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Looking At Laboratory Information Systems IT Essay

INTRODUCTION

Healthcare is always a top top priority within any assortment of individuals, whether it's the workforce, classes, churches, communities, says, countries etc. This is because mortality rates are straight affected by the level of medical available, and effective productivity would depend on good health insurance and high mortality rates.

Developed nations have a tendency to invest large sums of money into health care, in order to avoid most disorders before they become epidemics, however, due to lack of emphasis on the value of medical care, African nations have problems with low mortality rates brought on by lack of proper laboratory methods and equipment, to test and accurately diagnose problems in advance.

Even though we are now in an extremely advanced technological age, Nigerian nursing homes still conduct assessments, data collection, and calculations manually, leaving a huge opening for errors that could lead to wrong diagnosis and subsequently, incorrect treatment.

As we humans become ever before increasingly reliant on computer technology inside our daily lives, after that it would be appropriate to make use of technological answers to problems normal methods confirm inefficient at.

These problems can be solved with the use of an adequately configured software system to control all administrative responsibilities in the laboratories.

The most reliable use of technology to solve to these issues would be completed using available source software popularly known as a Laboratory Information System (L. I. M. S).

The style of this work looks for to offer an application that may enable essential functionalities such as proper documents and storage space of patient information, patient specimen/test tracking, & most important, patient test results.

In the light of the above, the suggested system applies the net application development approach in its information structures and handling, however this system will operate on a local machine as opposed to running on the remote server over the internet. Consequently at completion of this work, the end product should be considered a Laboratory information management system which manages activities in the laboratory from the entry of a patient to the laboratory to the creating of the test result or Laboratory article.

BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The research for the development of the lab information management system runs on the medical laboratory center: Bakor Medical lab as its research study.

Investigations signify that the next steps or types of procedures are undertaken in the process of getting examined in the medical laboratory.

On entry into the laboratory a document known as the individual Analysis form. This form holds information like the Patients name, years sex, on filling this form the patient is then billed.

The patient Analysis form is then transferred to a second lab attendant who then uses the information retrieved from these form to fill the laboratory submission book.

STATEMENT WITH THE PROBLEM

In recent years, due to upsurge in population, you can find constant pressure on providers of various services to provide ground breaking methods of dispensing a sizable amount of services to great amount of men and women in the shortest possible time. Consequently, organizations are constantly resorting to technological solutions to meet up with the ever increasing demand for quality and quick service delivery and with nearly everything inside our daily lives being technologically motivated, should there not be considered a scenario where paper documentation is completely annihilated from medical laboratories?, where a system is used where patient documents and data are properly stored such concerning permit features such as patient/visitor background tracker, in which a returning patients background can aid the lab in deducing what type of test a visitor would request for, statistical reports technology where useful statistical information is inferred predicated on test outcomes e. g whether or not there is an increase or decrease of new HIV microbe infections, should there not be a software/program where other stakeholders in the health-care delivery functions such as doctors and pharmacists get access to laboratory generated information to assist in their health-care supervision?, if the retrieval of patient test details be slow-moving and troublesome?, why must results be joined directly on the effect record, therefore a backup backup is unavailable. Questions such as these will provide as helpful information to the introduction of a robust system than manages various tasks in the medical lab.

1. 3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Based on the statement of the problems above the study question for this study are:

How will the development of a lab information management System greatly boost the laboratory's efficiency?

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

To design a robust Lab information System that will efficiently assist in the running of the lab facility

To hold and provide timely information about each visitor to the laboratory

To reduce the need to employ staff through the proper application of scientific solutions therefore reducing cost.

With a proper functioning and comprehensively designed request, Laboratory duties such the following may be accomplished:

SAMPLES MANAGEMENT

A LIMS can automate the management of examples. A business can configure its analytical variables and calculations into the LIMS before applying the program in the lab. After sample enrollment, the machine can print barcodes which it can check by the end of the evaluation when loading results into the LIMS. The system can check the completed results, automatically validating those which comply with requirements; and reporting (but not validating) out-of-specification results. A LIMS may release or keep lots and batches, according to a laboratory's requirements and calculations.

Once results come designed for the lab's clients or owners, they can draw out them in PDF, XML or spreadsheet files from the LIMS user interface. (Remember that moving insufficient data to a spreadsheet may lose the traceability of changes).

