Literature Overview of Marketing Strategies during Recession

Recession is thought as an activity of lessening demand of products, raw materials, labour and services for long term time. The entire economy of the united states is decreases during recession (kentent). As recession is an integral part of normal economic routine but the results are always bad.

Studies performed by research workers for the marketing methods during recession shows different results. Warden et al, (1990) suggested marketing strategies to cope with a recession. Usually sales declines during recession. Before developing a marketing strategy to cope with a recession, it's important to forecast its length, depth and diffusion. Duration identifies the extensiveness and depth of the recession; and diffusion, how wide it spreads. Diffusion is important in a way that recessions don't have an effect on all customers at the same level.

Bonoma (1991) gave some ideas to marketing professionals to compete recession. These recommendations are (1) Avoid bare middle marketing. (2) "Doesn't put in money on the expensive lifestyle of empire" (3) "Do more for less". In another research, Goerne (1991) explained that to avoid the negative impact of recession, marketing professionals should significantly give attention to the campaign strategy. Recession is usually determined by federal companies and monetary investigate organizations over a national level. In America the section of commerce collected two extreme of statistical data i. e. GNP and the LEIs. The GNP is the full total monetary value of the products and services produced and consumed in the private, public, domestic and international industries of the overall economy (Economic Indications guide 1990). The LEIs index indicates the overall trend of the U. S. economy. In another review conducted by Feder (1991) explained that mostly smaller businesses are influenced by the recessionary economic situation.

The idea of innovation has fascinated the interest of business professionals and organizations in recent times. The idea of invention was also reinforced by Porter and Linde (1995). They stated that whenever there exists global economic turmoil innovation takes on a essential role as a success policy. They clarify their idea by giving the example of Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, economic stress will come from a number of external resources. This includes the situation where external resources flowing from highly developed professional countries. If these highly developed western countries face problems in their economies, this could lead to them reducing their foreign help dedication. Countries such as Bangladesh who are heavily reliant for his or her development on overseas financial aid therefore, their development strategies would noticeably suffer. In this situation innovation is most beneficial option that Bangladesh must adopt to make it through in this tentative environment. Therefore that management should look for new ideas when there may be recession. Actually, these also suggest that all the alternatives need to be explored to find out the best possible options. Therefore, technology is a best option that can be considered in this esteem.

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Pearce, and Michael (1998) gave marketing strategies to commercial firms to offer recession. In the United States the recession of 1990-1991 badly affected every industry. And commercial production firms were facing serious menace by the recession. The failing rate among this group by mid-year 1991 had risen 37% from the prior year. This study includes financial and subjective information from 118 publicly traded U. S. processing firms. None of the firms has achieved a market share greater than one half of one percent (< 0. 5%). The aim of the analysis was to look for the components of a marketing strategy that enabled a firm to make it through in the negative financial consequences of your recession. We run into that in these market sectors the economical slump is because of company's marketing plans. They give few suggestions like retaining marketing activities in the key business as assurance against recession. Changing marketing regulations like sales and advertising, increasing development, improve performance during both the maximum and the contraction of the business enterprise cycle. Secondly, during the peak period importance should e given to marketing strategy. During recession if we give importance to incentives and efficiency alone it will hurts a business. Many of these suggestions claim that recession simply requires cutbacks and economization.

Menon et al. (1999) discover that patterns of organizations (e. g. , centralization, formalization and progressive culture) affect the procedure of marketing guidelines through the recession. Also non-marketing executives (e. g. , funding, top management team) of the business can appreciate the work of marketing professionals since it is their responsibility to decrease the pressure of investment during recession

