The idea of Local Plan 21 was initially unveiled in 1987 at a meeting of world leaders in Norway. Throughout that meeting the members agreed that the planet has to adopt insurance policies of "sustainable development" to be able to move ahead. Officially the Local Plan 21 was then launched at the Rio Globe Summit in 1992, organised by the US where more than 100 countries and associates greater than 10000 organizations agreed to work out local agendas for sustainable living. Each country displayed was then encouraged to develop a LA21 plan with the agenda set by the city itself rather than by the central government.
Since 1992, more than 6, 400 municipalities in 113 countries have been working to accelerate the changeover to sustainable, equitable and secure communities. In EU a large number of Local Regulators have a Local Agenda 21 plan although in countries like Greece for example this initiative is not always under the name of Agenda 21. In the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 there was a review of the improvement manufactured in Local Agenda 21. The participants were satisfied of the progress made but also described new opportunities to look at concrete steps and identify quantifiable goals for better implementing Plan 21 as the best strategies are just as effective as their execution.
The major results and announcements from the Johannesburg Summit regarding Local Agenda 21 and Energy were:
Increasing energy convenience - Although energy services have been extended to new groups of consumers, there continues to be a significant range of residents in rural and distant areas still lack access to sufficient energy resources.
Changing creation and consumption habits - Within a whole lot of countries there is an intro of procedures and programs for pushing energy saving and efficiency in a variety of sectors. This got because of this to:
- Reduce the growth rate of energy utilization.
- Improve the efficiency of energy vegetation, but also the circulation efficiencies and electricity transmission;
- Support for the planning of energy audits,
- The creation of specialised national bodies of knowledge in the energy area; and
- Dissemination for elevating public understanding for energy personal savings and sustainable development.
- Promotion of renewable resources of energy - improvement has been achieved to advertise the use of green energy systems.
Introduction of cleaner fuels and systems - the last few decades there was a significant upsurge in the utilization of gas. There was also commercialisation of some new green energy. The usage of combined-cycle electricity generation systems in addition has become more common in market sectors and the energy sector.
Energy and travel - There was a great deal of new policies which have been applied throughout the developed and developing countries. For instance in European Union there was a music group on leaded gasoline. In growing countries like Egypt for example, there is a motivation program in Cairo that recognized a change to natural gas vehicles; The outcome of this effort was to increase large the amount of vehicles using natural gas now there are usually more than 27000 such vehicles are already in use. Pilot projects to use fuel cells for buses are also under consideration in some elements of the region.
Promotion of local assistance - the 1990s observed noticeable progress in regional co-operation in the sector. That is manifest by the realisation of an regional electricity grid interconnection between countries in the European Union. Also, as European Union broadened to the East nowadays there are even more opportunities for further cooperation between your old EU countries with the newbies.
Finally and perhaps the most crucial announcement was the unveiling of Local Action 21 - Local Action 21 builds upon the worldwide successes of Local Agenda 21 since Rio. Local Action 21 fills in Agenda 21 in regards the execution of Agenda 21, it symbolizes a move from Plan to Action, from plan to practice.
Energy is an integral issue on Plan 21 as it recognises its importance for individuals efficiency and development. So, energy receives significant coverage within the majority of the chapters of Plan 21. It addresses the importance and the partnership of energy use and lasting development. In particular explains the value of energy supply, demand, and advises ways for the change from unsustainable to sustainable approaches to energy management.
For example in Chapter 4 it states the importance of changing consumption patterns and it offers suggestions of how economies can reduce the use of energy and damaging materials without diminishing their growth. This can be achieved by better efficiency in the use of energy and resources by deciding on the best technology and resources to produce goods and services which otherwise could have required quite a lot of energy. Government authorities should cooperate giving initiatives to industry to use energy and resources efficiently and with special focus on the environment.
In section 6 Plan 21 highlights how badly the surroundings has been destroyed consequently of past and present developments in consumption and production patterns and standards of living in energy creation and use of folks in developed and raising world, but also because of industry's bad routines. This has consequently hundreds of millions of people to undergo of pollution related conditions. Therefore, in chapter 6 it is suggested to establish environmental health impact analysis procedures for the look and development of new business and energy facilities as well as promote the launch of environmentally acoustics systems within the industry and energy sectors.
In chapter 7 of the neighborhood Plan 21 is obviously identified that the promotion of lasting energy and transport is one of the best ways of obtaining sustainability. It urges to increase the efforts of energy preservation and promote alternative energy techniques and systems. It calls to use energy efficient building materials and use a built-in approach to buildings as needed. This is important as the building sector today is one of the major customer of energy and any energy conservation made on this sector will contribute significantly to the reduced amount of energy use.
