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Macroenvironmental Influences on Marketing Decision Making

The retail sector is very huge sector in the united kingdom Market. Retail covers the whole lot from the tiny village shop where in fact the shop proprietor recognizes every shopper by name, to the London Oxford Streets giant department stores. The Retail industry range includes the shop where you head into to get, to the shops where you can explore with a keyboard and mouse.

As per Department of Trade and Industry's commissioned report in 2003, £221bn topped in the united kingdom after retail sales, and also provides jobs to around three million people and contributed 12% in the whole UK economy. We society is consumer-driven society, where shopping represents a lot more a hobby than an actual requirement to acquire products.


Tesco, among the globe's leading multinational retailers and a high retail store chain in the united kingdom. In 1919 Tesco was founded by Jack Cohen, in those days Cohen began to sell extra grocery items from a stall in the East End of London. Against his first day's £4 sale he gained £1 profit.

The Tesco brand first time appeared in 1924. The brand `TESCO`, came into being after Jack Cohen purchased shipment of tea from the supplier T. E. Stockwell. He made new labels utilizing the first three letters of the supplier's name (TES) and (CO) from his sir name forming the name "TESCO".

The first brand that was sold by the Tesco was "Tesco Tea" in 1924. The first Tesco store was started in 1929 at Burnt Oak, Edgware London. In 1932 Tesco became an exclusive limited company. Tesco was registered in the London Stock Exchange as Tesco Stores Limited in 1947 and the price of the share of Tesco Store Limited was 25p. In 1956 in Maldon, a cinema was changed into the first Tesco self services superstore. In year 2000 Tesco open it web site www. tesco. com

Tesco initially focusing on food, however now has been diversified into different areas like gadgets, clothes, general household stuff, Selling of DVDs, Tesco Finance, Tesco Insurance etc. . Tesco gained £3. 128 billion profit in last 12 month up to 28th Feb 2009 (according to The Guardian, 21 April 2009).

Tesco runs 4 different kinds of stores. These stores include Tesco Extra, Tesco Superstore, Tesco Metro and Tesco Express. Tesco has biggest retail store operation in UK, other than UK; Tesco exists in Ireland, Central Europe, and Asia. Tesco has about 3729 stores and about 440, 000 people works for Tesco (according to Tesco total annual report 2008).

Marketing Environment

Marketing, by its very nature, can be an outward-looking discipline. As the foundation to interaction between the organization and the outside world, it has to balance internal capacities and resources with the opportunities offered externally. Although this is and understanding of customer`s needs and want are in the heart of the marketing philosophy, there are numerous factors influencing how those customer need evolve, and affecting or constraining the business `s ability to meet those need in the competitive environment. Thus to be able to reach a satisfactory understanding of the customer`s future need also to develop marketing mixes they'll satisfy the customer, the marketer needs to be able to analyze the external environment and clarify which influences and their implications are most significant.

What is Macro Environment?

The macro environment includes all external factors that happen to be uncontrollable and which effect the business`s development and also influence its planning and decision making. They have to recognize the inclinations and mega trends characterizing today's macro environment. This is critical to recognize and act in response to unmet requirements and trends in the souk.

Although the environment consists of a complete wide variety of factors and influences, it is possible to group them under broad heading, these elements can be divided into four main grouping, known by the acronym STEP; Socio culture, Technological, Economical and Political and legal environment

Socio Culture Environment




Current issues

The socio culture environment is of particular concern to marketers as it offers a direct effect on their understanding of customers and what drive them. Not merely can it address the demographic structure of markets, but it addittionally go through the way in which attitude and view are being formed and how these are evolving. An over-all upsurge in health consciousness, for instance, has stimulated the launch of wide variety of products which low degrees of fat and sugar; fewer artificial ingredients and no additives.

Technological Environment






Technological innovation and technological improvement experienced a profound effect in every areas of marketing. Computer technology, for instance, have revolutionized product design, equality control, materials and inventory management, the production of advertising and other promotional materials, and the management and analysis of customer information. The rise in direct marketing as a communication technique, owes too much to the availability of cheap and powerful computerized database management. Technology also effects the development of new processes and materials, as well as the invention of new products or application including the multimedia home computer, including a CD-ROM drive, or the development of the low calorie sweeteners which have revolutionized the dieting market.

Economical Environment

Market Structure

Government Policy

Trading blocs


Interest rates

The economical and competitive environment covers both macro and micro-economic conditions which effect the structure of competition in market, the price and availability of money for marketing investment in a stock and services, for example, and the financial conditions affecting a customer`s propensity to buy. The global recession of late 1990s and in the current situation for instance, caused a substantial upsurge in the unemployment whatsoever social levels, and so affected consumer`s willingness and ability to buy may sorts of product.

Political/Legal Environment

The EU

National Government

Local Government

Regulatory bodies

Trade association

The political and legal environment covers the external forces manipulated by the government both national and European (if we talking about UK political/legal environment), local authorities, or other trade or activity oriented regulatory bodies. Some of the rules and regulation developed and implemented by the bodies under this heading have the force law, while some are voluntary, such as adverting code of practice.

