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Literature Study On Steganography

In this section, the literature survey on the steganography and various network security mechanisms are identified. Many existing algorithms for steganography since 1991 to 2009 are studied and shown in this literature survey. Amounts of web sites as well as research papers are known on virtualization, ARP Spoofing, IDS Architectures. The explanation of the research papers referred regarding steganography and network security receive in the subsequent sections. The books is provided in chronological order for both of these areas independently.

2. 2 Books survey on steganography

Bender et al. [6] in this paper, the authors identify the techniques of data covering like low little bit rate data hiding in detail.

Johnson, N. and Jajodia S. [34] This article explores the several ways of steganography such as LSB, Masking and Filtering and also points out about different software tools present in the market for Steganography, such as Stego Dos, White Sound Storm, S-tool etc.

Marvel et al. [38] It really is proposed that (Spread Range Image Steganography) SSIS is a blind program where the original image is not needed to extract the invisible information unless the device possesses the secret key to remove the secret note, normally it is practically undetectable. Thus making this technique reliable and secure.

Jessica Fridrich et al. [32] This paper proposes a highly accurate steganalysis technique which can even estimate the distance of secret meaning inserted in LSB method. In this technique, the test image is divided into sets of n consecutive or disjoint pixels. This technique exploits the customized pixel values to determine the content of hidden knowledge meaning. A discriminating function is applied on the band of pixels. This discriminating function decides the regularity or smoothness of pixels. Then a permutation function called flipping is applied on the pixel categories. Through the use of discriminating function and flipping, Pixels organizations are classified in to three categories, i. e Regular categories, Singular teams and Unused Groupings. For confirmed mask, fraction of Regular communities Rm and portion of singular communities Sm are determined. Presence of noises in the image triggers Rm to be greater than Sm.

R. Chandramouli and N. Memon[49] It offers the analysis of varied methods of LSB approaches for image steganography.

Tseng, Y. C et al. [63] This newspaper reveals a secure steganographic design which makes sure that if any changed bit in the cover image should be adjacent to another little bit that has the same value as the former's new value. By this way the detection becomes extremely difficult. But for obtaining this, data covering space needs to be reduced.

Da-Chun Wu, and Wen-Hsiang Tsai [23] suggested a differencing steganographic method that uses the difference between two consecutive pixels in the same stop to look for the number of secret pieces to be stuffed. In this technique a range stand is employed which runs from 0-255. The difference value is subsequently altered to the difference in the same range to embed the trick parts, and the difference between the original difference value and the new is shared between your two pixels. Removal scheme in this method is quite simple and it do not requires cover image.

Sorina Dumitrescu et al. [55] This newspaper proposes a fresh steganalysis technique to find LSB steganography in digital alerts such as image and audio. This technique is dependant on statistical evaluation of sample pairs. By this technique the space of hidden subject matter inlayed via LSB steganography can be predicted with high detail.

C. -C. Chang and H. -W. Tseng [9] this newspaper proposes a novel steganographic strategy, which modifies the pixel principles. This method will not replace the LSBs of pixel value directly, but changes the pixel value into another similar value. In a word, this steganographic method provides a large embedding capacity with little perceptual distortion.

Mei-Yi Wu et al. [40] this newspaper presents a fresh iterative approach to image steganography predicated on palette which reduces the Root Mean Square problem between an original image and its own corresponding stego-image. Predicated on a palette adjustment scheme, which can embed one note little bit into each pixel in a palette-based image iteratively. The expense of removing an access color in a palette and the profit of generating a fresh color to replace the old color are determined. When the maximal profit exceeds the nominal cost, an entry color is replaced in iteration.

C. -K. Chan and L. M. Cheng [11] this paper proposes LSB approach in which the secrete data is embedded whatsoever Significant bits of the image pixel.

Huaiqing wang and Shuozhong wang [29] Different techniques of steganography and steganalytic methods were mentioned at length in this paper. This paper focuses on LSB adjustment techniques, Masking techniques, Transformation domain name techniques, Techniques contained in compression algorithms, and propagate spectrum techniques. Then your important features of a steganographic system are shown, security, payload and robustness. This newspaper also reveals various steganalytic methods such as, RS steganalysis, Chi-square test, Histogram evaluation and general blind recognition.

Xinpeng Zhang and Shuozhong Wang [65] this newspaper proposes the steganalysis of PVD method proposed by Wu and Tsai. This steganalysis is based on Histogram research. The zigzag check out of the image pixels produces a vector called 'Image Vector' and the difference of each couple of pixels in this vector produces another vector called 'Substitute vector'. A graphic from Substitute vector is made which is named as substitute image. Histogram of alternative image is created and analyzed.

