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Local Area Network Standard protocol Standards Information Technology Essay

Local area network referred to a network that works inside a building such as office, company and office at home. LAN are being used in small geographical area. LAN is in a position in moving data in an exceedingly fast speed that can up to 10Mbps in limited network distance. You can find two types of network architecture that can be implemented in the local area network, peer-to-peer networking and client-server networking. The common types of connections which used in LAN are Ethernet and Token Diamond ring.

LAN Expectations and Protocols

Each network has its own rules and criteria. Therefore, protocols are use in network technology to govern the communication between network and network. There are many different types of protocols, the most typical protocol found in the OSI data web page link part in LAN are Ethernet and Token Diamond ring.


Ethernet is the most well-known type of local area network that most greatly installed in office buildings, home offices and companies. The typical of any Ethernet is IEEE 802. 3. Ethernet normally are being used coaxial cable television and sometimes different marks of twisted-pair cable as the transmission medium.

Token Ring

Token Diamond ring is a network that attaches computer systems in a star or band topology. It is originally produced by IBM Company. There will have a token band that passed through the network to allow computers to gain access to the network. The standard for Token Wedding ring network is IEEE 802. 5. A token little bit will move around the diamond ring from computer to some other computer. If the computer needs to transmit a data, the info will attach to the token and move to the next computer. It has to keep passing through personal computers in the network until it comes to the destination. When the computer doesn't want to transmit any data, the token diamond ring will just go to the next computer.


Token Ring


Cost Effective

Flexible to use in celebrity and bus topologies

Simplicity of installation

Scalable, support upgrade

Allow packets to have turns to transfer, avoid collision.


System will down during the heavy traffic in the network.

Needs proper network planning before installed.

Difficult to set up.

Not cost effective.


After comparing both Ethernet and Token Wedding ring, I put chosen Ethernet as the LAN process for the network. The very major reason of using Ethernet is because of its availableness and popularity in today's network system.

Secondly, it is simple to install and its scalability support enhancements in future. That is very important for the business as the company is still producing and must be adding more personnel in the future.

Thirdly, the swiftness of Ethernet is fast and can support transfer velocity from 1Mbps up to 100Mbps.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

Wide area network described a network that joining multiples of LAN network along in a wide range. The distance selection of a WAN can be between country and country. A very good example of WAN is the web.

WAN are connected by using a router. A router can help to choose the best option course for a connection to reach to the destination. WAN are categorised into two main ways which is circuit switching and packet turning.

Circuit Switching

Circuit Turning is an association will be establish between 2 network nodes before they can begin transmitting data.

The bandwidth is merely dedicated for this connection.

The interconnection will be terminated after the data transmission ends.

Examples for circuit turning are the phone networks.

Packet Switching

In packet transitioning, data is broken up into packets before sent to the destination.

There is a destination address and sequencing information atlanta divorce attorneys packet.

When attaining at vacation spot node, the packets need to be reassembled.


Leased lines will be used in the proposed network. Leased lines normally are used in private networks. Advantages of using a leased line is basically because it is dedicated for private use only, folks from other network will not have the opportunity to gain access to the leased brand. The drawback of using leased lines could it be is very costly compare to other WAN requirements. Therefore, the transferring speed when connect each office in WAN is very fast and reliable. Leased lines interconnection is available a day every day. Therefore, it is very suitable to

Internet Connection

In order of to connect the users to the Internet in the network, we need to have an internet connection to access the web. In here, I choose Symmetric Digital Subscriber Collection (SDSL) for the company.

SDSL provides the identical bandwidth for downstream and upstream for the connection. This is very ideal for business companies because they have big utilization on uploading information to the web and also download information from the Internet.

Here, we used T1 range which is 1. 54Mbps with the SDSL for the internet connection of the business. SDSL will require a modem in order to connect to the web. The modem will be provided by the neighborhood service provider.

Networks Architecture

Peer to peer networking

Peer to peer networking is thought as "a kind of network in which each workstation has similar capabilities and responsibilities" (About. com, 2010).

Small Scale

Peer to peer networking is a network architecture which created for small level business that can support 10-15 numbers of users. Therefore, if the business is having a plan to upgrade the network in the future, peer to peer marketing definitely is not ideal for the company.

Resource Sharing

Secondly, peer to peer networking doesn't have the power of sharing data files, printers, projectors and etc. Therefore, if the company uses peer to peer networking, they probably have issues on resources posting.

Data Redundancy

Thirdly, just as conditions of peer, means there is absolutely no centralized server for the network, each computer works as individual. Because of this, it is difficult for user to get data and synchronize data as the info are stored separately at different computer systems.



No dedicated administrator.