Macro Environmental effects on TESCO Marketing Decision Making

As macro environmental factors always effect the development and planning of each business, identical to Tesco also offers or will involve some influences of macro environmental factors towards its marketing decision making.

Socio Culture Environmental Factors

Demographic Changes

Demographics is the analysis of the measurable aspects of population structure and profiles, including factors such as age, size, race, occupation and location. As the birth rate fluctuates, and as life span increase, the break down of the population changes, creating challenges and opportunities for marketers. Tesco use the demographic changes as opportunity and set its marketing strategy by the running the several varieties of store with regards to the population size, location etc. Tesco use ethnic groups as a tool once and for all opportunities. Tesco divided its stores across the UK into five formats, these stores differentiating with the size of store and product for sale in these stores,

TESCO EXTRA is most significant store, generally located out the city a wide area. All Tesco products range available here. Free AIRPORT PARKING also provided here. In 1997 first Tesco Extra was opened.

TESCO SUPERSTORES are considered as supermarkets with standard large size. These stores have the stock of grocery and a lot of small non food small items. These store called the superstore for connivance but this word does not utilization in the shops. Generally these stores open a day. In UK floor space it is standard Tesco format. Generally these stores located in neighborhoods of cities or the locations of the stores derive from the boundaries of large, medium-sized settlements. The usual size of Tesco superstores is about 2, 900 m² (31, 000 sq ft).

TESCO METRO STORES are medium size store. They are larger than Tesco Express and smaller than Standard Tesco superstore. The locations of the stores are inside the city centers or they locate on the traditional of less populated town like Uxbridge etc. Usually size is 1, 100 m² (12, 000 sq ft). The first Tesco Metro was started working in Covent Garden, London in 1992.

TESCO EXPRESS stores are vicinity ease shops. Tesco express sale the food item generally with the concentrate on a higher margin products range. These store located in the busy city centers, small shopping boundaries in residential areas and on the petrol stations. Usually how big is Tesco Express is about 190 m² (2, 100 sq ft).

Covers the Customer from all Walk of Life

Tesco covers the customers from all walk of life as discussed above in the demographic changes Tesco runs different kind of store, apart from this gleam facility of online shopping, Tesco direct. All of these available option caters the society as whole from families to a person pretty quickly for snack purchase.

Covering Status Preference Through Pricing

Store like Tesco appears to be considered as less premier in the status preference if we compare it with other competition like Marks and Spencer`s(Chaney, 2004). Tesco began to cover this preference status by gaining customer base through keeping track of mass market pricing.

Free Eye Tests

Tesco has started giving facility free of charge eye tests to those people who has not cover NHS.

This is a good exemplory case of corporate social responsibility set by Tesco and it gives Tesco a spectacular reputation in the community (Anker, 2010). Tesco also promoting fair-trade products although this isn't an differentiating attribute as other competitors in addition has launched this type of practice but even that it is giving superiority to Tesco.

Contributing towards reducing unemployment

Due to the current economic down turn situation around the globe, unemployment rate is very high. As fast growing largest retailer in UK and creating more jobs, Tesco playing a vital role to lessen the unemployment.

Technological Environmental

In a growing dynamic world, where the creation, launch and maintenance of new product are more costly and difficult than ever before, no organization can afford to ignore technological environment and its trends. Whether or not your organization doesn't have the inclination or resources to look at or adapt new technology, understanding it is important because rivals will exploit it sooner or later, with implications for your product and its marketing. Technological factors also effect to Tesco as well. These factors are helpful for Tesco business as,

Successful Online Retailer

Tesco declared the most booming online shopping retailer. Tesco had achieved the bar of £1 billion online sale in 2006. And online sale has been increasing with the 12% average per year from then on up to 2009 (Tesco PLC, 2009; Andy, 2006). Tesco aggressively capturing the market for non foods range through taking benefits of his portal. Dedicated outlets are also in procedure for collections for those orders, customer made online (Tesco PLC, 2009).

Use of Modern Technology

Tesco have also gained benefits from modern tools. At Tesco stores to recognize gaps on shelves, lightweight scanners are being used. These lightweight scanners also used to recognize in stock flows. To boost the efficiency heat senescing technology has been used to assess queue at checkout points. Tesco delivered nearly £400 million in savings after adopting this type of technology (Leigh, 2008).

Self Service Check out, Club Cards etc

Some people with a few items avoid from the long queues and want to look at quicker, Tesco`s quick and efficient self service check outs are an attractive factors for most customers. People can checkout super easy and in a straightforward way by them self. More over club cards are also shows Tesco`s policy on adopting the most advanced technology to attract the clients after offering points on each shopping and then convert these point into shopping vouchers.

Economical Environment

The ramifications of financial and competitive environment are felt by organization and consumer alike, and it has a profound effect on their behavior. Macroeconomics environment supplies the overall backdrop against which marketing activities take place.

Less effect of Economic Downturn

The recent adverse economic recession will not seems effect Tesco much and didn`t effected the overall profit of Tesco as they valued themselves after stocking the products range that attract to every end of the marketplace, e. g. from the high quality range to a lower value range products. Tesco observed 1% rise in its profit before tax for the first half of the financial year. The 'survivability index' places it before most retail chains (BDO network, 2008; Ruddick, 2008).

