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Literature Review of Organizational Set ups and Models

  1. 2. 2 Bureaucratic Organizational Model: Quick Historical Background
  2. 2. 2. 1The Concept of Bureaucracy
  3. 2. 2. 2 The Bureaucratic Structure
  1. Figure 1: A Typical Organization Chart: Pyramid Style
  2. Source: http://www. deltaproconsultants. com/org_design. htm
  3. 2. 2. 3 Weber's Ideal Bureaucracy
  4. Employment predicated on technical skills.
  5. 2. 3 Core Components of Bureaucratic Structure
  6. 2. 4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Bureaucratic Structure
  7. 2. 5 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Structure
  8. 2. 7 Aspects of Organizational Effectiveness
  9. 2. 8 Impact of Bureaucratic Framework on Organizational Effectiveness
  10. Chapter 3
  11. Hypotheses
  12. 3. 1Introduction
  13. 3. 2 Conceptual Framework of the Study
  14. Chapter 4
  15. Research Methodology
  16. 4. 1 Research Design
  17. 4. 2 Inhabitants and Sample
  18. 4. 3 Sampling Procedure
  19. 4. 4 Data Collection Method
  20. 4. 5 Procedures
  21. 4. 6 Data Analysis
  22. Chapter 5
  23. Data Analysis and Interpretation
  24. 5. 1 Center components of Bureaucracy in Bahraini Organizations
  25. 5. 2 Characteristics of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations
  26. 5. 3 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Framework among Bahraini Organizations
  27. 5. 4 Organizational Efficiency of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations
  28. 5. 5 Bureaucratic Aspects/Characteristics Associated with Organizational Success of Bahraini Organizations
  29. Chapter 6
  30. Discussion of Results
  31. 6. 1 Center elements of Bureaucracy in Bahraini Organizations
  32. 6. 2 Characteristics of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations
  33. 6. 3 Problems Associated with Bureaucratic Composition among Bahraini Organizations
  34. 6. 4 Organizational Effectiveness of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations
  35. 6. 5 Bureaucratic Aspects/Characteristics Connected with Organizational Efficiency of Bahraini Organizations
  36. Chapter 7
  37. Conclusions and Recommendations
  38. 7. 1 Conclusions
  39. 7. 2 Recommendations

Organizations are entities that exist for a purpose, that is, to get things done. They are composed of people who ensure that such purpose is achieved. Task responsibility and decision making is given to individual members and teams and arrangements are created to plan, immediate, coordinate, and control them (Armstrong and Stephens, 2008).

According to Armstrong and Stephens (2008), organizations are open up systems which enhance inputs into outcomes and are continually dependent on and affected by their environments. Basic issues encountered by organizations are those relating to structure, connections, and interdependence. The socio-technical model produced by the researchers at the Tavistock Institute resulted in the development of basic open up systems theory which states that in virtually any organizational system, specialized or process aspects are interrelated with the human being or social aspects, focusing on the relationships between the technical functions of transformation within the business as well as the organization of work teams and the management composition of the organization (Lewin, 1951).

In any formal company, relationships are described in the form of organizational chart which sets out lines of command line and control. In casual organizations, associations can be explained in terms of networks which involve assistance, communication, and exercise of vitality and specialist (Armstrong and Stephens (2008).

Child (1977) defines organizational set ups as comprising all the tangible and regularly taking place features that assist to shape the tendencies of its customers. ' Matching to Armstrong and Stephens, organizational buildings provide the construction for the activities required to achieve organizational goals. Furthermore, they 'identify and clarify the manner by which the activities required are grouped mutually into models, functions, and departments, the lines of responsibility, electric power, and specialist emanating from the very best of the business. '

Organizations consist of individuals working cooperatively alongside one another. Hence, it is unavoidable that, at the managerial level, the organization might need to be adjusted to match the talents and features of the people available. Although the effect may not conform to the ideal, it is much more likely to work than a structure that ignores the real human element. In addition, it is always desirable to really have the ideal at heart, but it is equally desirable to to change it to meet specific situations.

Basically, organizational set ups can be labeled as unitary, divisionalized, centralized, matrix, and process (Armstrong and Stephens (2008). Unitary composition, the most typical structure, can be described as single and split unit without any divisions in which the heads of each major function immediately reports to the most notable. However, such key functions can vary greatly from one firm to some other.

In a unitary structure, interactions are simple and clearly defined. However, lack of cooperation between functions or departments may always present and this can be avoided if the principle professional coordinates and directs the actions.

Centralized framework places specialist at the centre which totally handles the actions and decisions of any divisions, subsidiaries, or regionalized items. Such control is exercised by specialist from the head office who defines regulations, procedures, focuses on, and costs to be followed and achieved(Armstrong and Stephens, 2008). The creators further state that in a centralized composition, close control can be preserved over divisional activities, standardized steps and systems can be utilized, and direction is provided by useful specialists at the headquarters. However, a drawback of this structure is that it restricts the scope of divisional management to handle their own affairs in the light of local knowledge and insufficient autonomy in divisions can constrain effort and entrepreneurship.

