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Main Barriers Sustainable Development Developing Countries Initiatives Overcome Economics Essay

Any country whose quality lifestyle is at a minimal level is known as a producing country. Development level differs from country to country thus cannot be generalized in interpretation. Using numerical categorization, Countries with low and middle income have been classified as 'developing' by the World Bank. Dividing economies with the 2008 Gross National Income per capita (GNI), expanding countries were discovered by GNI per capital below $11 905. Countries having intensifying economies but which have not attained a particular standard to be known as developed country are grouped as Newly Industrialized Country (NIC). Such countries are said to have rapid growth in their market but have still not come to the standard of the First World, they are highly developed countries (see http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Developed_country)

Almost all countries of the third world can be grouped as developing, they including all African countries excluding South Africa, all countries in the centre East excluding Turkey, all Parts of asia excluding China, Japan, Singapore, Russia, Taiwan India, Myanmar and South Korea, some countries in Eastern European countries, Southern American countries excluding Brazil and the Caribbean excluding Jamaica and Cuba.

File:World Lender income groups. svg

Fig1: Countries based on World Lender income groupings for 2006 (computed by GNI per capita, Atlas method).

High income

Upper-middle income

Lower-middle income

Low income

Source: http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Developing_country

Sustainable Development

Sustainable development as identified in 1987 in a report by Brundtland is "development that complies with the needs of today's without compromising the ability into the future years to meet their own needs. " (Hecht, 1999)

"Sustainable development as an aspiration is global; as an ongoing process, it is local. A growing number of researchers and technologists talk about in the aspiration and test out the neighborhood" (Mabogunje and Kates, 2004).

For lasting development to be achieved, especially in expanding countries, some phases need to be undergone; it is also necessary for essential blocks to be put in place. The economic, cultural and environmental factors need to be considered in a clear and available manner. "In lots of developing countries, the fundamental building blocks, like a free-market economy, transparency of government operations, public access to information, public engagement in decision making, and enforcement of environmental laws, are fragile or absent. Even though some growing countries are building up domestic guidelines and rules and creating financial policy bonuses for appealing to environmentally sound investment, improvement is slow and unequal. " (Hecht, 1999).

Barriers

Developing countries have less sustainable livelihoods today than that they had 25 years back. The issue of lasting development involves making sure that the ongoing development will not affect future technology.

Some of the following issues contribute to the reduced sustainability level in growing countries:

Extreme Poverty

Poverty is the most dominant hurdle to development in expanding countries. Virtually all population within these countries reside in rural settlements and rely upon agriculture as their main source of income. Poverty and the surroundings have a solid interconnection especially in countries with economies that depend on natural resources. For folks in these countries to meet their needs, they take part in local activities such as tree chopping for fuel lumber, untamed life hunting (resulting in extinction), intensive and excessive farming system etc. These activities are carried out to meet the needs of today but the repercussions await the near future generations.

Deforestation

Intense farming and deforestation in SOUTH USA has left some areas with only 5% of natural vegetation. If this development continues, there could be little or nothing left to pass to the near future generations.

Africa got about 650 million hectares of woodlands and forests but between 1990 and year 2000, about 53 million hectares of forest was lost (Africare talk, 2008). In respect to the global forest loss, this is about 56% in that period. Deforestation has a resultant influence on safety of soils, the land is more subjected to adverse conditions like erosion and evaporation, also quality of normal water is affected by deforestation. Each one of these will invariably notify on the development and economy of countries included.

Urban Development

Urban areas in growing countries are expected to become more filled majorly because of migration. However this comes with a great environmental problem. A great number of metropolitan dwellers either inhabit slum areas or carve a slum-niche for themselves simply because they do not have legal rights to possess their properties. Slum conditions lack good, portable normal water, electricity and other basic amenities of life. The issue of waste removal in slum areas is usually carelessly managed, this poses as a menace to health insurance and safety of slum dwellers. It isn't a surprise to utilize plastic totes as mobile toilets in some large slums like Kibera, Nairobi's major slum.

Also, due to nature of these areas, you can find upsurge in miscreants among juveniles. It has a primary negative effect on adults who are supposed to be leaders of tomorrow. This is where the result of the surroundings on the sociable life of individuals comes in to experiment with. Some shanty areas in Nigeria have in recent times produced the best amount of notorious adults.

