Posted at 12.14.2018
Keywords: hong kong labor and birth rate, hong kong low labor and birth rate cause
Nowadays, the entire world people just over 6 billion and consistently estimate to increase to 9 billion within the next 50 years. The progress rate is mostly come from those producing countries, especially from Africa. Nevertheless, the birth rate which we would call it as human population progress rate is reducing in Hong Kong. The neighborhood birth rate reached the cheapest level on earth. Based on the survey from the Census and Figures Division, around 30, 000 babies will be made by mainland lovers while 69, 000 will be delivered in Hong Kong each year. In 2006, 984 babies were produced each 1000 expectant mothers. The estimation of the following 30 years, the delivery rate will be lower than 900 newborns would be delivered with each 1000 pregnant ladies.
We can use the graph from Census and Information Department to indicate the change by delivery rate. In the fig. 1. 1, the lines are representing the population in 1996 while pubs are representing the 2006s. We'd see that the populace in Hong Kong is going to form a reverse triangle as fewer are delivered in the bottom. Moreover, we would notice that the labor and birth rate was carrying on cut down from 1981 to 2006. In essence, the federal government has been put aware on the problem. In one of a meeting of legislative council, the councilors have released this as one the things of plan.
The reduction in birth rate can help to save lots of the lasting resources on earth, but it could cause out many society problems as well. Actually, maturing problem is a serious issue happening in the world. And, this would cause out many repercussions to help make the modern culture become poor. Maturing problem will lead the taxes payer having much tax. As the decreasing beginning rate cause out, fewer taxes payers should fall into the tax system. While the number of elderly would increase to create an unhealthy populace, the Government would have a financial problem on subsiding them. The government need to carry heavy costs on medical services, elderly healthcare and old age such as cultural security allowance.
On the other hands, the education system may desire a reform. The demand would reduce as fewer children joining the training system. Those academic institutions will be terminated by a low labor and birth rate, and employers like professors will be being unemployed. This is already happened in the modern culture in 2006. Many universities are warned to shut down by insufficient students. As a result, encouraging the delivery rate is a must. Recently, the government noticed that the value of having a good beginning rate and formed a committee to put concern and learning solutions in low beginning rate issue. The effective way is the government encourage the citizens to increase the birth rate.
In this study, we would like to help to determine the reason why of causing low labor and birth rate.
Besides, we would not only wish to know the complexities but also want to determine solutions and the ways of government would able to give a hands. Therefore, our research objectives will be arranged as the followings:
Through this marketing research, we would define clear why the reduced birth rate was caused out. Later on, we can find out the very best solution to enhance the birth rate, to be able to prevent the next era to pay the heavy duty to the federal government which is our technology and beyond. On the other hand, we would the statement will be mentioned out that the effective way of campaign by the government which he citizens would believes it can work. It really is beneficial to the government whether the ageing problem is solved, the financial burden will reform. The government is able to place the subsidies on the other ways that produce Hong Kong becoming a most successful city that people would like to live.
To begin our research, we might need to work with exploratory research to provide the insights of the reduced beginning rate problems. From the various types of exploratory research strategy, we have used supplementary data analysis and emphasis group when doing this job.
Low birth rate which is a major issue for the Hong Kong authorities, so there are plenty of data relating to this issue on the site of the Census and Statistics Department as well as the newspaper. The reasons why we are employing the supplementary data are because they're low priced and useful as backdrop information. Also, some of the info are realistic as those data are accumulated from the state department of Hong Kong Federal. As the government highly matter about the low birth rate, there are insurance policies and promotions about how exactly to boost low delivery rate, which helps us on creating the questions for our questionnaire.
Focus group is a form of qualitative research when a group of men and women are asked about their frame of mind towards something, service, concept, advertisement or idea. And there will be a moderator to create this issue of discussion and to encourage the group to discuss. Using focus group can allow the participants to discuss their true feeling and convictions, fast to accumulate data, easy to perform and adaptable with low priced.
Forming this target group, our goal is to comprehend the reason why of low delivery rate, measure the effectiveness of varied methods to raise the delivery rate, understand more the value of having child, evaluate the impact of varied media on the decision to truly have a child, acquiring the demographic of response. After doing the concentrate group, we can incorporate the observations to understand the culture, the cultural group, sampling the sites to review, and creating information issues or subject areas we didn't think of.