Decentralized structure, also called divisionalized composition, is one which gives operational autonomy to divisions, subsidiaries, or proper business units under the entire course of the centre to be able to achieve desired results. However, the amount of autonomy

2. 2 Bureaucratic Organizational Model: Quick Historical Background

2. 2. 1The Concept of Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy refers to the collective organizational framework, methods, protocols, and group of regulations in location to deal with activity, usually in large organizations and federal government characterized by standardized method (rule-following) that leads the execution of most or all functions within the body, formal department of powers, hierarchy, and romantic relationships intended to anticipate needs and improve efficiency (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Bureaucracy). Rabie (2004) identifies bureaucracy as a management system created to handle talk about affairs and plan state relationships with its residents. Asd it developed further, it helped different types of organizations in controlling their internal and exterior affairs. Thus, standardization of types of procedures, keeping details of transactions, and managing decision making operations have become essential the different parts of every management system (http://www. yazour. com/site_doc/attch-219216. pdf).

Interestingly, four structural concepts are central to any definition of bureaucracy, specifically:

a well-defined division of administrative labour among persons and offices;

a employees system with constant patterns of recruitment and secure linear opportunities;

a hierarchy among office buildings, in a way that the specialist and status are differentially allocated among stars; and

formal and informal networks that hook up organizational actors to one another through flows of information and habits of co-operation.

Hall (2010) examines the sizes of bureaucratic strategy attracted from Weber's model the following: divisiuon of labor predicated on functional specialization, well-defined hierarchy of power, system of rules and procedures within the rights and duties of positional incumbents, system of strategies for coping with work situations, impersonality of interpersonal relations, campaign and selection for work based upon specialized competence. The analysis concluded that: (1) the bureaucratic measurements are meaningful organizational capabilities; (2) when assessed quantitatively, the sizes exist by means of a continuum alternatively than as dichotomies; and (the magnitude of the dimensions varies independently among organizations. The analysis further concluded that the types of organizational activities are related to the degree of bureaucratization on one or several sizes.

2. 2. 2 The Bureaucratic Structure

The bureaucratic structure is a familiar style used by several organizations. This style includes an organization mind or a top supervisor, several (or no) tiers of upper and/or middle management, usually some first series management, and the baseline employees. Figure 1 below illustrates the normal pyramid style structure of organization


Figure 1: A Typical Organization Chart: Pyramid Style

Source: http://www. deltaproconsultants. com/org_design. htm

According to an article from http://www. deltaproconsultants. com/org_design. htm, the pyramid organizational structure originated from a historical military model and was considered very effective for controlling people and resources during wartime. With all the advent of the Industrial revolution, production range became the typical and the military model was used for a business design because:

It had became efficient for the "chunking" of work.

In the 20th century large numbers of people spent amount of time in the armed service. Thus, they brought with those to the work area the "rank and document" structure that they had seen in use.

In the bureaucratic composition, a primary vertical line links the upper management through midsection management, and right down to the baseline employees. Major decisions are made at the very top, and filter right down to the employees below. People at each level work to meet those one level above. Horizontal factors are usually minimal with little concern for the needs of men and women or organizations aside. This framework works quite well in a military services environment.

For control purposes, vertical levels of management are used and multiple firm ceilings are created which can conceal or filter information, block the flow of ideas, and slow change. Top management provides direction to the next level which eventually translates into revealing to lower-level employees what to do without giving the reason at some point in the downward motion. Thus, it avoids lower-level employees from providing helpful ideas and recommendations, and from making on-the-spot decisions.

Bureaucratic organizations are inflexible, monolithic establishments with uncaring employees who create 'red tape'.

A recognized advantage of bureaucracy is the fact that it can enhance efficiency, logic, and rationality in large organizations. However, it tends to lead to inflexibility and rigidity, which hamper decision making and create a general inability to respond to rapid changes or crises. According to Likert (1968) the original bureaucratic firm are relatively formal, rigid, and mechanistic (http://courses. washington. edu/inde495/lecd. htm)

The bureaucratic composition is grounded on the traditional theory of management which is mainly characterized by the next:

Work is split into specialized tasks and standardized. The hierarchy of authority ( the to direct ) and responsibility ( the responsibility to execute ) is the chain of command. Brand authority is linear and produced from position, staff power is an advisory romantic relationship.

The set up of the work group or organizational structure is based on departmentalization.

Span of control identifies just how many employees a manager can effectively supervise.

In a bureaucratic composition, specialist and communication circulation downward by using a rigid chain of command. In addition, the vertical expansion represents many degrees of supervision and suggests a one individual one boss school of thought (unity of demand). Also, the number of individuals supervised is small (span of control). Bureaucracy leads to a line composition, a string of order or leader-follower romance which can assist in large scale administration by coordinating the work of many personnel.