The economic sector worldwide was damaged by economic problems. The marketing professionals should change their marketing strategy according to the need of these customer which changes with problems. During downturn costumers restrict their costs and move to cheaper products (Leong & Kotler 2000). In another study Ang et al. , (2000) discovered that financial meltdown has an extremely adverse effect on consumer not economically but also psychologically. People commence to be concerned about their future, , nor enjoy shopping ever again. The shopping strategy of consumer changes. So there in need for good online marketing strategy for survival of firml. Creating indicative information is hidden knowledge of marketing (Samli, 1993). The study in marketing plays a major role in identifying firm's business strategies. A company can take up proactive marketing during recession since it has a positive effect on firm's performance (Raji Srinivasan et al, 2002). Greater the proactive marketing during recession greater is the performance of the company. Throughout turmoil taking risk is very essential for the survival. All those firms which can handle investment in the hostile environment succeed. Senior marketing Professional plays a key role in formulating marketing expenses. In another study the idea of proactive marketing was presented with. By implementing that strategy the consequences of recession can e reduced. The results of the study showed that all those companies which take up proactive strategy during recession can not only survive in period of crisis but also gets income after recession (Srinivasan et al, 2005).

During the Asian problems marketing managers altered their business guidelines by lowering their Expenditure to stay viable. This study was conducted by Swee Hoon (2001) to understand how the turmoil has influenced consumers and businesses. Comparisons of effects and modifications from the Asian problems were made across other crises, namely, the 1973US oil turmoil, the 1990 Yugoslavian stagflation, the mid-1980s Filipino stagflation, and the 1989economic democracy in Eastern European countries. Explanations based on moderating factors such as characteristics of the problems, socio-economic characteristics, trade dependencies, market sophistication, and culture are mentioned for managerial insights.

Ferrell & Hartline (2002) claims if companies want to attain their goals, they need to develop a marketing strategy or plan. The first top priority of marketing managers is to create these plans so they can survive in the period of crises. The 4ps of marketing (product, price, place and campaign) are very helpful in preparing survival strategies. Some authors think improved upon technology can add in better services during development (Afuah, 2003). Mainly company market leaders and managers feel that by reducing price they are designed for the problem but this is not a long-term strategy (Barwise and Styler, 2002).

In an monetary recession, consumers tend to be more delicate about price. Throughout recession Organizations face difficulty in obtaining necessary resources was looked into by Ting-Jui Chou and Fu-Tang Chen (2005). In Asian countries marketing decisions are generally taken by merchants and their nonconstructive decisions results in monetary recession. The authors propose a contingent model, based on organizational resources and consumer. The results show that only merchants are able to use valuable strategies to thrive in a recession. Economical recession of days gone by 25 years had very adverse effects on many companies. When the economy is a downturn, many business expenditures such as promotional activities, sales and market research are minimize first. Some companies reduced their development and few were forced to close down. This is the time of high poverty, low earnings, and high unemployment. All of this negatively affects their market (Zehir and Savi, 2004). The recession also reminds the value of keeping accounts current and keeping expenditures and keeping in proper balance sheet.

Lilien et al. , (2005) analyzed that some firms take recession as a chance for competitive marketing. All organizations did not behave in a positive manner during recession, but those firms which have obviously planned online marketing strategy can take advantages from a confident marketing response during marketing recession. Pearce and Michael (2006) analyzed in his study that more than 500, 000 businesses failed during recession in america since the end of World Conflict II. Researchers and practitioner are trying to prepare a strategy to meet the obstacles of an economic downturn. In this study they advised a program which involves investment in multiple market segments and geographies. The program can e beneficial in increasing sales, finally leads to economical recovery.

In another resesrch Julia Cupman defines marketing as a process of discovering the needs of costumer profitably. Costumers can be seduced by causing good marketing strategy of the merchandise. All those organizations which will make excellent online marketing strategy can survive during recession but this is determined by marketing manager to find out which coverage they adopt to attracted customers. If any organizations don't have excellent programs what they can do is merely cut down the costs of the merchandise during recession. By adopting such a very simple insurance plan they can protect the image of these brand. All recessions are non permanent or for short time later by the end of the period they can again increase the price with their products. Underestimating the importance of marketing you can meet customers demand y focusing on marketing guidelines. In the period of crisis a smallest oversight may lead to failure of the proper execution. The correct online marketing strategy can reduce risk. Teacher John Quelch from Harvard Business School recently mentioned, "Adopting exact marketing can save the business from the consequences of recession". Symptoms and Indicators of the marketing impact then provide direction for marketing procedures. An instant response to market signals and symptoms can decrease the effect of recession. Marketing strategies aren't something new for economical climate.

