Posted at 11.01.2018
As it known about two famous German architects, Walter Gropius and Mies Van de Rohe, who was simply worked jointly and made a great contribution to the planet architectures. Although both of these focus on the present day building technology, they still have their own features and design philosophies. Walter's main themes or templates of structures is "standardized house, prefabrication and developed house" for low-income staff whereas Mies Van de Rohe's "Less is more" and "God is at the facts" are his famous sayings. This article talks about the two famous architects from Germany and the similarities and difference between their particular architectural buildings. In this essay, some of the best masterpieces before WW2 such as the T¶rten Real estate, skyscraper, IIT campus properties are talked about below.
Walter Gropius, a German architect and educator, who established the Bauhaus university of design, which has become a predominant power in structures in 20th century. Gropius was well-known for the Bauhaus style and the prestige of the architecture had established when he grouped with Adolph Meyer. Walter Gropius gone from the Nazi program and escaped Germany secretly in 1934. He trained architecture at Harvard College or university in Britain after a few years. Then, the Bauhaus concepts and design principles were generated and created by him. During the 1938 to 1941, he worked on some houses with Marcel Breuer and all of them proven the Architects Collaborative in 1945 (Jackie Craven n. d).
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, another renowned German architect, who experienced worked with Walter Gropius and respectable as one of the pioneering masters of Modern architecture. Although he had never received any formal education in school, it could not stop the pursuit of establishing a fresh architectural style. "Less is more" and "God is in the facts" are his aphorisms. He extended to get a logical method that can navigate the ground breaking procedure for architectural design and strived to a concept of minimal framework of structural order fight against the freedom implication of free-flowing open space-"skin and bone fragments" building style. Mies van der Rohe became well known for the goblet and metal, this style clarified that the Barcelona Pavilion indicated as well as the planar internal surfaces that are an outgrowth of the fact that space must be made universal and adaptable (Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe: architect biography 2011).
Mies' s design for the casing was stemmed from his early on study of the Kari Friedrich Schinkel. This task was famous from sketching and photographs. In 1912, Mie proven his practice as an unique architect in Berlin. In those days, there was a competition that were presented for a skyscraper design on Friedrichstrasse in Berlin. Although Mies's program was successful and forward-looking, the job could not be accepted due to the poor conditions would not match with the solution (Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe: architect biography 2011).
The architectural design of Walter Gropius was based on the "new architecture", that was not simply about shelter any more, but some sort of expression. Depends upon has changed the idea from the gigantic constructions to the balance and coverage of the architectural buildings. In the modern era, we can focus on the structures itself and the quest for our human's portrayed feelings. Walter Gropius's ideology of making buildings is far more advanced and preferable to the present day time than flip people in the past. He has more centered on the central expression and utilitarianism of each buildings somewhat than beautiful composition and luxurious materials (Design School of thought 2011).
Walter Gropius's "New Structures" included the new materials and modern systems of the World. He said that excellent design should be available to all or any and truly presumed that it was not impossible by using standardization and prefabricated homes. The usage of wall space was just the most distinguishing perspective of the structures he designed. The simple form that provided by him was the best way to share life (Design Beliefs 2011).
Bauhaus/International design of architecture has lots of unique features: particularly, features Vs ornamentation, asymmetry and regularity Vs symmetry, and space Vs mass. Walter Gropius gave up the old strategy and style of the architectural building, while he mainly put these three ideas in leading line- functionality, asymmetry and space. Bauhaus complexes are normally cubic with right perspectives; they have soft facades and an open floor plan (Yael Zisling 2000).
Bauhaus architecture mainly relates to the social aspects of design and employees' departments. Tel Aviv, a recently improved city, which embraced the style. This form of structures was popular at the same time because of the new engineering advancements that permitted to be built around steel or iron frames, that was, the wall space did not support the framework any longer, but only enveloped from the outside. The International Style was the type of structures that never depended on days gone by design of the structures; conversely, it made an effort to set up a fresh and modern style. In Tel Aviv, Bauhaus architecture benefited a foothold because there is no real entrenched architectural style. However, the style of the structures could be found out in many places in Tel Aviv (Yael Zisling 2000).
Mies's cup skyscraper proposal actually had not been accepted by those clients because there was a thirty-story tower suitable for an standard site situated nearby the crossing of the broad avenues, which free-form scheme without the effective solutions for the composition. In 1923, the proposal was known from the photos of the model and several drawings. It could be shown from this task that Mies Van Der Rohe goes to a genuine "modern" style, it is becoming of great interest. He got over lots of studies of these architectures, which include block building at that time (Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe: architect biography 2011).
In 1924, the program for a brick building has an in depth resemblance to the de Stiji paintings of Van Doesburg. Mies Van der rohe viewed the brick as a vintage material and used it in the design for this planed country house. The Wall space were free position, sliding out from under the roof in to the landscape. The wall space linked with wine glass enclosures produced an totally new result, with radical implications for living style. Mies van der Rohe used these ideas to good effect in the Barcelona Pavilion of 1929 (Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe: architect biography 2011).
Due to the Industrial Revolution, the world had evolved significantly, while art classes disregarded new technology and ideas. Gropius supported students to exploit new industrial materials and functions. Walter Gropius thought that art work should serve the proletariat and those of completed properties. The main styles of Gropius structures is "standardized house, prefabrication and developed house". These ideas were applied into his private missions. In 1926, Gropius designed a 60-dwelling low-income community in Dessau, Germany- the T¶rten Property. He often helped the urban personnel who live under the poverty lines. To be able to help those poor personnel, Gropius planed to create economical properties with small but comfortable rooms by using cheap materials like concrete and prefabricated elements. He attempted to enhance the sunlight and air blood flow in the area by positioning the glass windows (Walter Gropius and the Legacy of Modernism / Maddie Wardley 2011).