In the traditional bureaucratic structures, there's a trend to increase process specialization as the organization grows larger. Jobs are grouped into departments by function. Last decision-making power is vested by those highest in the vertically organized hierarchy. Final decisions are usually made by top management. Hence, bureaucratic organizational framework is seen as a high job specialization, functional departments, small spans of control, and centralized expert. Such a composition has been known as traditional, classical, bureaucratic, formal, mechanistic, or demand and control (http://www. referenceforbusiness. com/management/Ob-Or/Organizational-Structure. html).

The bureaucratic style has been criticized as a result of following negatives:

It encourages inner politics and turmoil especially when gratifying a employer is more important than satisfying a customer.

Separation of authority from responsibility and accountability can result from concern for vitality and control which will make many jobs simply empty tasks.

Baseline employees can get disillusioned with top managers who, with enough layers get disconnected from them.

Division and departmentalization often confine employees to narrow task-oriented careers and lead to boredom and stagnation.

Failure to encourage inter-function understanding and work integration across boundary lines can conclude with major breakdowns and added costs for organizations.

Sub-optimization can cause undertaking functions not needed for organizational success. This happens when departments establish goals inconsistent with those of other departments.

Misuse of senior management time and energy especially in mending problems between departments.

According to an article published in the internet website http://www. busting-bureaucracy. com/excerpts/management. html some beliefs associated with bureaucratic management and authority tend to decelerate business growth. These are:

All planning and control functions need to be done by management.

Managers and managing tend to be important than the individuals who achieve the product quality or satisfy individual customers.

The higher the person is on the organization chart, the greater important that person is.

Ambiguity is intolerable and must be resolved. Things must be black or white. There is no room for gray.

Consistency, itself, has value.

The notion of the "slippery slope": "If I do it for one, I have to do it for everybody. "

Choices tend to be thought to be baffling to customers and employees due to hierarchy and control from the top.

"Efficiency" is more important than achieving the quest.

Process is more important than outcomes.

Manage with a "problem-solving" methodology.

Court (2010) reported the results of a study on bureaucratic structure and performance in Africa that better bureaucratic performance is associated with:

Agency electric power - greater influence of core financial companies in formulating new policies.

Autonomy - top civil servants have job security when politics leadership changes.

Career opportunities - interior promotion, length of time and civil service opportunities.

Good relative wage - general public sector salaries compare sensibly to private sector ones.

Merit-based access mechanisms - access with a formal exam and university or college certifications. (African bureaucracies are guided by the same bonuses as others. )

Court further reported that:

Bureaucratic framework and performance varies considerably over the region, with a number of countries scoring well.

The relationship between the open public and private sector appears to be improving across the region.

Perceived degrees of corruption are increasing.

Many older bureaucrats feel they lack "ownership"; they thought that economic insurance plan is formulated outside the country.

According to Wilson (1989), there are four types of bureaucratic organizations, namely:

Production organizations wherein both outputs and final results are observable.

Procedural organizations wherein outputs can be observed, but benefits are unclear or not observable.

Craft organizations wherein outputs are hard to observe, but results are simple enough to judge.

Coping organizations wherein neither outputs nor benefits are observable

2. 2. 3 Weber's Ideal Bureaucracy

A popular style of organizational structure is Weber's ideal bureaucracy which resulted from his observation of the changes occurring through the Industrial Revolution. Observing that capitalism is the logical way to arrange activities based on the approximation with their possible return to the organization, Weber's Ideal bureaucracy was devoted to the theory of efficiency: making the most of output while reducing inputs.

From his review of the organizational inventions in Germany at the turn of the 20th century, Weber recognized the core components of bureaucratic structure, namely: (1) impersonality, (2) efficiency, and (3) rationality. Its key feature is the concentrate on authority predicated on published written rules and codes of practice.

A bureaucratic company is structured into a continuous hierarchy where each level is controlled by the level above it. Each hierarchical position is out there in its right and job holders haven't any rights to a particular position. Responsibilities within each level are obviously delineated and each level has its own sphere of competence. A scheduled appointment to an office, and the levels of authority that pick it, are founded solely due to technological competence (Weber, 1947).

Max Weber (1947) extended on Taylor's ideas, and stressed the necessity to reduce variety and ambiguity in organizations. The target was on creating clear lines of power and control. Weber's bureaucratic theory emphasized the need for a hierarchical structure of electric power. It recognized the importance of department of labor and expertise. A formal group of rules was destined in to the hierarchy structure to insure stability and uniformity. Weber also help with the idea that organizational behavior is a network of human connections, where all habit could be recognized by looking at cause and result (http://www. survey-software-solutions. com/walonick/organizational-theory. htm).

Weber (1947) believed that the bureaucratic model was an ideal approach to structuring organizations based on a rational set of guidelines and strategies. The bureaucratic model of organizations is seen as a:

Clear department of labor;

consistent rules;

hierarchy of positions;


employment and progress based on technical expertise;

centralization of authority and vitality;

leveling influence on social and financial differences; and

implementation of basically indestructible system of authority

Weber described his ideal type of bureaucracy, the ideal example of this kind of arranging, as getting the following components.

Formalization. A continuing organization of formal functions bound by rules.