Mehmet and Engin (2007) researched the partnership between marketing strategies and performance during monetary crisis. The strategy they used was based on questionnaire comprised questions associated with 21 marketing insurance policies. The results shows that Companies that change their strategies properly can improve their performance in times of crisis. Future studies include data evaluation. The results give effective ideas which might assist in taking decision and marketing professionals in times of financial crisis. In another research Ang et al. (2000) explains the importance of marketing for the development and survival of company. In his analysis he provided few ideas for marketing giving two different regulations of prices in the period of crisis. The company can increase their market show by implementing second strategy which is decreasing the price tag on normal products. I will strict is not recommended that they should strictly follow all these plans but may use a few of them of them

Manufacturers must recognize that channel strategies have an effect on not only interior process, but also external relationships as well. For example, in order to accomplish specific market targets and improve industry competiveness, creation firms are adopting multiple channel ways of sell and disperse their products (Reda 1999; Lee& Rhee 2007)

According to Anna Maria (2008) fear factor should be avoided during recession marketing. During the 2001 recession, companies such as Dell and Wal-Mart observed the slump and take it as chance to invest more in marketing than weaker rivals. They clients are less enthusiastic about image advertising and campaigns because they're more considering the results.

Pajunen (2008) found that new technologies help grow new business marketplaces after recession. But there is no promise whether essential reform will do well for the progress of business. The studies suggest that companies should see business cycle strongly and become there to adopt different marketing strategies during expansion and recession durations. Shao-Yu Chuang et al, investigates the partnership among company's brand strategy, brand equity, route strategy and market performance. The goal of this research was to build up a model demonstrating the linkages among brand technique, brand equity, route coverage and market performance. the style of the plastic industry is developed to demonstrate these relationships by using linear structural relationships (LISREL). The questionnaire is principally used in strategy. The results show that route strategy has significant impact on market performance. And also, brand strategy has significant effect on channel strategy when company's channel strategy is more recognized by its brand strategy.

Carral and Kajanto (2008) in his research provides very successful example of Nokia. They required a very daring action by removed many non-core activities to focus on the telephone market. The goal of the study was that always look forward to predict environmental changes that will impact after them.

Today's research workers like Hooley et al, (2008) consider marketing recession as an chance to develop services to meet the demands of these customer. This is marketing manager's capacity to serve it for a long-term gain. Managers need to analyze the necessity of market and what their company can offer in today's situation. The organizational structure, resources and the companys performance along can help to achieve. The purpose of marketing strategy is to build up valuable ideas to change market environments. Killing is quite typical due to these problems the world's greatest market is bound to damage many countries including India. Financial sector is facing lot of problems but experts expect that consumer will face this issue in coming days and nights. Marketers are going to face this critical situation in the next three quarters. Casing markets are already facing the music. This is good time for marketers to believe again about their brand. Recession is high to believe which brand will catch the attention of costumer and is also profitable for their company. If sales are lessening, it's right time to re-engineer the brand and negotiate rates with the multimedia. During recession marketers need to decrease market cost for their survival. That is permanent thinking in support of those companies will endure who prepared themselves for crisis. Brand professionals play a vital role during marketing recession. Marketing supervisor can play a vital role in marketing their product y expending less in advertisement and natural material. One may not survive recession minus the support of stakeholders.

Pentecost et al. , (2009) suggested that people differ in their changing shopping habit during recession. On this study they verify those consumers who change their shopping tendencies during recession. The results show that there are statistically major distinctions between the two categories which can take on in the market by causing impressive marketing strategies during recession.

Recent tests by Williamson and Zeng (2009) emphasis the necessity of recession as an opportunity. The current recession is characterized by its global mother nature. They suggested that companies must invest in research but at less expensive to overcome recession.