No security on the network

No dedicated server required.

No centralization on network

Each workstation has specific resources.

Limited amounts of user.

Cost effective

Too many passwords to remember

Client-server networking

Client-server describes a kind of computer software architecture within network computing that designates responsibilities between clients that instigate demands and servers that process demands. (E-How. com, 2010)


In client-server networking, information are stored in a centralized server and allows ten pcs or above to access them and share information throughout the network. Centralization also makes the finding of resources easier as all the resources are stored in a centralized server.


Scalability is also one of quite truth in client-server network. Making use of this architecture, the network is able to scale to a certain numbers of users and also can expand in the future if needed.


Thirdly, security is forget about a concern in client-server networking because only competent user with valid login account can usage of the system.



Scalability - can support upgrade.

Not cost effective because of the high price of server.

Higher efficiency and optimization.

Dependability on server. If any point of the server fails, the system will be facing failure.

Centralised network, resources, users are control through the server.

Need to maintain by high skill specialist, hence higher maintenance fees.

Flexibility, new technology can be integrated into the network easily.

Will be suffering from congestion during heavy traffic.


After comparing both peer-to-peer networking and client-server networking, the architecture that would best suits the business is client-server networking. Considering the company continues to be growing and probably having extension of networking in the foreseeable future, the amount of staffs in the business in the number of 35-40 users, the scalability, versatility, centralization and security characteristic of client-server network will be the best choice.


Star Topology

The star topology is the most frequent network topology that most home and office are employing. Computer and other devices in star topology are connected to the guts and attached on a small device called the central hub. The central hub performs the role of the switch to regulate the stream from the source machine to the destination machine. The central can either be considered a hub, router or change.

Mesh Topology

Every computer and device in this topology will have a fervent link to each device. They can be connected using point-to-point. In case a network has n device, then your network will have n (n-1)/2 link connected to each device.

Bus Topology

Bus topology is a network that attaches all computers in a single backbone. The backbone functions as a showing program where all devices in the network may use the backbone to copy data.

Ring Topology

In wedding ring topology, pcs and devices are linked with the device on the both area of computer and forms a ring condition. A sign will be exceeded along the wedding ring shape in mere one direction from one to some other till it gets to its destination. These devices in the wedding ring topology contains with a repeater to regenerate the transmission and transferred them through the network.


Cable Media




Twisted Pair

Fiber Optic

Easy to install because of its simplicity.

Easy to install, replace or remove computer systems or other devices during expansion

When one node fails, it won't have an impact on the other nodes.

Fully reliant on the central hub, when the hub fails the whole network will fail.

Need a great deal of cabling to connect many pcs.


Twisted Pair


Has dedicated link to each computer

Easy to recognize the mistake node.

Lack of centralization.

Data redundancy at each computer.


Twisted Pair


Fiber Optic

Less cabling

Low cost

Easy to extend

System will decelerate during heavy network traffic

If the back bone failed, it'll affect the complete system


Twisted Pair

Easy in installing or reconfiguring

If one node fails, the whole network will be affected

Difficult to add new nodes to the network.

Difficulty in troubleshooting.


In this task, we were asked to ascertain the right topology that the ICT Resources Malaysia People Small Company will be need within any office. Therefore, after performing a lot of researches in network topologies, we finally decided to choose celebrity bus hybrid topology as the business's topology.

Hybrid topology

Hybrid topologies in essence is a topology which combines two type or more than two types of basic topology and inherits their advantages and make it better and usable compare to only using one type of topology.



Hybrid topology are customize made to meet the dependence on the network.

Nodes in the network can be broadened and removed easily.

Combines the convenience and mistake tolerance from bus and celebrity topologies.

Can find out the failed node when a node is not working and completed diagnostic test without influence the other area of the network.

Some specific device in hybrid topology may not suitable to use in other network topology and they become not reusable.

Transmission Medium

Transmission multimedia allows a link between sender and receiver. Transmitting medium are classified into two main categories which is guided mass media and unguided advertising.

Twisted pair cable

Twisted pair cable television is a type of line that twists jointly in pairs. The reason why the cable has been twisted jointly is to decrease the electromagnetic interference and noise that affect the info transmission along the cable. Twisted match cable tv has two different categories, Unshielded Twisted Set (UTP) and Shielded Twisted Set (STP).

Coaxial Cable

Coaxial cable is a kind of cable that contains a copper conductor in the guts. In addition, it has a steel foil part and braid which both is included in an external conductor. The metal foil layer helps to block interference that will have an effect on the cable tv. The coaxial cable carries a higher frequency indication compares to twisted pair cords. Coaxial cables are categorized by the air government ranking which called the RG amounts.