Records. Administrative serves, decisions and rules are developed and recorded on paper.

Office. The combination of written documents and a continuous organization of formal functions constitute the office.

Specialization. Each office has a plainly described sphere of competence.

Hierarchy. Each lower office is under the control and guidance of a higher one.

Officials. Candidates are selected based on technical qualifications. These are appointed, not elected. The office is treated as the only real, or at least the primary, job of the incumbent. The work constitutes a job. There is a system of advertising matching to seniority or even to achievement, or both. There is a complete absence of appropriation of official position by the incumbent.

Ownership. There is complete separation of the house belonging to the business, which is managed within the sphere of office, and the personal property of the official. Members of the administrative personnel should be completely segregated from ownership of the means of production or administration.

Impersonality. The dominance of your spirit of formalistic impersonality, without hatred or interest, and therefore without passion or enthusiasm. Many people are subject to formal equality of treatment.

Weber's analysis of bureaucracy concerns:

the historical and administrative known reasons for the process of bureaucratization (especially in the Traditional western civilisation)

the impact of the guideline of law upon the performing of bureaucratic organisations

the typical personal orientation and occupational position of your bureaucratic officers as a status group

the most significant attributes and results of bureaucracy in the present day world

Weber noted the following major ideas of bureaucracy:

A formal hierarchical composition. Each level manages the particular level below which is controlled by the particular level above. Central planning and centralized decision making is dependant on a formal hierarchy

Management by rules. Controlling by rules allows decisions made at high levels to be performed regularly by all lower levels.

Organization by practical specialty. Work is performed by specialists, and people are organized into units predicated on the type of work they are doing or skills they may have.

An "up-focused" or "in-focused" quest. Within an "up-focused" quest, the organization's goal is to provide the stockholders, the board, or whatever firm empowered it. Within an "in-focused" mission, the purpose is to provide the organization itself, and those within it

Purposely impersonal. The theory is to treat all employees and customers similarly without being inspired by individual variations.

Employment predicated on technical skills.

Thus, corresponding to Weber, a bureaucratic business operates on the basis of the following concepts: Likewise, Weber characterized a bureaucratic standard as you who:

is individually free and appointed to his position based on conduct

exercises the specialist delegated to him relative to impersonal guidelines, and his / her commitment is enlisted with respect to the faithful execution of his recognized duties

is appointed and put in employment placement predicated on his or her technical qualifications

does his administrative are a full-time occupation

is rewarded by a normal salary and potential clients of progression in a lifetime career in doing his work

Weber further state governments a bureaucratic official must exercise his / her judgment and his / her skills, but his / her duty is to place these at the service of an increased authority; in the end he/she is sensible only for the impartial execution of assigned jobs and must sacrifice his / her personal wisdom if it works counter to his / her official obligations.

Critics of Weber's ideal bureaucracy cited the next downsides of the model:

Competences can be unclear and used unlike the spirit of the law; sometimes a decision itself may be considered more important than its result;

Nepotism, corruption, politics infighting and other degenerations can counter the rule of impersonality and can create a recruitment and advertising system not predicated on meritocracy but instead on oligarchy;

Overspecialization can make officials unaware of larger consequences of the actions

Rigidity of techniques can make decision-making slow-moving and even hold off change.

A phenomenon of group considering - zealotry, loyalty and lack of critical thinking about the organisation can make the organisation unable to change and understand its own problems and limits;

Disregard for dissenting opinions, even when such views suit the available data better than the thoughts and opinions of almost all;

Complex bureaucratic guidelines and strategies makes the machine more complex which diminish coordination.

Not allowing visitors to use good sense, as everything must be as is written by the law.

Michel Crozier (1964) criticized bureaucratic organizations for ". . . the slowness, the ponderousness, the schedule, the complication of steps and the maladapted reactions to the needs that they should fulfill" (Crozier, 1964, p 3) He further claims that "A bureaucratic business is an corporation that can not correct its behaviour by learning from its mistakes" (Crozier, 1964, p 187). On top of that, he said that bureaucracy is ". . . not only a system that will not correct its behavior because of its problems; it is also too rigid to adjust, without crises, to the transformations that the accelerated development of the professional society makes increasingly more essential" (Crozier, 1964, p 198).

Crozier (1964) recognizes the following characteristics of bureaucracy:

Functional Specialization. Groups of individuals are split into special functions predicated on expertise or goal. Useful specialists exert affect mostly through their use of experience.

A Well-Defined Dominance Hierarchy. Expert serves as the principal means of effect for those in the higher levels to influence those in the lower degrees of the hierarchy. Expert is symbolically conveyed by subject and degree of position on the organization chart.

Written Procedures & Policies. The degree of bureaucracy is determined by the a large number of internet pages of polices and procedures.

Control by Insurance plan. It allows management to control the activities of thousands, a large number of miles from the head office. Authority is normally conveyed through the use of policy and through legislation.

Bureaucracies Prefer Stableness and Order. Bureaucracies commonly suppose the external conditions do not change; and for that reason, internal organizational composition doesn't have to improve either.