Andrew D. Ker [4] Detecting LSB matching steganography is peaceful difficult compared to the LSB replacing steganography. On this paper Histogram characteristic function (HCF) can be used for the detection of steganography in color images, but it cannot be used for grey range images.

Alvaro Martin et al. [3] Authors have experimentally looked into three different steganographic algorithms. steg, MHPDM, and one of the algorithm used in S-tools. Jsteg embeds a note whatsoever significant bit of JPEG DCT coefficients. The MHPDM (Modified Histogram preserving Data Mapping) algorithm, which is developed from HPDM (Histogram Preserving Data Mapping), functions by altering the least significant bit of a subset of the JPEG DCT coefficients of a graphic.

Chin-Chen Chang et al. [15] this newspaper proposes two efficient steganographic options for gray-level images through the use of the run-length idea. The two methods embed items of the trick data in each two-pixel stop. Furthermore, the modular operation is applied in both methods to control image quality. The experimental results show that both methods in this review perform better than all earlier methods, in terms of image quality and embedding capacity.

Chin-Chen Chang and Tzu-Chuen Lu [13] the technique suggested in this paper exploit the difference in the development of the pixels to conceal massive amount note data in a digital image. The payload capacity of the proposed scheme is higher than Tian's system and Fridrich's design. In addition, the grade of the inlayed image of the proposed structure is even greater than those of the other schemes.

Chin-Chen Chang and Tzu-Chuen Lu [14] SMVQ (Part Match Vector Quantization) exploits the correlations between your neighbouring blocks to anticipate the index of your input block that increases not only the stop aftereffect of VQ, but also the compression performance of VQ. Owing to the nice compression performance and image quality, more concerns are given to SMVQ.

Suk-Ling Li et al. [56] With this system, the best match cover-image stop of the secret-image stop is first preferred predicated on the stop difference. Then, the error-matrix, the normalized problem- matrix, the difference-degree and the quantized-error matrix between the cover-image stop and the secret-image block are computed. The block header information is inlayed in to the cover-image by the simple LSB substitution method.

Chin-Chen Chang et al. [17] this new system classifies the variety image pixels into two groups of pixels in line with the pixel values. For each group of pixels, the matching secret pixel worth go through an optimal substitution process and are changed into other pixel values by following the dynamic development strategy. Then, embed the changed pixel beliefs in the variety pixels utilizing the modulus functions and acquire the stego-image.

Hideki Noda et al. [27] The JPEG compression using the discrete cosine transform (DCT) continues to be the most typical compression standard for still images. QIM(Quantization Index Modulation) is applied in DCT(Discrete Cosine Change) Domains. DCT centered steganographic techniques are immune to Histogram centered attacks. Two different quantizers are used with QIM, one for embedding '0' and another for embedding '1'. Another method called HM-JPEG(Histogram Matching JPEG) Steganographic method is also provided along with QIM-JPEG Steganography. In both of these methods embedding of key message takes place during quantization of DCT coefficients only, not by modifying quantized DCT coefficients.

Chin-Chen Chang et al. [12] it presents a reversible data covering design for compressed digital images predicated on area match vector quantization (SMVQ). In Vector Quantization or SideMatch Vector quantization founded methods VQ and SMVQ Compression codes are ruined by the secret data embedded in the concept. And they cannot be constructed completely after extracting the trick data. By using this method, the original Side Match Vector Quantization compression Codes can be completely reconstructed, after extracting the embedded top secret data.

Ran-Zan Wang and Yeh-Shun Chen [51] this newspaper presents a new steganography method for images which use a two-way block-matching method to find for the utmost similarity block for every stop of the image. The indexes which get along with some non matched blocks are noted whatsoever significant items of the carrier image, using a hop system. This algorithm provides a high data payload capacity.

C. -C. Chang and W. -C. Wu [8] this newspaper provides a strategy to enhance the embedding capacity without minimizing the grade of cover file. That technique is named an adaptive VQ-based data concealing scheme predicated on a codeword clustering approach. Adaptive embedding method is more advanced than the set embedding method in conditions of embedding capacity and stego-image quality.

Xinpeng Zhang and Shuozhong Wang [64] an innovative way of steganographic embedding in digital images is illustrated in this newspaper. In this technique each key digit in a (2n+1)-ary notational system is transported by n cover pixels, where n is something parameter. This method offers a high embedding efficiency than that of previous other techniques.