Reduction in the VAT

Government announced the reduction in the value added tax this past year. VAT was being reduced from 17. 5 % to 15 %. This means people had more disposal money for spending and it generated more income for Tesco. But VAT has increased to 17. 5 % this year 2010.

Operation in less recession effected regions of World

Tesco has operation in the countries like China and India that are less effected from the economic recession if we compare them we the western part of the world. That is important aspect for the Tesco and shows excellent prudence as revenue.

Economic downturn creates unemployment

Recent Economic depression has badly affected both organizations and people as well. This recession has created unemployment and numbers of folks do not earn increase and this unemployment mean less overall for spending which is also affect the demand of goods.

Political/Legal Environment

Quite apart from their influence on the economics and competitive environment, government have a great influence on the type of the overall business environment through their policies and the resultant legislation. Organisations have to exist in and operate in line with the laws of societies within that they conduct business, thus as well as the more general laws of contract and commerce, product have to comply with safety laws; manufacturing processes are subject to pollution control; copyright and patent protect innovation; and retailer opening hours are restricted in Germany, for example, by the Ladenschlussgesetz, and in the united kingdom by Sunday trading laws.

Having procedure in globalize environment Tesco's performance is very sway by the political and legislative environment of the regions, like the EU (EU).

New Government Policies

As 2010 is general election year for UK. The current political scenario seems to have some reservations for Tesco. Conservatives have plans to introduce a competition test to see requirement and appropriateness for development into new area, if indeed they come to power. It has recently been severely lobbied not and only by Tesco given its difficult implication for increase and expansion.

Entering into new markets

The complete debacle of the eastern community, EU growth, and removal of protectionist trade barriers in market of countries like India and China have been key changes in the world economy. Tesco is taking advantage of these opportunities by diversifying in these markets already.

Reduction of Corporate Tax

Reduction in corporate tax is favorable for the Tesco and other UK corporations. But regardless of the cuts it has been a question mark for Tesco to avoid from Tax by launching off shore schemes. That is significant in conditions of the cascade effect it may have on development planning, as well as for related regulations that may come into force given the future political shifts beside the concerns over fiscal shortfall in the UK (Leigh, 2008).


How the Marketing Mix utilized by Tesco Strategic Management to get Competitive Advantages in its Chosen Sector

Marketing Mix

Understanding the type of customers and their needs and wants is merely the first step, however. The organization needs to act on that information, in order to build up and implement marketing activities that actually deliver something of value to customer. The means which such ideas are converted into the truth is the marketing mix.

The idea of the marketing mix as the blend of the major tools of marketing originated by Borden in the 1950s (Bordon, 1964), and the mnemonic `4Ps`(product, price, promotion, place) describing those tools was coined by McCarthy(1960). The marketing mix creates an offering for customer. The use of word mix and combination are important here, because successful marketing relies all the on interaction and synergy between marketing mix elements it does on good decisions within those elements themselves.

In the perspective of Tesco, their usage of the Chinese market should considerably acclimatize to the culture of the consumers in the market of China. On the other hand, the company should always look at the fundamental standards to which their company abide by. Provisional changes of services in term of the four Ps should not totally turn aside to the standards inbuilt to the company.

A. Product

The management of Tesco should tripped product development strategies after they have taken control of their shop in China by marketing their existing products, exporting products in several provinces of the united states and by doing this pressing forward on the possible opportunities of boosting the business's market penetration and market share. Tesco should consider restoring or revising types of their products to supply the Chinese customers what they want and what they need. In this manner, Tesco could develop the store's own brand products that could be marketed strategically within the territory of China.

B. Price

Looking at the situation of Tesco, a proven way that it could acquire cost advantages is by improving process efficiencies, expanding exclusive contact to a large supplier of lower cost materials, or steering clear of several costs in general. If rival organizations in the united states are incapable to lessen their costs with a comparable quantity, Tesco will manage to sustaining a competitive advantage anchored cost leadership.

C. Place

To develop its success in its retail operations, the Tesco should make multi-million pound investments waiting for you expansion in low-income districts and localities. By getting involved with similar-minded public and private sector groups like local community based associations, colleges, and chambers of commerce, the Tesco will be able to open sites in economically disadvantaged districts in China. Targeting these areas will enable the company to gain the trust of local luminaries and gain favour from the neighborhood government by providing employment to the locals.

D. Promotion

The Tesco's approach should constitute a long-standing strategic plan that centres on making value to expand the loyalty of the customers which take account of preserving a well-built central Chinese business, to be as strapping in non-food as foods and services, to build up globally and to set the ball rolling on retailing services like on-line shopping.


The bottom-line is that the thing of the marketing mix is to meet the customer. What Tesco must do is to basically know the needs of the client in their target country. However, the business shouldn't centre on merely knowing the needs of the consumers. In addition, it has to extend a good relationship with them by ensuring a competent provision of its product and services. Along with these is the provision of the right customer care service to bolster their satisfaction

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