Competence Based Campaign Systems. Campaign systems are designed to stress competency.

That Helpless Sensing. This occurs generally at the low levels of the business, but even professionals experience insufficient control.

Lower Degrees of Innovation and Creativeness. There's a certain bureaucratic mind-set that tends to avoid creative answers to problems.

Responsibility Avoidance within Insurance plan Voids. Bureaucratic authority is often characterized by individuals who avoid making the decision whenever a decision is required.

Inversion of Means and Ends. This occurs whenever there are too many guidelines, too many adjustments, and no way to change them. Typically, the principal measure of a person's success becomes how well the rules are obeyed. The path to advancement becomes conformity. Risk takers who break the rules are often penalized.

Glacial Decision Making. Decision making occurs at a glacial pace which makes the organization slow in adapting to change and thus miss opportunities completely.

Approval Straight Coats. Every good idea, three uncreative heads have to state yes, but only one needs to say no

2. 3 Core Components of Bureaucratic Structure

According to Weber ideal bureaucracy has the pursuing basic components:

Formalization - a continuing organization of recognized functions bound by rules

Records - administrative acts, decisions and rules formulated and noted in writing

Office - combo of written documents and constant organization of official functions

Specialization - each office has a obviously described sphere of competence

Hierarchy - each lower office is under the control and guidance of an increased one

Officials - specialized qualifications are strictly considered in appointing officials

Ownership - complete parting of organization's property and representatives' properties

Impersonality - dominance of the soul of formalistic impersonality; many people are treated formally

Weber's bureaucracy assumes that individuals are rational and are capable of working regarding to rules and types of procedures which guide behaviour. (http://apps. business. ualberta. ca/rfield/Organizational%Effectiveness, %20Structure, 5020and%20Technology. htm).

2. 4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Bureaucratic Structure

In defense of bureaucratic structure, Cordella (2007) du Gay (2000) who asserts that bureaucracy still remains as a lasting and successful way of structuring large organizations, especially in steady repetitive contexts and tasks. In the analysis of NHS using site theory, Tag and Scott (1992) pointed out that NHS-based organizations typically contain a political, managerial, and professional area responsible for policy, supervision, and service, and their inherently different tasks will demand different set ups, even at the trouble of organizational domain name friction. Further, bureaucratic company ensures similar and impartial action by Open public Administration and hence enforces democratic principles (Frederickson, 2000; Aberbach and Christensen, 2005).

Chris (2006) acknowledges the role of bureaucracy in managing the operations for the implementation of procedures and procedures pointing out that its is an essential aspect of most organizations. On the contrary, he stresses that when bureaucracy becomes self-serving and self-perpetuating, it creates problems in the organization such as inefficiency, ingestion of needless resources, sluggish process response time, gradual adaptation to technology and change.

Rabie (2004) points out the advantages of bureaucratic management such as: facilitating people and situation management, predicting results of actions, and lowering chances for unpleasant surprises. Undermining employees' potential to take initiative and be creative, creating mind a that lacks curiosity and with limited functions, hindering organizational transformation, undermining the organization's capacity to adjust to changes and react to challenges.

An article released in http://www. scribd. com identifies the features of bureaucracy as follows: precision, quickness, clearness in communication, reduction of friction, and reduction of personal costs. Alternatively, its cons include: multiplication of administrative functions, vertical structure, many degrees of management, a lot of paper works, boring, and red tape, impersonal recognized working to a fixed routine and lacking intelligent judgment. The same article cited Weber's idea of bureaucracy as possibly "the most effective system of organizing", but a "threat to basic personal liberties. " Thus, bureaucracy is often accused of "robbing the individuals spirit and robbing organizational members of their freedom and dignity through the elimination of recognized business love, hatred and all solely personal, irrational, and emotional elements. " (http://www. scribd. com)

2. 5 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Structure

An article printed in http://www. busting-democracy. com (2010) says that "practically all bureaucratic organizations seem to go through the same suffocating and immobilizing symptoms of bureaucracy and its detestable results victimize everyone regardless of level. "

Autier (2001) states that bureaucratic management systems impede innovations within established companies. The writer further points out that due to its reliance on individuals' field of expertise of tasks, set operative guidelines, task-focused control, and hierarchical authority, it hinders employees' capability to innovate. Hence, bureaucratic form may be befitting routine kind of tasks but not for advancement (Perrow, 1986; Souder, 1987). Autier also argued that bureaucratic systems are genetically, constitutionally incapable of generating invention". To support his argument, he cited Thompson (1969) who discovered six basic limitations of bureaucratic system the following:

It will not incite individuals to be impressive. Initiative is discouraged.

Individuals have no time and energy to innovate because their time is specialized in doing what they are anticipated to do which is tightly controlled by supervisors.

Individuals haven't any access to standard and relevant home elevators the organization's goals. They only get access to a small part of reality.

Innovative initiative has no place in the business since individuals have slim and exclusive objective assignment.