LABORATORY USERS

One may configure a LIMS for use by an unlimited number of users. Each end user owns an interface, shielded by security mechanisms such as a login and a password. Users may have personalized interfaces. A laboratory manager might have full access to all of a LIMS' functions, whereas technicians might have access and then functionality needed for their individual work-tasks.

ADMINISTRATIVE Duties AUTOMATION

As of 2009 LIMS implementations can take care of laboratory sampling, consumables sampling program and financial (invoices).

SCOPE OF STUDY

Bakor Medical centre has various departments and parts based on the problem accessible to be dealt with; however this research concentrates mainly on the laboratory processes, including data collection and management.

This study needs the patient from the moment of entry into the medical centre, filling forms, up till the moment the test is taken, from that time onwards the study will give attention to the methods utilized by the lab attendant to accumulate and store data, through recording of conclusions and distribution of results

This analysis will also focus on data back-up and retrieval methods and can highlight potential mistakes and issues that could be came across if the complete process was completed manually instead of by using a well configured computer program.

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The Computer based mostly Laboratory information management System is quite attractive as it'll benefit the lab in the area of repetitive task automation. It'll serve as an assistant to the medical lab scientist. It will profit patients as they will be able to retrieve record from prior appointments to the lab.

LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

The limitations of the study include:

Inability to acquire actual test end result document, as this runs against medical ethics for an authorized to view Lab specimen or test results.

Unavailability of certified laboratory scientist at the analysis locations to properly explain terms and lab procedures.

LITERATURE REVIEW

From tasting urine to microscopy to molecular assessment, the class of diagnostic techniques has come a long way and continues to develop at breakneck speed. The history of the laboratory is the storyline of medicine's advancement from empirical to experimental techniques and shows that the medical lab is the real source of medical authority.

Three distinct cycles in the annals of medicine are associated with three different places and therefore different ways of determining identification: From the center ages to the 18th century, bedside treatments was common; then between 1794 and 1848 emerged hospital medication; and from that time forward, laboratory medication has offered as medicine's lodestar. The laboratory's contribution to modern remedies has only been recently acknowledged by historians as something more than the addition of another resource to medical knowledge and is now being loved as the seats of drugs, where clinicians take into account what they notice in their patients.

The first medical diagnoses created by humans were predicated on what ancient medical doctors could observe using their eyes and ears, which sometimes also included the study of real human specimens. The old Greeks attributed all disease to disorders of fluids called humors, and during the late medieval period, doctors regularly performed uroscopy. Later, the microscope revealed not only the mobile structure of individual cells, but also the microorganisms that cause disease. More advanced diagnostic tools and techniques - like the thermometer for measuring heat and the stethoscope for calculating heartrate - were not in widespread use until the end of the 19th century. The professional medical laboratory wouldn't normally become a standard fixture of drugs until the beginning of the 20th century.

Ancient diagnostic methods

In early Egypt and Mesopotamia, the initial medical doctors made diagnoses and advised treatments based generally on observation of scientific symptoms. Palpation and auscultation were also used. Medical professionals were able to identify dysfunctions of the digestive tract, heart and blood flow, the liver and spleen, and menstrual disturbances; sadly, this empiric medicine was reserved for royalty and the rich.

Other less-than-scientific ways of diagnosis found in treating the center and lower classes included divination through ritual sacrifice to predict the results of condition. Usually a sheep would be killed prior to the statue of your god. Its liver was examined for malformations or peculiarities; the shape of the lobes and the orientation of the normal duct were then used to anticipate the fate of the patient.

Ancient medical professionals also commenced the practice of examining patient specimens. The oldest known test on body essential fluids was done on urine in historical times (before 400 BC). Urine was poured on the ground and seen to see whether it enticed pests. If it performed, patients were identified as having boils.