At present, most of the modern buildings adjust the Bauhaus style. There's a typical circumstance of Truro House design. This house makes full use of the energy-saving techniques like solar powered energy and it is divided into the wings. One is employed for family trips and could be closed to lessen the energy. In the same way Gropius, the complexes want to white color, big house windows and a set roofing. The structural elements have been subjected under the sunlight. Perhaps Gropius fancies about the transparency in these buildings so that tourists can see through the construction and inner workings. Therefore, the Truro House can demonstrate a style of technology, comfort, conservation and operation by this famous creator. Up into now, the architecture is still essentially affected by Bauhaus Modernism (Walter Gropius and the Legacy of Modernism / Maddie Wardley 2011).
Mie van der Rohe designed Czechoslovakia in 1930, the largest luxurious Tugendhat House in Brno. On the sloping site, this building has been a concise two-story plan and joined from the road at the higher level. The living spaces and eating rooms give more space and quality. Its use of outdoor terraces on both levels is omparable to Le Corbusier's Villa Stein in Garches, France, 1927. The home is the same in work as large, later nineteenth-century country houses. Individual spaces could be shut down using draperies on roof monitors. The curved wall denning the dining room is Macassar wood, with an onyx freestanding wall structure denning space between living area and review. The Brno chairs designed for this house have been produced. The house endured damage and is now owned by the town of Bmo (Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe: architect biography 2011).
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was counted among the founders of modern architecture and design. Probably one of the most emulated architects of the 20th century, he taught architecture for nearly 30 years. Mies arrived to Illinois Institute of Technology to brain the university's Team of Architecture soon after the closing of Bauhaus, the renowned design school that flourished in Germany from 1919 until the rise of Nazism in 1933. During his twenty years as chairman of the team, he developed a curriculum predicated on the Bauhaus idea of synthesizing looks and technology. He strongly emphasized on the grounding in the fundamentals of structures and on a disciplined method of problem solving is shown in IIT's curriculum. Matching to his profession, Mie had influenced a great number of architects and they made his theories into a movement (See Architecture 2011).
His own designs, ranging from the Barcelona Pavilion in Spain to the Seagram Building in NY to IIT's S. R. Crown Hall - improved the skylines of cities around the world. Mies set up Crown hall, which depicted on the banquet stamp, in 1955, was considered to be one of is own ideal architectural masterpiece. To be able to provide for a versatile, columnless interior, Mies stopped the roof structure from four metal girders looked after in the midway through eight external columns. Crown Hall has been thought to be an "immortal contribution to the architecture of Chicago and the globe. " In 1941, Mies also designed the masterpiece of IIT campus, that was the most impressive projects he assumed and the sole person to come close to attaining the whole realization. A couple of 20 architectural structures surrounding the old campus, which are the greatest Mies-designed structures on earth. Hence, IIT campus has turned into a landmark of Chicago(See Architecture 2011).
Not astonishingly, it is evident from the details provided that there are a few similarities and distinctions between Walter Gropius and Mies' attitudes toward the technology and stylish building to the precise group. Walter Gropius focuses on low-income personnel and he will try to build up the affordable and comfortable homes for folks. Additionally, he considers the price consumption of materials, the architecture's practice, space, sunlight and air blood flow. Further, he feels that structures should express a kind of thoughts or theme somewhat than its extravagant materials consumption and too recognized surface.
It has been found out that the structures that Walter Gropius designs are almost the people's living place and the constructions are modernized and completely transparent. The Bauhaus/ International design of architecture carry its ideology: features, asymmetry and space with lower cost consumptions. This might be fine match with the modern people's perceptions and demands.
However, although Mie van der Rohe's architectural style still toward the Modernism, it appears that Mie van's properties are far more preferable to the metropolitan building such as skyscraper. This is actually the striking difference between the Mie and Walter Gropius. The Mie van der Rohe has highly emphasized the facts, qualities and appearance. For example, "the living rooms and dining rooms give more space and quality. Its use of outside terraces on both levels is omparable to Le Corbusier's Villa Stein in Garches, France, 1927. . . . . "Also his architectural complexes normally located on the Campus or metropolis centres, IIT's S. R. Crown Hall is the main one case to prove it.
Mie's architectural theories can build up a huge city for one country whereas Walter Gropius's can establish a comfortable home for people. Maybe that's where the difference is. Still, there remain some similarities between them. First, they both apply modern tools to the building establishment; second, no matter Walter's the three main topics or Mies's God is at the details, they all made the greatest contribution to the human race, to the country, to the modernization. On the other hand, they hold the common attitude to the present day technology and impart their thought process to the next generation.
All together, this paper discusses the key architectural styles and design philosophies from Walter Gropius and Mie van der Rohe before the second world war. Walter Gropius prefers to the efficiency of the building, while Mies is more likely to create it within an visual way. They both have the typical masterpieces which located in several places. There's also a lot of research findings about their architectures, designs and attitudes toward the modern technology. Based on these series of comparison and compare, it has been noted obviously that the problem of architectural development and technology would go to the certain level that has already reached the modern-day design model-skyscrapers or the T¶rten House, however, the conditions of structures could not meet the requirements of solutions at that time. Nevertheless, their ideas have surpassed all the unavailable conditions and exerted the strong power to thrust the historical activity.