Urbanization in expanding countries ends up with very large people inhabiting very small area, polluted drinking water and air, poor public transport among other activities. These environmental conditions lead to low standard of moving into these areas.

In South America, urban population is found in settlements called squatter, Brazil having favelas while Venezuela has barrios. Caracas is known to have over 50% people residing in squatters. These squatters are usually made from scrap and cardboard materials in areas that are prone to flooding or steep areas. After a while, the construction is improved with better materials however the settlements remain in an unusual network with small pathways and streets, there may be usually no arrange for waste materials management, drainage or normal water supply.

The Asian continent amongst others is not left out in urbanization issues. Bangladesh, a country in Asia has had a rise in metropolitan poverty in recent times. "In Dhaka city together, from 1974 to 2005 slum human population has jumped from 250, 000 to 2, 840, 000 during the course of little over 3 years (Haider, 2008). Of these decades, the amount of slums also increased from 500 to 4, 300. While slum populace has increased by more than 11 times the amount of slums has increased 8. 6 times during this period. The causes for the increase of slum human population are certainly complicated. However, the major aspect is again related to the lack of well paying jobs in cities. There's also instances of downward mobility in cities of urban dwellers themselves. Although Bangladesh has had the opportunity to reduce urban poverty to some extent, there are storage compartments of serious poverty in slums that appear very difficult to overcome. " (Haider, 2008).

http://www. un. org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/vol18no2/2809067_slum. jpg

Nairobi, Kenya: Sixty % of the city's people reside in slum areas.

Source: http://www. un. org/ecosocdev/geninfo/afrec/vol18no2/182environ. htm

Impact of Industrial Waste

The procedure for obtaining non-renewable materials from natural resources has an adverse effect on the environment. An example is Nigeria, a developing country in Western Africa. The Niger Delta environment has been polluted by olive oil spills and flares from gas for over half of a century. A goal was set forth to put an end to flaring of gas but this seems to be unachievable with the style of occasions.

Mine sites which are no longer in use in some parts of Africa contribute to the nuisance that the surroundings is becoming. Generally, mineral and oil exploration donate to water air pollution (which also triggers death of organisms in water), contaminated garden soil, e. tc. Expanding countries will continue steadily to have great problem in attaining ecological development if the existing approach to removal of resources is not addressed.

Effect of Environment Change on Environment

Africa as a continent has so many developing countries. Studies from the IPCC (Inter-governmental -panel on Climate Change) show that continent is more susceptible to the impact of local climate change than any other area of the world. A number of the effects of weather change include less rainfall in areas already experiencing dryness like the southern and eastern parts, and increased drought in north central Africa. Additionally it is forecasted that by 2025 (Africare speech, 2008), traditional western African countries will experience scarcity of drinking water, such countries like Ghana, Burkina Faso, Benin Republic, Mauritania, Nigeria e. t. c.

While other issues are more pressing and getting better attention from African leaders (such issues as malaria, HIV Products, poverty, hunger e. t. c), to maintain the future technology, Africa must be totally at alert and solve the problem of environment change peculiar to its environment.

In other areas, climate change may cause flooding in contrast to its impact in these countries. In SOUTH USA for instance, climate change impacts their environment which essentially has a multiplier effect on planning for progress.

La Plata River basin which is the fifth major river in the world creates about 50% of South America's Gross Country wide Product (GNP) and five countries show boundaries with this river- Brazil, Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. The effect of environment change in this river basin has influenced the economy and therefore its population. Movement in this region has been 30% increased since 1970 than in earlier time. This is as opposed to the common rainfall before 1970 and below average rainfall later in sub-Saharan Africa (Africare speech, 2008).

Corruption

Corruption is a major barrier to lasting development in every country that it prevails. It steals from today's children the resources they'll need to endure tomorrow. There's a direct hyperlink between underdevelopment and corruption. The former promotes the latter. A good scenario is the general public service low income in growing countries, this stimulates trivial corruption. The amount of education and enlightenment in these countries also put people in ignorance of the statutory rights, thus giving room for corrupt individuals.