The ancient Greeks also observed the worthiness in analyzing body essential fluids to anticipate disease. At around 300 BC, Hippocrates advertised the utilization of the mind and senses as diagnostic tools, a process that played a large part in his reputation as the "Father of Drugs. " The central Hippocratic doctrine of humoral pathology attributed all disease to disorders of fluids of your body. To secure a clear picture of disease, Hippocrates advocated a diagnostic standard protocol that included tasting the patient's urine, listening to the lungs, and observing skin color and other outward performances. Beyond that, the physician was to "understand the individual as an individual. " Hippocrates related the looks of bubbles on the top of urine specimens to kidney disease and persistent disorder. He also related certain urine sediments and blood vessels and pus in urine to disease. The first information of hematuria or the presence of blood vessels in urine, by Rufus of Ephesus surfaced at around Advertisement 50 and was attributed to the failure of kidneys to operate properly in filtering the blood vessels.

Later (c. Advertisement 180), Galen (Advertisement 131-201), who is recognized as the founder of experimental physiology, created something of pathology that blended Hippocrates' humoral ideas with the Pythagorean theory, which organised that the four elements (earth, air, flames, and drinking water), corresponded to various combos of the physiologic qualifies of dried out, cool, hot, and damp. These mixtures of physiologic characteristics corresponded roughly to the four humors of the body: hot moist = blood vessels; hot dry out = yellowish bile; cold damp = phlegm; and chilly dry = black bile. Galen was known for explaining everything in light of his theory and then for having a conclusion for everything. He also described diabetes as "diarrhea of urine" and observed the normal romance between fluid absorption and urine volume level. His unwavering idea in his own infallibility appealed to complacency and reverence for expert. That dogmatism essentially brought innovation and finding in European medication to a standstill for nearly 14 ages. Anything associated with anatomy, physiology, and disease was simply referenced back to Galen as the final authority from whom there may be no appeal.

Middle Ages

In medieval European countries, early Christians assumed that disease was either abuse for sin or the consequence of witchcraft or ownership. Identification was superfluous. The basic therapy was prayer, penitence, and invocation of saints. Lay medicine based medical diagnosis on symptoms, evaluation, pulse, palpitation, percussion, and inspection of excreta and sometimes semen. Diagnosis by "normal water casting" (uroscopy) was used, and the urine flask became the emblem of middle ages medicine. By Advertising 900, Isaac Judaeus, a Jewish medical professional and philosopher, acquired devised suggestions for the use of urine as a diagnostic aid; and under the Jerusalem Code of 1090, failure to examine the urine subjected your physician to public beatings. Patients taken their urine to health professionals in decorative flasks cradled in wicker baskets, and because urine could be sent, medical diagnosis at long distance was common. The first e book detailing the colour, density, quality, and sediment found in urine was written around this time, as well. By around Advertising 1300, uroscopy became so wide-spread that it was at the idea of near universality in Western european medicine.

Consequently, the medical laboratory became a typical fixture of remedies at the start of the 20th century; it is now a fundamental element of the health-care delivery process and is seen as the basis for medical examination.

In recent times a medical lab scientist (MLS), formerly known as a medical technologist (MT) or specialized medical laboratory scientist (CLS), functions as a medical detective, doing laboratory tests that provide medical professionals with information that assists them in avoiding, diagnosing and treating diseases and maintaining patient wellbeing.

The medical laboratory scientist performs a wide variety of laboratory tests, which range from simple dipstick urine lab tests to complex DNA exams that help medical professionals assess threat of diseases. Using test outcomes, physicians can discover diabetes, cancer, heart attacks, attacks and a great many other diseases.

Medical laboratory scientists interact with medical doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and other people of the health care team to provide timely, accurate information therefore the patient can have the correct medical treatment.

Medical laboratory researchers use sophisticated biomedical tools and technology, microscopes, sophisticated electronic equipment, computers, and methods necessitating manual dexterity to perform tests on blood vessels, body liquids, and cells specimens. Clinical laboratory testing sections include scientific chemistry, hematology, Immunohematology (Blood Bank or investment company), immunology, microbiology and molecular diagnostics.

EFFECTS OF MEDICAL LABORATORIES

Medical Laboratories have played a pivotal role over time. As stated above, in old times, physicians relied on various inaccurate means of disease prognosis such as urine tasting, listening to the lungs etc. However with the advent and subsequent development of modern medical laboratory facilities, plus the discovery of the mobile nature of individual tissue and the invention of the microscope, medical diagnosis made a tremendous jump from a 50-50 accuracy and reliability ratio to the 80% accuracy rating for laboratory based mostly medical diagnosis. Which means use of medical laboratories has greatly increased the reliability of identification; hence the doctor can administer the proper kind of treatment.

