Studybay uses cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to use Studybay you accept our use of cookies view more on our Cookie Policy

Literature Review Tuberculosis Article HEALTH INSURANCE AND Social Care and attention Essay

According to the globe Health Organization, a 3rd of the world's people is contaminated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (World Health Company). New situations were believed to # 9 9. 4 million with 1. 8 million fatalities in 2008 (Thomas). Gary Maartens and Robert J. Wilkinson printed an assessment in the December, 2007 problem of The Lancet that outlines the existing condition of tuberculosis(TB) nowadays. Specifically, the authors report on the position of research, diagnostic techniques, treatment options and the epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis in Africa.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterial causative agent of a disease that is a leading cause of death for a lot of earth's history and still is for many developing countries. Maarten and Wilkinson observed recent regional changes in the occurrence of TB with advancements manufactured in many locations while incidence in sub-Saharan Africa has increased. This increase is correlated with the HIV epidemic in Africa and reveals complex obstacles in the task of managing TB. Furthermore to HIV, multidrug-resistant and thoroughly drug-resistant (XDR) strains of tuberculosis take into account more and more new conditions and repeated disease in recently treated patients. The authors state that 4% of patients worldwide have a multidrug-resistant pressure. Included in that percentage are patients with XDR strains. One reported research of the tuberculosis outbreak in HIV-infected individuals revealed that 24% of those patients experienced XDR strains which resulted in a 98% fatality rate (52 of 53 patients). Genetic analysis of the bacterium suggested that transmission of the TB have been recent and it was mentioned that two-thirds of the afflicted patients had been hospitalized in the two years prior. The matter is that they may have attained the XDR stress of TB while hospitalized, highlighting the necessity for better treatments plus more precaution when dealing with these patients. Without improvements in rapid analysis and treatment, the occurrence of drug-resistant strains will continue to rise.

Genomic analysis has become an important tool in understanding microorganisms and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been extensively studied and its own genes have been sequenced. Research conducted on 875 different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 80 countries has resulted in the discovery of six distinct lineages of TB that seem to be to acquire adaptations to specific populations of humans. For example, the east African-Asian stress affects people of Indian origin, no matter where they currently live. Another stress, W/Beijing, has less specificity, influencing people all around the globe, but it also seems to be more virulent. Each of these strains is the result of mutations in the DNA of the bacterium. Different strains of TB have different mechanisms which allow them to modulate or suppress the immune system response. Many of these mechanisms have to do with the substances that comprise the mycobacterial cell wall such as phenolic glycolipids. Two large studies have determined that membrane-associated proteins, molecular transporters, and ion stations play a vital role in the virulence of TB. These discoveries not only help experts better understand the pathogenesis of tuberculosis; they also provide new goals for treatment.

In addition to the genetics of the bacteria, the genetic cosmetic of the host is critical. Specific receptors on real human macrophages discover specific substances of the cell wall structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and trigger cellular signaling cascades that can lead to greater host amount of resistance or increased susceptibility to TB. Two of the receptors involved have a job in vitamin supplements D activation and a deficiency of this vitamin has been noted in a few tuberculosis cases, leading the authors to speculate about the probability of vitamin supplements D supplementation for elimination. Mutations in one of these cellular signaling pathways were shown in a series of studies to predispose individuals to "severe atypical mycobacterial microbe infections. " This type of inquiry, identifying the precise genetic mutations that give climb to virulence factors in the bacterias or increased susceptibility in the variety, could lead to huge advancements in the understanding and eventual eradication of TB, but the authors point out these studies would need to be extensive, which compatible expensive.

Diagnosis and treatment for tuberculosis hasn't significantly evolved in decades. Microscopic evaluation and bacterial culturing will be the standard protocols used to discover a TB contamination, but these techniques have drawbacks, the most evident being enough time and labor involved in culturing. Maarten and Wilkinson express the clear by expressing a desire for a more delicate test that is quick and affordable. A couple of emerging candidates are reviewed, including nucleic-acid amplification checks and enzyme-linked immunospot evaluation (ELISpot examination). Nucleic-acid amplification checks have not shown to be significantly better at identifying TB. Also, they are expensive and require particular equipment, making them unsuitable for use generally in most growing countries with limited resources. The ELISpot research, however, has promises for the reason that it shows greater sensitivity and specificity than the tuberculosis pores and skin test (TST), particularly in differentiating between exposure to TB and an active infection. In addition to examining whether a patient is coping with a tuberculosis disease, it is advisable to know if the tension of TB is drug-resistant. Current ways of determining drug level of resistance require 6-8 weeks, but microscopic examination of liquid culture development can be carried out within 10 times and has the features of being inexpensive and common, even to locations with limited resources. HIV disease further complicates prognosis of tuberculosis and a persistence is frequently made based entirely on specialized medical symptoms and x-rays. This may lead to faster treatment, but could also be a contributing factor in the creation of protected strains.

Current ways of treatment require a cocktail of medications considered for at least half a year. This protocol typically has great results, even in patients with HIV. The treatment strategy utilized internationally is called "directly seen treatment short course (DOTS). " This method of control has added to gains manufactured in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, but still has many shortcomings. The authors advocate a combined approach and point to high adherence rates for HIV treatments with a far more patient centered methodology, which empowers the individual to manage themselves rather than confirming to a medical clinic to be observed going for a medication.

The medications used to treat TB have evolved very little and new medications are frantically needed, especially in light of the increase in drug-resistant strains. A popular medication, rifamycin is proving to be less effective in patients with HIV because of the development of level of resistance or because of some metabolic rate reducing the attention of the medication in their physiques. Fluoroquinolones have been shown to work but appear to be susceptible to fast development of resistance and toxicity. The authors article on two new antimycobaterial drugs that have novel mechanisms of action and are in the process of evaluation.