Tazrian Shahid (2009) analyzed influence on consumer action and the ways of survival. North American and European consumers are main culprits of global financial crisis because of considerable job deficits and reductions in spending power. The financial crisis will certainly decrease the demand of few categories in the us and European countries. Recession causes a impressive change in consumer's habit. Consumers change their shopping patterns like the buy reduced products which will prefer some brands and stores who have altered their marketing strategy during recession. This period of recession can be an chance of marketers to think from the idea of view of your consumer not economist. This research was analysis of the effects of financial crisis on the habit of consumer in America. Author also analyzed past recessions and different steps considered by government to cope with this example.

In another research by Kotler et al, (2009) they found that during recession many costumers reduce their expenses. A consecutively razor-sharp chop in marketing budget sometimes appears by organizations. The marketing team should allow these cuts. To create company successful in an extended run the business should cut down the costs of goods. The economic problems is also taking a responsibility on the overseas payment flowing in to the Bangladesh overall economy (Rashid, 2009).

Hermann (2009) analyzed the current crisis is having a severe impact on consumer habit. Consumers were hesitating buying for the reason of fear factor. In the time of problems, the customer's fear of the future firmly impacts their habit. Cost chopping can e beneficial during period of crises. Organizations be reluctant to invest during economic problems. This troublesome time is opportunity for organization to reexamine their policies and brand appropriately. While recent economical data signifies that Australia hardly escaped a technical recession. Online consumer survey of Nielsen's conducted by Percy (2009) confirmed that almost two from every three Aussies thought the country was in economical recession. The survey also reported that self-assurance degree of Australian consumer has dropped during problems. In response to these uncertain times, the common Australian consumer has altered their expense patterns.

Luz A Caudilloand (2009) offered the thought of earnings management during recession. During reduction in marketing economic the demand of goods reduces and market prices tend to decrease. However, this downturn can affect business in the brief and long-term. Revenue management can be helpful in coping with the adverse monetary situation, so long as the company calls for sufficient time to comprehend new market segments or develop services. During this time period one will discover new ways of risk management and reliable experienced administrator can manage the quality of automated revenue systems. Another related review done by Ang et al. (2000) points out the importance of marketing for the development and success of firm. In his analysis he provided few recommendations for marketing giving two different procedures of charges in the time of crisis. The company can increase their market show by implementing second strategy which is minimizing the price tag on normal products. It is not recommended that they should strictly follow each one of these plans but may use some of them of these.

Silvia Puiu examined how Romanian stores change their marketing guidelines during economic turmoil. The strategy the used comprised qualitative research and because of this empirical data was collected from two companies i. e. Hypermarket and Carrefour in the Romanian sector. Important data was collected through their annual records and different articles present at their websites. th studies of the study shows changes in the habit of customers. They suggested some marketing strategies to deal with financial meltdown. This research pays to to see which coverage they should choose for companies to deal with this kind of problems and because of their long term survival. Sigitas and Indre analyzed consumer behavior throughout economic slump. Most consumers have to reconsider their spending practices and reallocate costs. Consumers show different mental replies towards new financial conditions and change shelling out for goods and services. They propose a model for consumer income and expenses to cope with economic problems. Since different years have different experience in coping with financial shortages by reallocating their finances and limiting consumption they tested the model on two generations (20-26 years old and 43-52 years of age). The research discusses variations of perceptions and behavior between your two generations of consumers.

Another study was conducted by Shih Lan Su and Yang Chen (2010) in which they pointed all those factors that influences good performance during financial crisis. In 2007 financial crises causes global recession. In those days many firms encounters severe financial loss. This research was performed through the crises period and they found the partnership between firm variables and strong performance. The effect demonstrated that some variables impact on performance, among which industry effect was the most influential changing. By extending business or commercial organizations into new areas has a confident effect on performance. This tactical choice is manufactured by the supervisor of the business because they're more focused on the advantages of diversification. The results suggested that diversification strategy performs an important role in the long-term success of organizations.