We would form 2 emphasis groups which consist of 6 respondents each. Besides, we need to hire a professional analyst to lead the concentration group on the talking about track. Then, we have to reserve a one-way mirror room to see the improvement of the concentrate group. The main is we should write down the conversation by notes as a substitute way if the training video recording devices does not work. This issue of discourse was give attention to five main issues we focused on reasons impacting on the birth rate, solutions to improve beginning rate, value on delivery rate, ways to promote generation, demographic. To obtain the information we need, an analyst is needed to lead the focus group to discuss on the aspects. We performed arranged the suggest questions:
We have been presented focus groupings in the March. Following the concentrate group, we were given out ideas of the reduced birth rate concern.
In the concentration groups people are all agree the later marriage is the pattern in Hong Kong, many women are become concentrating on their work. But they conclude that the price of having a baby is the main cause of low beginning rate. They need to give up their job, after the baby progress, their job opportunities will be probably lower as they disconnected with the world. They discussed that the birth rate from the center school is important to improved.
Later, they discuss that the method to increase the birth rate. Most of them thought that the government subsidies are the ways to help. Education allowance is the very best as most of them agreed. It is because they think it is a long-term subsidy that their children need to study nearly a decade. It is profit if it could save their cost. However, no one concern on public enclosure because they thought that it's relate with the marry cost, not related to having a baby. They might think that the worthiness of having a baby is to create their breed. Most of them think that the TV commercial is the effective way to encouraged by government. For the reason that animation and sound would provide them with memorized.
To choose the right method to match our case, we wish to use the shopping center intercept personal interviews for collecting key data. The procedure involves halting the targets, screening process them for appropriateness, and either administering the study at that moment or inviting them to a research facility positioned in the shopping mall to complete the interview. And, we decided to setup in Women Health Centre and the Family Planning Relationship of Hong Kong etc, therefore we're able to get the effect that related to your expectation and goal.
The characteristic of the method is confined spot to conduct the survey but speed of data collecting is fast, and conductors are simpler to reach the designated quantity with a specific time. It has the highest amount of interviewer effect of answers. Although geographical flexibility is limited in a selection place, we can poll a big number of focus on respondents with an effective planning. There will have low anonymity of respondents however, the respondents may well not positively to cooperate. It really is difficult to check out up or call back again but it is not an actual problem. Essentially, interviewers can offer clear explanations for the questions asked, respondents will be clearer to answer the questions through face-to-face interview. So, the opportunity of respondent misunderstanding would be the lowest.
On the other hand, if the respondent assistance is insufficient to meet up with the planned quantity, we might also use cellphone survey to back again up mall intercept personal interview. The benefits of using phone survey is competitive reduce cost and the respondent cooperation are good. So, it is an excellent back-up proposal for anything moves incorrect in the mall intercept personal interview.
There are some measurements guiding us in design our questionnaire. We have to concern that every questions must have a reason behind requesting and the kind of answers you want to obtain y open-ended or close-ended. Later, we should concern on the questionnaire wording. In building our questionnaire, we have avoided long questions that gives people complicated by using short and clear wording. Second of all, we avoid emotional and socially desirability response by filled and assumption questions. So, the validity will be increased. Be sure all answer selections are mutually exclusive, check for ambiguity in wording the question, and ensure if the respondents can interpret this is of words diversely. We also put aware on the personal pronouns (gender personal references) - never only use him (his) or her (her) unless you are referring to a specific gender. Be specific, alternatively than basic questions and expression them so that they communicate uniform so this means. Avoid using dual negatives, especially possible when working with Agree/Disagree.
There are several level in setting up questionnaire, interval level, nominal scale, ordinal scale and ratio level.
We used Interval Scale in Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 inside our questionnaire. An period scale is a dimension scale in which a certain distance along the scale means the same thing irrespective of where on the scale you are, but where "0" on the size does not symbolize the lack of the thing being measured. The Fahrenheit and Celsius temperatures scales are instances. It is exclusively classifies, in preserves order and equivalent intervals.
We used Nominal Level in Q. 5B, Q. 5C, Q. 5D, Q. 5E inside our questionnaire. A nominal size is very a set of categories to which items can be categorised. For example, requesting the gender and give "Male" and "Female", for requesting position, given "Single" "Married" and "Divorce". The data so categorized are termed categorical data, that are reflecting the classification of objects into different categories.
We used Ordinal Range in Q. 5A, Q. 5F and Q. 5G inside our questionnaire. An ordinal level is a way of measuring level that assigns worth to objects predicated on their ranking regarding one another. For example, Q. 5G, we have been asking about the regular monthly income of every aim for ordinance, from  Significantly less than $5000 to  above $30, 000. When you know that  is having more money than , but there is absolutely no implication that  is twice times more than . All we know is that we now have 5 categories, with certainly that  are having more money than ,  are having more income than , etc. The bigger the value assigned, the higher the category.