Mehdi Kharrazi et al. [39] this paper provides experimental evaluation of various steganographic and steganalytic techniques.

Chin-Chen Chang et al. [18] in this paper, a new watermarking centered image authentication scheme is executed. The feature extraction procedure for the proposed system is block-based, and the feature of your block is obtained by doing a cryptographic hash function. Then, the bit blast of the feature is folded and inserted into some least significant items of the central pixel in the corresponding block.

Po-Yueh Chen and Hung-Ju Lin [48] this newspaper proposes a fresh image steganographic method predicated on frequency domain embedding. The consistency website transform applied in this method is Haar-DWT. You will discover three parts i. e. , low frequency region, middle frequency region and high occurrence region. And embedding occurs in Middle frequencies.

Tse-Hua Lan and Ahmed H. Tewfik [61] the authors have proposed an algorithm which is dependant on the quantized projection embedding method. Quantized Projection (QP), combines elements from quantization that is QIM and spread-spectrum methods. It really is predicated on quantizing a bunch signal diversity projection, inspired in the statistic used for detection in spread-spectrum algorithms.

Yuan-Hui Yu a et al. [67] in this technique, a color or a grayscale key image is hided in a genuine color host image. Techniques to different key image types are independent. A couple of three image-hiding types, which depend on the kind of secret image. The second type is a palette- established 256-color top secret image. The 3rd type is a grayscale secret image.

Ran-ZanWang, and Yao-De Tsai [52] This paper presents a competent image-hiding method that delivers a higher data hiding capacity which allows the inlayed image to be bigger than the cover image. In this technique the image to be covered is split into some non-overlapping blocks. A stop matching procedure is adapted for every stop of the image to find the best matching block from a pool of candidate blocks. This selection of best matching stop is performed by K-means clustering method. Then your indices of top secret image are covered in the LSBs of best matching block in the cover image.

Bibhas Chandra Dhara and Bhabatosh Chand [7] Stop truncation coding and vector quantization are the two widely used spatial domain compression techniques. Inside the proposed method the inter-plane redundancy is reduced by changing RGB to a less correlated triplet. The spatial redundancy is reduced by block quantization using BTC-PF method and the code redundancy by entropy coding using Huffman code.

Nan-I Wu and Min-Shiang Hwang [41] this paper presents a survey of current methods of steganography in Grey scale images. The next methods are likened and analyzed in this paper.

1. The simple LSB method : Secret data is hidden in the Least Significant Items of the Cover image. Quality of 3-little bit LSB stego image is merely acceptable.

2. The optimal LSB methods: To improve the quality of stego image best procedure is modified in LSB embedding. When data is concealed the nearest value is hidden in the cover image so that cover image distortion is minimized.

3. PVD method (Pixel Value Differencing): In this method the image is split into non-overlapping blocks of two pixels in zig-zag manner. The quantity of key data to be embedded depends upon the difference in pixel values of two adjacent pixels. More amount of data can be concealed when the difference of pixel value is high, and less amount of data is covered when the difference is low. In this technique the cover image is not needed for removal of the secret message.

4. MBNS method (Multiple Centered Notation System method): This method is based on Human vision sensitivity(HVS). The amount of secret data that can be hidden in a pixel depends upon a parameter called 'local variation'. Local variant depends on Human Vision Sensitivity, which is determined by three encircling pixel worth. Greater the worthiness of Local variance, more amount of data can be hidden in that pixel. And less amount of data can be covered in pixel if local variance value is small.

When these methods are likened for low capacity covering PVD and MBNS strategies produce better stego images than LSB structured methods.

Zhe-ming-lu et al. [68] this paper proposes an image retrieval scheme based in BTC founded Histograms. BTC (Stop Truncation Coding) is easy and easy to implement image compression strategy. To lessen the little rate of each part of BTC coded triple data, Vector Quantization is applied.

Chin-Chen Chang et al. [19] this newspaper proposes a reversible data-hiding scheme for embedding magic formula data in VQ-compressed rules based on the de-clustering strategy and the similar property of adjacent areas in a natural image. This method has more versatility and higher embedding capacity than other strategies.

H. Motameni et al. [25] the authors have suggested a novel technique for hiding text message in a grayscale image. In this method different colors in the cover image are labeled in order to recognize dark locations in the image. Data embedding in the these darker parts results in high quality stego images. This technique offers more security than other LSB techniques.

Zhensong Liao et al. [69] this paper summarizes the present techniques of data hiding capacity techniques. Various Communication channel models and sponsor data models are reviewed in this newspaper.