The issues of dealing with patients with HIV and TB are numerous. A lot of the symptoms of TB are due to immune system response (immunopathological), however the immune system systems of HIV patients already are suppressed. The medications to take care of TB can further reduce the immune response leading to an increase in viral load and the likelihood of more opportunistic microbe infections. In addition, several medications are actually hepatotoxic, which HIV patients are even less prepared to handle. Problems can also include "paradoxical deterioration" whereby the treatment of HIV leads to a worsening of TB symptoms. Quite point is that more research must understand the disease fighting capability operation in concurrent attacks of TB and HIV.

The treatment of latent microbe infections is aimed at preventing these infections from becoming productive, especially in immunocompromised patients. The most frequent strategy is a 6-12 month span of isoniazid. Although widely used, this treatment holds the same dangers of medication amount of resistance and hepatotoxicity as other TB drugs. More information on the physiology of latent microbe infections could lead to better drugs and better strategies for treatment.

Vaccination, which is accessible in Europe, but not used in america, has shown some efficiency in stopping severe TB microbe infections in children, however the length and strength of cover is in question. Tuberculosis continues to be transmitted, allowing the continuing pass on of the bacteria. Novel vaccines are being examined and some show assurance to provide better security. The authors reiterate the need for large, permanent studies.

Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing an epidemic of HIV-associated tuberculosis. The capacity to control this epidemic is significantly hindered by socioeconomic, medical infrastructure, and politics issues. Treating with antiretrovirals has reduced the number of instances of tuberculosis, but HIV patients are still much more likely to develop tuberculosis. The best preventative measure seems to be to lessen the incidence of HIV and the best treatment strategy is to recognize and treat energetic tuberculosis. Treating both HIV and tuberculosis concurrently poses special problems. Lots of the drugs have probably negative interactions, either reducing efficiency or increasing toxicity. Furthermore, there is the possibility of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. This disorder manifests as a worsening of TB symptoms in an individual that was strengthening, likely scheduled to an improved immune response caused by treatment of HIV. In essence, successful treatment of HIV results in an escalation of tuberculosis symptoms. Steroids used to treat the TB involve some success, but at the risk of increased complications from HIV. There's a fine range in concurrently treating these diseases and much more to understand about this.

This article provides both as a reminder of the enormity of the issues associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis so that a call to forearms for further research. With a third of the world's inhabitants affected, it is extremely surprising that we don't have symbolic, a color, a superstar backed telethon with associated melody, or a three-day walk to raise recognition and money for research. I suppose part of the problem is that the situation is "over there" and so we in the us are less aware. Avoiding the get spread around of the bacteria appears to be the best option for a long-term reduction in incidence, and a new vaccine would seem to be the logical next thing. In reading this article, it appears the obstacles in treating tuberculosis are almost overwhelming. Tuberculosis lives and multiplies in the macrophages of the human being immune system, the cells that would normally play a key role in eradication of a bacterial infection. This uncommon agreement, as well as the difficulty of the interactions between humans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is key to understanding the disease in the desire of finding better alternatives. If we're able to discover a way to induce the body's immune systems to strike the bacteria itself without the formation of tubercles or other unwanted effects, that might be a great solution. If that's not possible, we need to find those mechanisms or characteristics that are unique to the bacterium or its pathogenesis and make a drug to act on those. The issues are many. The authors consistently used the term "political will" and it seems that this may be the key to resolving the challenge of tuberculosis. As the article functions the purposes of reminding and rallying, it seems to be written for those already acquainted with the disease which is poorly planned. The authors seem to "hopscotch" about with hardly any in the way of transition, which makes it difficult for a novice to assimilate the info. It is a good review of the current direction, but with no foundational information necessary to understand what it means.

  • More than 7,000 students prefer us to work on their projects
  • 90% of customers trust us with more than 5 assignments
submit a project

Latest posts

Read more informative topics on our blog
The Educational Curriculum INSIDE THE Philippines Education Essay
Education The educational curriculum in the Philippines is low in comparison to other countries. Other countries are able to find out more advanced...
The Ecotourism In Scotland Travel and leisure Essay
Tourism Hospitality and travel and leisure are very closely linked; every time a tourist comes to Scotland there are lots of restaurant and hotels to...
Corporate Social Responsibility: Targets and Concepts
Business Abstract Corporate Social Responsibility is a management principle whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their...
A Personal Reflection AROUND THE ITM Information Technology Essay
Information Technology I have been in information technology industry for a long time. I have first-hand information technology experience especially in...
The Theory Of Mcdonaldization Commerce Essay
Commerce McDonaldization is the process where the concepts of the junk food industry have come to dominate an increasing variety of organizations in...
The Interpretation Of Life Quotes
Philosophy As you all know most of us are here in this planet for a while only and our life or being blessed as a individuals is a gift irrespective of...
The Sex Appeal In Advertising Mass media Essay
Media Through the years we have found a diversity advertising resources for offering products which were calling the attention of the costumers, to be...
Impacts of Tourism Deregulation and National Security
Marketing National security is definitely an issue going out with back to as early as when man started out arranging himself in contemporary society....
Homogeneous And Differentiated Product In Microeconomics Economics Essay
Economics The economic issue in this observation involves the concept of homogeneous and differentiated product in microeconomics According to Lindeman...
Check the price
for your project
we accept
  • Visa payment system
  • MasterCard payment system
  • Payoneer payment system
  • PayPal payment system
Money back
100% quality
Plagiarism free writing service