Individuals and departments are not used to working together and there are no confrontation included in this. Hence, established limitations impede communication exchange.

Decision making process is institutionalized and is also ill-adapted to invention.

Because of the abovementioned limits, Autier (2001) added that bureaucratic management may create deviant behaviours from innovative people since the ponly one who can innovate is the top man in the organization (Thompson, p. 17. )

Considine and Lewis (2003) state that a great number of business and political reformists desire to end bureaucracy in public service agencies because it is too costly, too large, too rigid, too standardized, and too insensitive to specific identities. The writers also cited Fournier and Gray (1992) who especially described general population bureaucracy as outmoded and functionally and morally bankrupt.

Commenting on the problems with bureaucracy, Courpasson and Reed (2004) cited Bennis (1966) who views bureaucracy as a "prosthetic device, irrelevant to a fearless " new world " of dynamic systems, markets, and ideals. "

Cordella (2007) describes bureaucratic accountability as troublesome, inefficient, and unproductive.

In the business enterprise context, bureaucracy appears to have destructive influence on customers and employees. A report on the consequences of bureaucracy on customers and employees of public corporations posted in the web site http://www. busting bureaucracy. com uncovered that that a bureaucratic group:

is basically tough and rigid characterized by "red tape";

cannot fulfill customer's specific situation;

is inflexible and unresponsive to customer's specific situation;

has standard methods, policies, or tactics designed exclusively for the benefit for the organization and work to the disadvantage of the clients;

makes it very difficult to get exceptions approved;

is uncaring;

is unwilling to admit mistakes and endeavors to transfer blame onto the customers;

is not innovative and is unwilling to improve;

has second-rate products and services;

is hard to attain during office time and scarcely reachable during busy hours; and

is arrogant and lacking in love of life.

The research further exposed that customers often associate bureaucratic organizations with the following:

Getting moved around a number of that time period when they call.

Employees with bad attitude towards the business providing the impression they are not happy with the business.

Employees who are less enthusiastic about their products and services.

Unfriendly and uncaring employees.

In addition to the above, the analysis also discovered employees' descriptions of bureaucratic organizations as follows:

Lack of cooperation among departments. Each section has its own agenda.

Department minds feel responsible only for their own departments to the neglect of the organization's quest.

Presence of inside politics. Executives strives for personal improvement and power.

Subordinates' ideas aren't usually welcome.

People in the department spend lots of time protecting their own area, neglecting their responsibility.

Employees aren't trusted and treated as if they are not capable of making good view and work only when pushed.

Employees work in an extremely tense environment.

The organization is top-heavy while the operating devices are too lean.

Politics, rather than genuine job achievement, is more likely to be used in promoting employees.

Top professionals are ill-informed and protected from real happenings in leading lines or in the areas making them use stereotypical thinking and out-of-date experience in making decisions. .

There is hoarding and secrecy of information-the basis for electric power.

Data is selectively used or distorted to make performance look better.

There is distortion of inside communication.

Mistakes and failures are denied, covered up, or ignored.

Responsibility for errors and failures is commonly rejected and blame is shifted onto others.

Decisions are created by greater and larger organizations, so no one can be placed accountable.

Decisions are created based on perceived dreams of superiors, not on concern for mission achievement.

Policies, practices, and procedures tend to grow endlessly and be more and more rigid.

Quantitative is more emphasized than quality.

Personal concerns and human needs are overlooked.

Overall, both employees and customers view bureaucracy as a range of negative forces, attitudes, or actions disadvantageous to customer and employee satisfaction. Also, bureaucracy sometimes appears as an obstacle to organizational efficiency and a travelling pressure that weakens employee morale and determination. It really is a reason behind polarization, discord, and competition among people in the business which hinders objective accomplishment (http://www. busting bureaucracy. com)

2. 6 Organizational Success: Nature and Definition

A lot has been written about organizational effectiveness running a business and academic literature; however, the idea has continued to haunt management practitioners. The still unresolved issue concerning the idea stems from the disagreement among management experts as to a universally accepted explanation of the term including a couple of criteria, guidelines, or attributes that would define a highly effective organization. In other words, there is still a continuous visit a generic definition that could fairly apply to all areas (Helms, 2001).

Helms (2001) further argues that organizational performance has been considered the result of Total Quality management (TQM), Constant Quality Improvement (CQI), and organizational efficiency. Therefore it has been one of the most searched for research subjects in several management areas. In addition, the author talks about four key models which may have been discovered in the books and have been used empirically in educational research as follows:

The first model stresses production (the movement of organizational outputs), commitment (the degree of connection to the organization), control (the degree of effect and personal potential), and social conflict ( the amount of perceived misunderstanding between the supervisors and subordinates).

The second model originated based on interrelated organizational processes as a tool for management consultants. Organizational survival, maximizing return, and self-regulations are key variables that allow an organization to keep a balance among internal-external boundary permeability, awareness to status and change, contribution to constituents, transformation, promoting advantageous ventures, overall flexibility, adaptability, and efficiency to bring about effectiveness.