It is very important for all of us to do the pretest before the questionnaire being publicized; the purpose of pretesting questionnaire is to ensure that it can be clearly understood. Because the questionnaire may have a lot of faults, therefore, we have to conduct and discover the information on that concern. Correct all the flaws in the questionnaire are essential, if the study didn't properly set, the purpose will not be achieved to carry out the accurate information that which you looking for.
For our questionnaire, in order to achieve the effectiveness of pretest, we are going to browse the questionnaire for at least 15 times after preparing. Besides, our company is also going to ask for 15 respondents to check our questionnaire. Finding correct and relevant respondents can help increase the effectiveness of pretest. The types respondents would be desire for our Low Labor and birth Rate questionnaires are the professionals, such as English professors; lecturers, schoolmates from universities, and also our parents. We decided to go with them for the questionnaire pretest procedure, since a few of them have sufficient knowledge to convey out our problems, for example, British teachers can right our grammar and spelling mistakes, rectify the question wording into more format type. Lecturers can check the circulation of questions and present recommendations on the question, ensure that people are employing the multiple-grid format and also have been separated them into variety of groupings before executing. And, a few of them are easy to attain, like our schoolmates, their feedbacks help us to anticipate our target ordinance a reaction to the questionnaire, they also may help to calculate the time-taking. After all, we can rearrange the follow up and one by one.
Use our questionnaire as an example, after the pretest technique; we rectify the question wording to make the questionnaire are more clarify. Such as for example, using "Very Unimportant" and "CRUCIAL" to displace "Most Important" and "Least Important". Use full word, "Have you been working now? (If yes, please continue steadily to answer the following questions. Otherwise, jump to Ї№HЇ№)" rather than a single term "Occupation" etc. (Appendix fig. 2. 2, fig. 2. 3)
Sampling is the simple way to attain out targets with a subset of the population instead of reaching the entire inhabitants. Compare with achieving the entire population, sampling will save time, chopping cost for budgeting and manpower. Firstly, we should body the target group out. Our goal group is men and women who have been to Women Health Centre and the Family Planning Connection. For the reason that they will have a brief concern and knowledge on the birth rate issue. To attain our concentrate on group, we'd use the convenience sampling indeed. There is absolutely no sampling frame while it is truly a non-probability sampling method. Those respondents are unidentified member form our concentrate on group because of using the non-probability sampling. Our interviews will choose the most available focuses on arbitrary. However, we would established the 200 respondents as our test size.
As the mall intercept personal interview is suitable to associate with our research, it has many advantages indeed. First, the mall intercept personal interview can be conducted faster and inexpensive. Also, the mall intercept can poll a huge volume of respondents and control the swiftness of the survey. As you want to poll a sizable amount of respondents in focus on group, we made a decision to interview in Women Health Centre and the Family Planning Relationship of Hong Kong within 3 days and nights. As the mall intercept is a face-to-face connection with the interviewees, it'll lead us easier follow-up and make corrections of the unclear or misunderstanding answers. These advantages will encourage us to execute a better review.
Unfortunately, there is no perfect method existing on the planet. We would just choose the method which consist the least disadvantages. Inside the mall intercept, we'd require a lot of labour pressure to conduct. This can lead the research cost climb higher by selecting cost for interviewers. Furthermore, low reliability of the review is also a disadvantage of the method. It is difficult to check out up if we find out any issue while inspecting the answers. Further, the result sampling may not represent the complete population in a place. Therefore, we'd find out some answers to fix them. We'd not utilize volunteers as our group associates can be the volunteers in the research. Perhaps, cost of the occupation will be relatively lower. To be able to improve the precision, setting up more intercept places for interview can enhance the representative degree of the results. Also, after doing the survey, interviewees would politely to ask the respondents to leave their contact information if they're willing to do that. Hopefully, it may improve the disadvantages of the survey method.
We would do the survey over 3 selected places within 3 day. On 28th April, we'd conduct in the Family Planning Association at Wan Chai while performing in the ladies Connection in Tuen Mun in the next day (29th April). Finally, we'd reach the Family Planning Connection at Wong Tai Sin in 30th April. These 3 locations will be assigned a team to experience the role as interviewers. Each team will contain 3 member do stay within the place in the procedure hours. The selection of those 3 places is due to improving the exactness of the sampling over territories. In addition, easy to attain who concern beginning rate, prepare to have a child or even avoid having child as well.