H. Arafat Ali [24] the author, proposes a spatial site steganographic plan for JPEG images. This technique is based on statistical research and called IVSP (Improving Aesthetic Statistical Properties) Method. This suggested method boosts the statistical properties of the stego image and also reduces the quantization mistake, which creeps along with JPEG format. Which method is also better in comparison with the other techniques which can be in use currently.

Youngran et al. [66] this newspaper proposes a new method which can provide high quality stego image. According to pixel's characteristics, variety of parts can be inlayed in stego image is varying and also providing the integrity of original data.

Andrew D. Ker [5] Batch steganography problem deals with distributing payload in multiple masks. Author has proved that the secure steganographic capacity is proportional to the rectangular base of the total cover size.

Hong -juan zhang and Hong-jun tang [28], Proposed an innovative way of image Steganography which can tolerate for statistical evaluation checks like RS and Chi-Square steganalysis techniques.

Kazuya Sasazaki et al. [35] this paper proposes structure for covering data that loss lessly stuffs a data parts into a carrier image using both differences. In such a plan, a three-pixel block in an image is made up of two absolute differences-the difference between pixels one and two, and the difference between pixels two and three. Such a notable difference is called block difference.

Chung-Ming Wang et al. [21] this work is an improvement over Wu and Tsai program of pixel value differencing (2003). In this technique the image is divided in to the blocks of two consecutive pixels and the amount of bits that can be embedded is determined from the width of the range desk. The reminder of amount of two pixel beliefs with width of ideal range is determined and modulus of pixel prices is modified to the decimal value of binary string to be inserted in the stop of two consecutive pixels. This method also addresses the falling-off boundary problem and produces high quality stego images than every other approach of spatial area steganography. But the covering capacity is lower in this method when compared to other methods.

Chien-Ping Chang et al. [20] Authors have suggested a book data hiding scheme that embeds a note into a cover image. This method uses Tri way pixel value differencing method. In this method blocks of four pixels are considered at the same time. This four pixel block is divided into three pairs. As well as the PVD method is applied individually to these three pairs. From changed pairs on pair is chosen as a guide set and other two are fine-tuned. By this method the concealing capacity enormously heightens over Pixel Value Differencing Method. But the quality of stego image when portrayed in conditions of PSNR value lessens.

Adem Orsdemir et al. [1] this technique is based on the bigger Order Figures Steganalysis. Generally any steganographer centers more on undetectability and payload but not about the statistical difference between your stego image and cover image. Once the steganographer is well aware of the steganalysis methods HOS steganalyzer and by formulating statistical in distinguish capability requirement, visual quality requirement, and detect potential requirement the technique of steganography can withstand the steganalysis methods based on statistical distinctions.

Chin-Chen Chang et al. [16] It really is proposed in this technique that digital images can be compressed using Block Truncation Coding (BTC). BTC is the most effective spatial domain method with simple computations and satisfactory compression rates.

Zhiyuan Zhang et al. [71] generally in two-description image coding the image are partitioned into two parts and each information is produced by otherwise concatenating a finely coded tad blast of the other part. Multi Description Coding is a trusted method for robust transmitting over unreliable systems.

H. B. Kekre et al. [26] This paper proposes a new better version of A minimum of Significant Little bit (LSB) method. Before embedding the data a 8 tad hidden knowledge key used and XORed with all the current bytes of the message to be embedded. Message is retrieved by XOR operation, by the same key.

Depending on the MSBs the number of bits of LSB used for data embedding are computed. This method is easy to implement and offers high payload than other methods like PVD.

Sathiamoorthy Manoharam [54] analyzes the steganalysis of LSB technique using the RS Steganalysis approach. The two classes of images- natural photographic images and man-made images are used as the cover medium.

Ahmad T. Al-Taani and Abdullah M. AL-Issa [2] the proposed method provides good quality and high embedding capacity of stego image. Here the carrier image is split into blocks of equal sizes and then stuffs the initial data parts in the border of the stop depending on the quantity of ones in remaining four items of the pixel. Experimental results of this method are weighed against Pixel Value Differencing method and Grey Level Modification Method.

P. Mouli and M. Mihcak [45] described the data covering capacities of various image options.

Hong -juan zhang and Hong-jun tang [28] Proposed an innovative way of image Steganography which can hold up against for statistical evaluation testing like RS and Chi-Square steganalysis techniques.

