaluation with their taxonomy with DNA research. It seems expected that lots of of these species will be re-assigned after these studies have been completed; these analyses will allow much more perfection. (Plasmodium, 2010)

Symptoms/Pathology and Current Treatment

Symptoms can show up any moment from six days once you are bitten by way of a mosquito transporting the malaria parasite. Enough time it takes for symptoms to appear (the incubation period) can vary with the sort of parasite that the mosquito was transporting (falciparum, ovale etc. ).

The classical malaria attack endures 6-10 hours. It is made up of

  • a cold level (discomfort of cold, shivering)
  • a hot level (fever, problems, vomiting; seizures in small children)
  • a sweating stage (sweats, return to normal temperature, fatigue).

(Malaria)

If bitten by a mosquito made up of the P. falciparum parasite, the symptoms will most likely develop within three months of the bite, but, most generally start between seven and 30 days.

If a mosquito carrying the P. vivax, P. ovale or P. malariae parasite infects a human being, it is possible for the symptoms to emerge annually or more after the bite. It is because the parasite can place dormant in the liver organ and become effective months later. These parasites may also cause the real human host to really have the recurring symptoms (IAMAT, 2010).

The most typically used treatments when travelling, to prevent malaria, is the Chloroquine Medication:

(IAMAT, 2010)

Issues and Concerns

None of the available anti-malarial drugs are completely safe and free from any side results. Careful factors must get to the level of side effects of the anti-malarial drugs against the chance of contracting malaria. Concerns such as travel places and amount of stay, types of malaria present and prevalence of risk at the travel vacation spot, types of drugs available and degree of malaria resistance associated with these drugs are one of great importance. Unwanted effects and problem from anti malaria drugs are a lot more serious in women that are pregnant and young children. Therefore tips and prescription of any anti-malaria drugs before going to malaria infected areas must be mentioned and assessed by the individual's medical practitioner. (NCBI, 2004)

The disease is endemic in 91 countries currently, with small pouches of transmission in a further eight. Malaria is normally endemic in the tropics, with extensions in to the subtropics. Countries that have regions where malaria is endemic by 2003 (colored yellow). Countries in inexperienced are free of indigenous conditions of malaria in all areas.

Human Impact

To struggle malaria, we curently have a couple of tools that canprevent malaria's pass on, keep people from dying and (along the way)demythologize the disease. Early attempts at treatment centered on the development of medicines to combat the disease. This resulted in the parasite developing level of resistance to the drugs. Subsequently, disease elimination has focused generally on treatment of stagnant water since mosquitoes breed and develop in such places. So far, effective precautionary measures that must be put in place in malaria endemic areas are:

  1. Using mosquito nets to don't be bitten by the insects
  2. Using prescribedmalaria drugs to destroy the parasite before it incubates
  3. Eradicating mosquito mating sites
  4. Wearing long-sleeved clothing
  5. Applying insect repellent creams when outdoors

With these safety precautions proven, humans have provided a much safer and avoidable environment. With more processes expanding, it is only a matter of your energy before this disease becomes completely preventable; scientists want to create a vaccine which will be able to immune the condition. Overall it's been successful and individuals endeavours will continue to proceed. (Foundation, 2010)

How can humans further help the situation? If areas are educated about how to maintain a malaria vector-free environment, as well as provide people with insecticide treated bed-nets, it will be possible to reduce the prevalence of malaria health issues and fatalities in children by at least 50%. Other possible alternatives would be to ensure higher level of sanitation in the influenced communities. Keeping clean area would be a possible way to exclude these blood-sucking pests. Preventative anti-malarial medications are available and further research is being conducted into producing better and more effective drugs, including strong scientific efforts to build up an efficient malaria vaccine.

It's just up to the tourists to keep in mind the travelling protection precautions, and for many who live in malaria endemic regions, must take further activities if it be medication, sanitation, eradication, or education. Where poverty is present, further precautions to the harmful disease would be limited; thus, many people all over the world are trying to assist in saving lives. For example, Monthly bill Gates and his wife are doing the quest impossible of seeking to completely eradicate the malaria disease by donating billions of dollars to experts and researchers, and also educating many people worldwide (Gates, 2010). Malaria kills roughly two million children per time across the world, and must therefore be considered a very serious risk to malaria-endemic neighborhoods. (Negus)

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