The use of laboratories in addition has led to various discoveries, such as new strands of Trojans, bacterias, parasites and fungi. In addition, it works as a screen for new strands of medicine resistant bacteria.

CHALLENGES Experienced BY MEDICAL LABORATORIES

The main problems and bottle-necks came across by medical laboratories through the years include.

Inability to preserve patient examples or specimens such as blood vessels, sputum, stool, over an extended period of time for guide purposes hence making patient to specimen matching and traffic monitoring,

Efficient information showing and retrieval between the laboratory scientist and those administering treatment is a problem.

MEDICAL LABORATORIES: Advancements AND THE FUTURE

For the reliable working of the prognosis system, health-care delivery, medical research into bacteriology and disease leading to organisms, technology should be employed to automate administrative jobs, such as the visitor enrollment and result records. By making judicious use of computer software to automate and control duties in the laboratory there will be a dramatic increase in its efficiency.

Consequently this will help reduce the need to recruit and pay personnel to carry out administrative obligations therefore such resources can be channeled towards more important needs of the lab.

TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM/PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE TO BE UTILIZED IN STUDY

The solutions to be utilized in the development of this Lab Information Management system can be an open source programming language known as PHP, as well as a MYSQL driven database, a solid internet browser based application will be developed.

PHP: PHP also called Hypertext Pre-processor, it belongs to a class of languages known as middleware (Needham, 2006). These languages work carefully with the web server to interpret the question made from the net, processes these need, connect to other programs on the server to fulfill the demand and then signifies to the web server exactly what to provide to the client's browser.

It is the leading web program writing language for design of web applications. It has a language very much like C, Java or Pearl. Its uses include: retrieving individual input and keeping it in a repository, retrieving information from a databases and general data manipulation functions.

THE Customer: Simply identifies customers of an application that connect to a remote control server to carry out computational processes

THE SERVER: An application known as a web server listens for requests a client makes, responds to people requests and acts out the appropriate response (Greenspan, 2002)

MYSQL: Identifies an open source relational database management system with a set of programs that access and change these information. (Descartes, 2003).

It is a relational databases management system (RDBMS) that runs as a server providing multi-user usage of lots of directories.

APACHE WEB SERVER:

Apache is a web server noteworthy for participating in an important role in the initial progress of the world-wide web.

It is responsible for accepting Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) question from web client (web browsers) and offering the HTTP responses along with optional data content which usually are HTML internet pages.

These platforms are being used in this research work because:

There are "open source" so this means there are absolve to use and develop with with no to buy licenses or fulfill any legal obligation to the owners of the technology.

It is simple to deploy on a local machine

Its hardware requirements are little therefore making its set up and use less troublesome.

Developer tools and support services for the program/technology are plentiful at absolutely no cost.

DATA COLLECTED FOR Lab TEST

Lab Exploration Form: This form is used for standard patient sign up and data collection. Data gathered upon this form include

Patient Name

Patient age

Hospital Number

Specimen

Blood Specimen

Sputum

Stool

Urea

Various Swap

Investigation Record

Clinic Details

Name of Doctor

Lab Request E book: Used to track record Patients data with the day.

Name

Lab Exploration Done

Amount

Time in

Data Collected for laboratory tests

Lab result reserve (Useful for saving patients results)

Patients Name

Date of birth

Gender

Test Results

Date

Hospital enrollment Number

Extra Comments

SUMMARY

The use of technological solutions greatly reduces costs, increase gains, save human work and provide better services to customers/clients

The use of LIS (Lab information System) in the running of any medical laboratory center greatly enhances the paperwork process; makes patients information retrieval easier and faster, information are not lost and are stored safe via regular back up of the available data.

With the utilization of a Lab information system, various types of data deductions, studies and reviews can be easily made for statistical purposes such as the average ratio of folks with a certain kind of disease, Genotype or blood type etc.

CONCLUSION

A properly developed Medical Laboratory information system will greatly increase output, improve the quality of services shipped by the center and greatly reduce the quantity of man hours placed into the providing the lab services

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