Initiatives to Overcome Barriers

The talk about initiatives to overcome barriers to lasting development in expanding countries will never be justified without talking about the millennium development goals (MDGs). The MDGs were initiated in Sept 2000 through the United Nations Summit. These goals are eight in number and they breakdown into quantifiable focuses on that are 21 in number, they are also assessed by 60 indications. They include the following:

Extreme poverty and food cravings eradication

Universal major education for all

Encourage women empowerment and gender equality

Reduce death count of children

Improve maternal health

Fight against diseases especially malaria and HIV/AIDS

Implement sustainable development

Develop a worldwide relationship for development

These goals were created having expanding countries in mind as the issues addressed are usually concerned with them. However, the signals for these goals show they have not been effectively applied locally and globally, in addition they show that enough time frame given to them will never be realistic.

Over the years, expanding countries have accepted the value of environmental management and sustainability and there were initiatives peculiar to each country and situation to enhance this.

Some of these initiatives include creating Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). NGOs have gained reputation especially internationally as they are consulted on things of planning and execution of plans made at national and international levels. Examples of such include Global Volunteer Network, Cross-Cultural Alternatives, Save Africa, Africa Guide, Action for Agricultural Renewal in Maharashtra (AFARM), Conservation Council for South Australia to say a few.

NGOs give you a clearer perspective and an abundance of experience in relevant areas such as real human right defense, environmental protection, grassroots development, poverty alleviation, e. t. c. To prosper in their activities, these organizations should work alongside the government by participating in development, planning insurance policies and decision making at the many levels of administration.

However, since they are voluntary, availability of funds for NGOs might cause a slight challenge and they sometimes have to rely upon money from large hearted individuals.

Other initiatives include creating anticorruption companies. Since problem impedes development in any way levels of authorities, countries have created such companies to check corrupt practices, examples include Office of Anti-Corruption Fee - Bhutan (Asia), Indie Authority Against Corruption- Mongolia ( Asia), Anti- Problem Commission- Bangladesh (Asia), Kenya Anti-Corruption Commission payment -Kenya (Africa), Independent Corrupt Practices Commission payment - Nigeria (Africa), Warfare Against Indiscipline and Corruption- Nigeria (Africa), Kick Against Indiscipline- Nigeria (Africa), e. t. c They are simply a few as there have been numerous organizations at different levels of federal that function in this regard. However, as many as these seem to be, the issue of corrupt methods still rear end their mind. When caught in the take action and asked, culprits sometimes blame the economy and government but those are just the ones who are taken to book, top citizens who have cable connections in high places are usually viewed as ' above the legislations'. This falls back to having good command in expanding countries as well as individuals having the right attitude, without these, problem will still find its way in these countries and the attempts of these organizations will not be justified.

For every country, the children are the future leaders; good education for them is an essential factor for development. Some work have been made by countries and their government authorities to build up the thoughts of youngsters educationally, there have been schemes to sponsor students in foreign countries to obtain various skills and knowledge so as to implement and combine these skills once back home. Recently, the Federal Government of Nigeria awarded 1, 087 undergraduate and postgraduate Nigerian students scholarship or grant to study locally. There have also been organizations (PTF-Petroleum Trust Finance) that sponsor scholar in another country for studies from Nigeria. Other scholarship boards in other countries include Integrated Community Development Finance (ICDF) in Bolivia, Banque Libano Francaise in Lebanon and a host of others far away. This initiative has a very slow but steady growth in a variety of expanding countries. Other countries simply affiliate themselves with international government and physiques to get necessary support.

Conclusion

Since each expanding country has its own government and ruling council, initiatives for reaching ecological development in these countries change, this is also because apart from the challenges in the above list, some countries have troubles that are peculiar in characteristics to their environment, society and market. In this respect, these countries tend to lean towards initiatives which specifically address their peculiar problems.

Coming up with initiatives is a very important factor, implementing those initiative is another. In my belief, the second option is more important than the former. To achieve lasting development, growing countries must make mindful efforts to execute the existing initiatives while looking to create new ones. Last but not least, achieving sustainable development in producing countries requires a gradual (not enchanting) process; levels of achievements can only be measured with indicators periodically. It really is up to every specific to add in little ways to achieve a nation and global lasting environment for future years generation.

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