Chapter 9 identifies that the safeguard of the atmosphere is an essential element of sustainable development and therefore energy generated polluting of the environment should be reduced. Therefore, all the different energy options should be utilized with techniques that value the atmosphere as well as the individuals health and the planet all together. To achieve this, cooperation between different associates is important in order to recognize and develop financially viable and green energy resources for achieving the increasing energy needs (specifically for the fast developing countries).
The above implies that energy development, efficiency and consumptions are one of the main issues of Plan 21. Energy is well understood that is vital to both social improvement and economic development and plays a part in better standard of living. Within the last few ages has been realised that a lot of the world's energy, is produced and used with techniques that cannot be sustained if technology were to stay constant in case overall volumes were to increase greatly.
According to recent technological findings the need to control atmospheric emissions of greenhouse and other gases and chemicals, will increasingly have to be based on the reliable use of energy (in conditions of production, transmission, distribution and consumption), and on growing reliance on environmentally acoustics energy systems, such as new and renewable resources of energy. Which means that all energy options will need to be used in ways that admiration the atmosphere, human being health and the planet all together. At the moment there are significant constraints to increasing the environmentally reasonable energy materials in expanding world including the world economic crisis.
In order to beat any obstacles and help countries and people take up to Local Agenda commitments, Plan 21 sets up suggestions for activities that government authorities at the correct level, with the cooperation of the relevant United Nations systems and, as appropriate, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and the private sector, should follow. These are:
Environmentally sound energy sources - Cooperate in determining and expanding environmentally sound energy options and economically practical to support the option of increased energy resources to promote lasting development work, specially in expanding countries;
Environmental Impact assessments - Promote the development at the nationwide degree of appropriate methodologies to make integrated energy, economical and environment plan decisions for ecological development, through environmental impact assessments;
Modernisation of old electricity channels - Promote the study, development, transfer and use of superior energy-efficient practices and technologies, including endogenous technology in every relevant sectors, presenting special focus on the modernization and treatment of vitality systems;
Promotion of green energy technology - Overcome any barriers found in the way of the introduction of green energy technology to market the research, development, transfer and use of solutions and techniques for green energy systems such as biomass energy technology, blowing wind energy, solar solutions hydro among others.
Energy capacities - Promote the development of institutional, planning, methodical and management capacities, in order to encourage guidelines which targets energy efficiency and environmental cover.
Energy examination of energy resource mixes - Analyze current energy source mixes in order to upsurge in an economically efficient manner, in growing and developed countries, the use of environmentally acoustics energy systems and triumph over any barriers with their development and use.
Evaluation and advertising of affordable plans - Improvement of energy efficiency by promoting cost-effective guidelines in accordance with nationwide socio-economic development and environmental priorities of an country.
Good planning and programme management - Build capacity for programme management and energy planning in energy efficiency, as well for the development, intro, and advertising of new and green resources of energy;
Establishment of criteria - Promote appropriate emission expectations or advice and energy efficiency at the national level, aimed at the development and use of systems that minimize undesirable impacts on the environment;
Education & recognition programs - Encourage awareness-raising programs at the local, national and regional levels regarding how energy affects the surroundings and what you can do to minimise our environmental footprint by smart use of energy.
Energy labelling - Establish, in co-operation with the private sector, labelling programs for products to inform consumers of energy ingestion and benefits of choosing the most effective products.
In summary Plan 21 and Local Action 21 as it was created in a later level sets up some main targets for the energy. The basic & most important objective is to reduce adverse effects on the atmosphere from the vitality sector. This can be done by promoting procedures or programmes, as appropriate, to improve the contribution of environmentally sensible and cost-effective energy systems, such as new and renewable ones, through less polluting and more efficient energy production, transmitting, circulation and use. In order to meet this purpose it should be understood the necessity for equity, satisfactory energy products and increasing energy use in producing countries. Specifically it should be taken into account countries that are highly reliant on income produced from the creation, control and export, and/or consumption of fossil fuels and associated energy-intensive products and/or the utilization of fossil fuels for which countries have serious problems in switching to alternatives, but also countries that are highly vulnerable to undesireable effects of climate change.
In European Union, although there was a significant improvement on the execution of Agenda 21 you may still find lots that need to be done. The insurance policies and tools that have been used by the European union are numerous which is not of the range of this report to mention, therefore we speak about just three key goals that has been set up by European union to be found by 2020, they are:
Cut off at least 20% in greenhouse gas emissions from all primary energy sources compared to 1990 levels.
20% of energy utilization should come up by renewable sources and
Achieve a 20% energy conservation by 2020 in energy ingestion through energy efficiency.
The above goals could only be achieved if citizens take action responsible on how they use energy by recognising that the way they choose to live a life has a primary impact to the surroundings.