2. 3 Books study on Network Security

John McHugh et al. [33] this newspaper identifies the role of IDS in an enterprise and also gives survey on generally used intrusion diagnosis techniques. This newspaper also describes the many representative systems from the commercial, open public, and research areas.

Ray Spencer et al. [53] this paper, suggested a Flask micro kernel structured operating-system, security architecture which gives the alternatives for the access rights sort of problems which is ideal for many operating environments.

Clive Elegance [22] it offers a detailed knowledge of numerous kinds of problems possible and also various types of intrusion diagnosis systems and tender wares.

Nong Ye et al. [42] this work newspaper gives a study on the multivariate quality control technique. This method is detects a long-term account of normal activities in the information in order to discover intrusions.

Tal Garfinkel and Mendel Rosenblum [59] it proposes the Intrusion diagnosis architecture as well as the results are demonstrated to detect the attacks using the IDS which are completely isolated from the monitored coordinator.

Tal Garfinkel et al. [58] This structures offers a tamper resistant respected hardware program where each and every application will be running on either the wide open platform that is standard purpose system or the closed down system that is basic purpose program with security and integrity properties.

P. Englund et al. [43] this newspaper describes the dependable platform which gives a rigid control over the program and hardware websites to withstand the various vulnerabilities.

Suresh N. Chari and Pau-Chen Cheng [57] Blue container, the host based mostly IDS, is designed based on the system call introspection. They designed some set of fine grained guidelines for gain access to control to the machine resources.

M. Rosenblum and T. Garfinkel. [37] It describes the electronic machine keep an eye on and also the way the VMM is useful to provide security. In addition, it looks after the many implementation issues and future directions for the VMM.

James E. Smith and Ravi Nair [30] in this newspaper various levels of abstractions of virtualization and also the architecture of online machines are defined. Process and system digital machines are also detailed over here.

Peyman Kabiri and Ali A. Ghorbani [47] it offers an assessment on current fads and technologies applied by re- searchers and also elucidated the applications of honey pots to detect attacks.

Petar Cisar and Sanja Maravic Cisar [46] this paper describes a move based algorithm combined with data mining approaches for intrusion diagnosis.

Jenni Susan Reuben [31] this paper gives a literature survey on various security issues as well as risks which are common for all those virtualization solutions.

Zhenwei Yu et al. [60] this newspaper offers an experimental effect for an automatically tuning intrusion diagnosis system which manages the number of alarms productivity to the machine operator and according to the feedback system provided by the system operator, tunes the recognition model when false alarms are diagnosed.

The Flask structures of security enhanced Linux for red head wear is described in detail in this excellent website [81].

2. 4 CONCLUSION

This literature described the various methods and algorithms existing for the steganography and network security. Based on the prevailing algorithms, the conclusions are suggested to provide the efficient options for the below

1. Data Security

2. Network Security

2. 4. 1 Data Security

For providing the data security, there are extensive cryptography and the as steganography methods existing for the info to be transmitted on the channel. But for any algorithm, it is has its disadvantages. Regarding Steganography, the essential algorithm is LSB algorithm and some versions on the spatial domains techniques. But at any point of example, algorithm is general public. After the algorithm is well known, attacker will be looking to get the secure data. In this thesis two algorithms are suggested to supply the data security, that have been not presented so far, which are as follows:

Highly Secured, High Payload and Randomized Image Steganographic Algorithm using Robust Key:

In this proposed method, the algorithm used for steganography process is either the PVDM or LSB algorithms with regards to the inter pixel difference value to be able to improve the data stuffing capacity devoid of disturbing the quality of the stego image. The position of pixels where to stuff parts will be made a decision by the stego key which is randomly selected by an individual which key is sent to the other get together in encrypted form. So the key is robust.

Highly Secured, High Quality, High Payload and Randomized Image Steganographic Algorithm using Robust key predicated on Tri way PVDM Method :

In this suggested method, the algorithm used for steganography process is the Tri - way PVD with Modulus which is an expansion of Tri - way PVD [20] in order to improve the stego image quality. The position of pixels where you can stuff pieces will be decided by the stego key which is randomly selected by an individual and sent to the other get together in encrypted form. Therefore the key is powerful.

2. 4. 2 Network Security

For Providing the Network Security, There are numerous software and hardware devices available like firewalls, IDS etc. , . Generally an intrusion is detected by the IDS, immediately that may be patched by using the available techniques, meanwhile the applications should be stopped temporarily, while the proposed respected structures for providing network security provides a self treatment intrusion diagnosis system without disturbing the actual state of the machine, and trust can be studied back to the machine by using the virtualization principles.

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