Management experience, organizational structure, political impact, mother board of directors involvement, volunteer engagement, and internal marketing communications are the six indicators after which the third model is situated.

To compare for-profit and non-profit organizational performance, the competing value framework originated concentrating on four components, particularly: human relationships (participation, talk, and openness as ways to boost morale and achieve determination), available systems (insight, innovation, and version as way toward external reputation, support, acquisition, and expansion), logical goals (revenue and productivity through course and goals), and interior process (measurement, documents, information management as methods to achieve balance, control, and continuity.

Despite continuous effort to check and validate the abovementioned models, there is still little consensus regarding the universal definition or dimension of organizational efficiency. Hence, different parameters have often been considered drivers of organizational success by individuals and organizations such as quickness of service, friendliness of employees, sanitation, value, quality, performance, etc. Helms (2001) cited the result of a study relating 700 CEOs from leading industrial and service companies in the general public and private sectors based on the next criteria: (1) top institutions on the market; (2) widely adored by knowledgeable people; (3) with multiple generations of chief professionals; (4) have been through multiple service or product life cycles; and (5) have been founded before 1950.

The following variables were determined as requirements for organizational efficiency:

Quality, keen, and satisfied employees

Consistent and energizing communication strategy

Clear practices, plans, and decisions

Adaptive and receiving environment

Interdependent communication

Effective recruiting management

Strategic alternatives of markets and opportunities

Ability to foresee competitor reactions to proper responses and anticipate employee responses

Strategy associated with organizational goals and reviews

Free circulation of communication

Effective exterior communication

Opportunities for worker improvement and growth

Emphasis on planning, training, and support

Adaptive organizational varieties and structures

High level of organizational trust

Consistency and congruency between words and actions

Effective Planks of Directors

Effective sue of information technology

Integrating employees from units

Emphasis on ethics, the environment, and sustainability

Customer concentration and potential to maximize customer value

Choosing the right partners and building trusting, durable relationships

Empowerment and delegation

Lean development and focus on efficiency and productive processes

Strong culture and mission

Organizational efficiency is the organization's ability to attain its goals and effectively react to environmental factors

(http://apps. business. ualberta. ca/rfield/Organizational%Effectiveness, %20Structure, 5020and%20Technology. htm)

An important theory in management literature, organizational effectiveness actions the organization's accomplishment of its missions through the use of core strategies. Studies on this concept focus on organizations' unique capacities to effectively achieve their missions (McCann, 2004).

Schools of thought investigate organizational performance (OE) from different perspectives. Corresponding to Peters and Waterman (1982) a powerful business: " is able to manage ambiguity, is adaptable, customer oriented, productive, value driven, slim in form, and knows its major area of business, and empowers its employees. "

The "goals' procedure seeks to evaluate organizational efficiency in terms of the organization's achievement of its set in place goals (Robbins, 1990; Hannan and Freeman, 1977). As a reaction to the "goals' model, the systems methodology points out that healthy and effective organizational means such as people, resources, procedures, infrastructure, etc. are crucial in making business achieve their ends. An organization works well if it acquires inputs from its environment and has outputs accepted by its environment. (Vijayalaksmi, 2008). The "strategic constituencies" model proposes that an company becomes effective when it "distinguishes among its proper groups (i. e. investors, customers, employees, and suppliers) and meets their demands being that they are needed for the organization's success. " (Pennings and Goodman, 1982). The competing values tackle argues that no specific group of criteria best displays organizational performance; hence, this is a mixture of diverse factors. Suggested by Quinn and Rohrbaugh (1983), this model has three dimensions, particularly: organizational concentrate (specific to firm), organizational structure (balance and versatility), and organizational means and ends (systems to goals). The "contradiction" plan claims that organizational constraints such as goals, constituencies, systems, administration regulatory agents and time casings should be looked into elaborately and prioritized according to their organizational value and fulfilled without creating turmoil with other groups (Banner and Gange, 1995).

The abovementioned techniques focus on the fundamental role of means, organizational qualities and exterior factors in attaining organizational performance.

Despite a number of models for investigating organizational effectiveness, a general consensus on the valid group of effectiveness criteria is not reached due to due to variations in criteria problems and degree of analysis (Etzioni, 1974; Yuchtman and seashore, 1967).

Miner (1980) defines effective organization as one capable of getting inputs and changing them into outputs, monitor environmental changes and take corrective actions for success. Sparrow and Hiltrop (1993) stress that "a sound performance management system can help organizations include strategy into specific employee efforts and turn employees' potential into the desired organizational performance. Relating to Katz and Miller (1995), concentrated leadership, motivated workforce, smart proper management, and sound business execution are key issues for the success of an organization.

Pestonjee and Pandey (1996) strss the organizational efficiency calls for the introduction of proper role conception. Furthermore, autonomy to make decisions, group role, pursuance of incentive and job systems, and increased role of communal partners are vital components of organizational performance (Sparrow and Hiltrop, 1997).