Fiber Optic Cable

Fiber optic cables have goblet conductors in its center. Fiber optic wires use light to transmit data rather than using electricity signal. It uses reflection to guide light travels along the channel. Fibers optic has two propagation setting, single mode and multi-mode. Multi-mode has two varieties which can be step index and graded index.

Twisted Pair


Fibre Optic






4mbps - 100mbps

10Mbps- 600Mbps

Up to 2Gbps


Reduce noises and combination talks

Cost effective

Readily available


Lighter weight compare to other press.

Easy to install

Higher bandwidth

Less vulnerable to disturbance than twisted pair

Resistance to noise

Less indication attenuation

Higher Bandwidth


Vulnerable to sign distortion.

Low bandwidth.

Expensive to purchase

Bulky compared to twisted match.

Very expensive.

Difficulty in unit installation or maintenance

Need skillful technician for maintenance.

Fragility- Glass fiber content inside the cable television are often broken


UTP and Fibre Optic Cable television are chosen for this network. The fibre optic cable tv will use as the back bone for the Ethernet and the UTP will be used as connecting the machines and devices in the network.

The reason fiber content optic cables are used as the trunk bone in Ethernet since it has a very high bandwidth. In bus topology, the bandwidth of the backbone will reduce during heavy traffic; therefore if using dietary fiber optic cables, the bandwidth increase and won't lower easily. Fiber content optic cable tv is highly security and not have an effect on by electromagnetic disturbance.

For the UTP, its weight is lighter compare to STP since it doesn't have the outer shield. Second, it is cost effective than using coaxial wire. Besides that, UTP has high availability in the market. When the wires are broken, alternative cable can be bought from the marketplace easily.


File Server

File server is a central storage space of any network. It provides access control for individual to access files, folder in a same network. User can share files and information without in physical form transfer using USB drive or portable hard disk drive.

FTP Server

File transfer process server is one of the oldest of the web service. It offers security and copy control in transferring data.

Web Server

Provide web gain access to and web storage to the users on the network.

Application Server

Application server serves as a middleware of the back-end software of the network and the front-end end user. It allows users gain access to the applications which stored in the databases.

Print Server

Print server allows users in a network to talk about printers. User may use any computer printer in the network to printing files rather than connecting every computer with a printer. This will certainly reduce the cost to buy printers.

Database Server

Database server is a server that stores repository for an organization in a server. Data source machines do job such as analyzing data, data storage space, data manipulation and etc.

Email Server

Email server accountable in receiving e-mail from the network and send out the email to the receivers in another network. Email machines use SMTP (Simple Main Transfer Protocol) and POP3 (POSTOFFICE Process) when sending and getting email.


There are 5 protocols that I choose to apply in the network:


Hypertext transfer process (HTTP) is a protocol that used in being able to access data in the web. It exchanges information such as image, hypertext, audio, video tutorial and etc. It used the service of TCP to copy information. HTTP is utilized in the application form covering of the OSI model.


Dynamic web host control process is a process that will auto assigning powerful Ip to the machines on the network. Whenever a computer connects to the network, it'll send a get to the DHCP Server and ask for IP assigning. Then the server will send an offer to the device then your machine encourage the IP. The machine is then connected to the network.


Internet Protocol is the most typical protocol which used in the Internet. It is utilized in the network covering in the OSI model. Its job is to send data in one computer to another. Data are shattered into packet and every packet has a header and its own information.


TCP is a process that allows two hosts to make a connection and transferring data. In addition, it guarantees the copy of data packets and make sure they arrived at vacation spot in the same order like these were sent out. It is in the transport coating of the OSI model.


Internet Control Communication Process (ICMP) is a process that used to test the response of destination.

LAN Diagram

WAN Diagram

Floor Plan

Ground Floor

The departments that located in the bottom floor are the Human Resource Team and the Sales and Marketing Team. The human source office has 4 staff whereas the sales and marketing office has 6 staff. You will find two printers in this floor.

First floor

First Floor

The CEO and secretary room is situated at the very first floor. The server room of the network also located at the 1st floor. You will discover two other departments in this floor that are Operation Department and Financial Section. Each of the departments has six individuals. A couple of two printers in this floor.

Second Floor

At the second floor, there are customer service department and IT office. Customer service office has 3 workers and IT Section has 6 personnel.



Although the network has a firewall to avoid network episode from hackers, it is still not good enough to fully obstructing hackers from attacking the network. Therefore, the security of the network s


Performance of the network will be afflicted by the switches in the star topology. If the switches failed, the division will be infected. The performance of the network also will be afflicted by the backbone of the bus.

Gantt chart

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