A review was conducted in 980 hotels around the world by Sheryl E. Kimes from December 2009 through February 2010. He found that discounting was the best method used to balance the influences of the recession of 2008-2009. Different organizations have different view because so many respondents disagreed the thought of discounting by reducing their prices because they think this is bad choice for preserving income levels. Discounting is one of four categories of strategy applied to compensate the effects of recession. The other three categories are marketing initiatives, obscuring room rates, and cutting costs. Hotels that sought to get new market by making little changes in their marketing strategies survived during recession. These regulations implicate free nights stay before purchasing. About one-quarter of respondents reported cutting costs. These respondents disagreed discounting and would like to give attention to market, usually by concluding facilities, taking the chance for reconstruction, or minimizing operating time. Asked for their recommendations for another recession, the respondents said that they would avoid discounting and target instead on market plan. In 2010 2010, the respondents said that they prepared to emphasis on value-added deals with addition to marketing plans.

Mark DeRuiter in his research implies that marketing impacts our profession in many ways. As in Marketing the most crucial thing is advertising. He gives us the thought of four "Ps" of marketing (product, price, place, promotion). Creating a marketing plan takes time, faculty, and constant energy. With this study the partnership between four "Ps" of marketing, was explored.

During the global financial crisis Ali Quazi and Majharul Talukder supply the idea of success as improvement plan. They explore the possible means of coping with the existing global financial meltdown. The analysis also advised that modernization running a business would be a better way of interacting with the crisis in a expanding country such as Bangladesh. Looking at current thoughts and related theories broadens the understanding of the complexities and found just how of success is innovation strategy. There's been much research done on the impact of the Global FINANCIAL MELTDOWN (GFC). Helen et al, also researched the impact of the global economic crises on the tendencies of consumer. The study helps in knowing that the consumer action is affected by both inner characteristics and exterior factors of the environment. The Global Financial Crisis is one such environmental affect that had a strong effect on the patterns of consumers. The GFC has obligated consumers to change their behaviour towards purchasing. The results show that success of the firms is based on the long-term marketing planning. Great marketers don't hop again at the hour of crises. They continuously make strategies and marketing strategies during critical times so they can quickly modify change. And this thinking is seen in marketing their budgets.

Throughout economic boom every company is battling for survival. Related research was done by Panda. He analyzed that in the talk about of financial global recession organizations are struggling for survival. The only treatment they see in lowering human capital. The goal is to save cost by getting ultimately more work done using fewer resources. Thus to survive in this critical situation one needs to reinforce himself with new skills. The only real remedy to make it through in this critical situation is through complete concentration on the multi-tasking and multi-skilling as of this hour of crisis.

In another analysis by Samli and Coskun (2010) gives the key of success and counter-top chaos marketing regulations. Chaos theory has been in existence for quite a while. Conditions that are creating chaotic shock waves are very real in both global and national markets. Chaotic marketplaces need immediate solutions because they are creating disorder in market segments. Marketing executives need to eliminate the cause of disorder and must figure out how to manage them. This situation will call for the creation of any counter chaos culture in the organization and developing a counter chaos online marketing strategy that is proactive. It changes the conditions that are creating chaos into new market opportunities.

Another study done by J. Monrabal. In his analysis he recommended that survival in recession requires strong online marketing strategy like trading on the advertising of brand also to get stbale on the market normally it takes 5-10 years. Those firms which used this strategy prior to the recession didn't get much from other sales but endured less when compared with other companies during recession. Their strategy was predicated on the advertising of brand which involves many years have difficulties. What happens is small businesses don't possess enough money to invest for long-term planning so large companies takeover in this manner they get market shares. So strong brands not only survive during recession also by increasing their market share after recession.

Kieth Roberts (2003) analyzed revenue impact of market strategy (PIMS). He concluded from his analysis that if businesses raise their marketing costs during recession they do not suffer instead of that they make profit after recession when compared with those companies which slice their price.

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