The multidimensionality of organizational success results from multiple organizational values and tastes (Verma and Jain, 2001). Kochanski and Sorensen (2005) discovered that most organizations considerably emphasized performance management as the building blocks for talent management and an integral driver of organizational success. In the study of Koll, Woodside, and Muhlbacher (2005), well-balanced responsiveness to multiple constituencies was found to be more more likely to lead to high organizational effectiveness

2. 7 Aspects of Organizational Effectiveness

Batista (2008) identifies three components of organizational effectiveness as follows: people, culture, and impact. People contain the personnel. Culture is a combo of style, skills, and distributed beliefs. Impact includes both success and sustainability and the created value for any stakeholders, from business's employees to nonprofit's clients.

The creator further explains that folks, culture, and impact are interrelated. People build a culture that in turn designs them future coworkers select-select into a preexisting culture that meets their needs. Moreover, people implement the organization's plans, and the culture either aids and amplifies or hinders and dampens their initiatives. Finally, the organization's capability to attain its goals affects its potential to appeal to and retain effective people and support a high-performance culture.

Effectiveness when it comes to people, corresponding to Batista (2008), includes:

Investment in organizational culture;

passion about desired impact;

appropriate authenticity;

high value on social skills;

willingness to carry peers responsible;

building contacts within and across cultural connections;

eagerness for reviews as a chance for growth; and

using technology to learn, collaborate, and network.

Batista (2008) also identifies effectiveness as it pertains culture the following:

consistent investment in authority development;

leadership expressed whatsoever levels of organization;

emphasis on constant learning through reviews;

shared and celebrated successes;

failures are opportunities for learning;

candor is motivated and compensated;

information is shared freely rather than hoarded; and

decentralized decision-making and empowered edges.

Moreover, Batista (2008) explains that in conditions of impact, success is mentioned by the next:

commonly understood definitions of "impact";

definitions at the mercy of regular review;

systematic data-gathering and research;

distinction between information and meaningful metrics;

data-based decision making;

data complemented by persuasive stories;

systems complemented by respect for stakeholders;

pragmatism; and a vision of triumph.

2. 8 Impact of Bureaucratic Framework on Organizational Effectiveness

Miles and Snow (1992) summarized the consequences of bureaucratic composition on organizational communication the following:

Lack of communication between functional groups within an organization, making the organization slow and inflexible, although specialty area can lead to operational efficiencies within groups

Centralized coordination and field of expertise of tasks causes effective and predictable development of limited amount of products or services

Vertical integration of activities contributes to quick offering and circulation of products.

Vijayalaksmi (2008) discovered that organizational structure is an integral determinant of organizational success. Bureaucracy negatively affects organizational effectiveness

Chapter 3


3. 1Introduction

The following hypotheses will be tested in order to discover the influence of specific bureaucratic aspects on the level of organizational performance of the federal government sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 1:

Specialization affects the amount of organizational performance of federal organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 2:

Rigid rules and procedures influence the amount of organizational efficiency of authorities organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypotheses 3:

Hierarchical position comes with an impact on the amount of organizational efficiency of administration organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 4:

Centralized expert and decision making impact the level of organizational performance of authorities organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 5:

Chain of command line affects the amount of organizational success of government organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 6:

Impersonal relationship affects the level of organizational efficiency of administration organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Hypothesis 7:

Technical skills and competence influence the level of organizational effectiveness of government organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Pearson's relationship coefficient will be used to determine the relationship of each of the bureaucratic features with organizational performance. The results of the exams will show whether the relationship is significant or not. Then, conclusions will be attracted based on these results.

3. 2 Conceptual Framework of the Study

Independent Varying Dependent Variable

Bureaucratic Features

Task specialization

Rigid rules and procedures

Hierarchical positions

Centralized specialist and

decision making ORGANIZATIONAL

Chain of command line EFFECTIVENESS

Impersonal relationship

Technical expertise

and competence

Mission- Driven

Organizational Model

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Study

Chapter 4

Research Methodology

4. 1 Research Design

4. 2 Inhabitants and Sample

4. 3 Sampling Procedure

4. 4 Data Collection Method

4. 5 Procedures

4. 6 Data Analysis

Chapter 5

Data Analysis and Interpretation

5. 1 Center components of Bureaucracy in Bahraini Organizations

5. 2 Characteristics of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations

5. 3 Problems Connected with Bureaucratic Framework among Bahraini Organizations

5. 4 Organizational Efficiency of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations

5. 5 Bureaucratic Aspects/Characteristics Associated with Organizational Success of Bahraini Organizations

Chapter 6

Discussion of Results

6. 1 Center elements of Bureaucracy in Bahraini Organizations

6. 2 Characteristics of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations

6. 3 Problems Associated with Bureaucratic Composition among Bahraini Organizations

6. 4 Organizational Effectiveness of Bureaucratic Bahraini Organizations

6. 5 Bureaucratic Aspects/Characteristics Connected with Organizational Efficiency of Bahraini Organizations

Chapter 7

Conclusions and Recommendations

7. 1 Conclusions

7. 2 Recommendations

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