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Literature On Yoga And Dysmenorrhea

"An excellent literature is chiefly a product of inquiring imagination in revolt contrary to the immovable certainities of country "- Mecken H. C. Books serves a number of important functions in the research process. It can help the researcher to create ideas or even to focus on a research topic. In addition, it can be useful in pointing out the study design, methodology, signifying of tools and type of statistical analysis that could be productive in pursuing the study problem.

Review of books of today's study is established under the following headings.

Review related to dysmenorrhea

Studies related to dysmenorrhea

Review related to yoga

Studies related to yoga on stress and dysmenorrhea



Dysmenorrhea is a gynaecological medical condition seen as a severe uterine pain scheduled to unpleasant cramps during menstruation. Menstrual cramps usually previous from a few hours to several days and convenience as the circuit progresses.


Primary dysmenorrhea

Secondary dysmenorrhea


Primary dysmenorrhea means pain recurred regularly or in just a couple of years of the first puberty.


It is associated with gynecological disorders such as endometriosis or pelvic abnormalities. Pain begins years after intervals started.

Secondary dysmenorrhea can be caused by the following:


Blood and tissues being discharged through a small cervix.

Uterine fibroid or ovarian cyst.

Infections of the uterus.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

Intrauterine device (IUD).


The causes of primary dysmenorrhea are:

Strong uterine contractions which is activated by increased creation of the hormone prostaglandin by the lining of the uterus (endometrium).

Anxiety and stress.

Blood and tissue being discharged through a small cervix.

Displaced uterus.

Lack of exercise.

Associated factors in most important dysmenorrhea

Use of caffeine or nicotine.

Stress. The amount of dysmenorrhea may vary according to general health or state of mind. While emotional or subconscious factors don't cause the pain, they can worsen it or cause some women to be less responsive to treatment.

Family background of dysmenorrhea.

Lack of exercise; poor diet.

Signs and symptoms

Diarrhea (occasionally) or constipation.


Nausea and vomiting (sometimes).

Cramping sharp aches and pains in the lower abdomen, back and thighs.

Pain starts at the onset of menses and continues all night to days.

Lack of energy.

Urinary consistency.

Irritability, nervousness, unhappiness.





Nutritional supplements like omega-3 essential fatty acids (fat compounds within oily fish, such as salmon and tuna), magnesium, vitamin E, zinc, and thiamine (vitamin B1) work in dealing with dysmenorrhea. Intake of a lot of wholegrains, fresh fruits and fruit and vegetables, and avoiding saturated fats and commercial junk food is also beneficial. Restricting salt can help to lessen bloating. Reduce caffeine containing drinks, sugar, and liquor intake will help in reducing the chance of dysmenorrhea.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

The pain of key dysmenorrheal is relieved by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aspirin is the most typical NSAID

Non-drug therapies

Yoga Remedy, exercise, acupuncture, acupressure, behavioral therapy, Transcutaneous electric nerve arousal (TENS) and chiropractic attention work in dealing with dysmenorrhea.

Yogic Management

The pigeon present, the hero pose the best way of soothing the thoughts and soothing the body and extensive squat pose is very useful in reducing the hip pain.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation

Transcutaneous electric nerve activation (TENS) is a mode of treatment which uses low-level electric powered pulses to reduce back pain. The standard approach is to provide 80 to 100 pulses per second, for 45 minutes, three times every day.


Liliwat et al (2006) conducted a study to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its associated factors and its effects on school activities among adolescent young ladies in a second university in a rural area of Selangor, Malaysia. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 62. 3%. It had been significantly higher in the centre adolescence (15 to 17 years old) age group, girls with regular menstrual cycle and a good family history. There is no significant association with mean get older of menarche and period of menstruation. The amount of school and course absences increased with increasing intensity of dysmenorrhea. The mean pain report was significantly higher in young ladies who reported to be unable to participate in activities and with poor attentiveness in class. Dysmenorrhea among the adolescent young ladies was found to be common. It acquired significant negative impact in their college performance and activities.

Wilson et al (2003) explained that most the female adolescents have been discovered dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms as problems that affect the academics performance and a key point for college absenteeism. They surveyed eighty-eight woman high school children in two split physical education classes at high school adolescents in Pune for the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms. The results revealed that 86% (76 away of 88) had premenstrual symptoms and 91% (80 away of 88) experienced dysmenorrhea and almost all of the girls were unacquainted with the causes and treatments of these symptoms. Consequently, a model was designed to educate young ladies in self-help methods also to display for and detect these problems.

Dittakarn et al (2003) conducted a report to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrheal and its own impact on school attendance, educational performance, social activities and understanding of treatment in Thai adolescents. Dysmenorrhea was a significant public medical condition. It had a direct effect on educational activities. A lot of the subjects understood that Paracetamol is the medicine that help relief their symptoms.

Anil K Agarwal & Anju Agarwal (2002) conducted an explorative review to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea its severity with associated symptoms in high school adolescent women of this group within 15 to 20 years at Gwalior. They concluded that the prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 79. 67% and most them, 37. 96%, endured regularly from dysmenorrhea severity. The three most frequent symptoms present on day before and first day of menstruation were lethargy, fatigue, depression, inability to focus in work.

Wilson (2002) conducted a report to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among adolescents of 14-16 years in Switzerland using questionnaire. Among 327 cases, 185 conditions (56. 6%) reported dysmenorrhea. Included in this 95 (31. 7%) experienced slight dysmenorrhea, 45(15%) experienced moderate dysmenorrhea and 17 (5. 7%) experienced severe dysmenorrhea.

Martin et al (2001) conducted a report to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of dysmenorrhea among adolescents. A 95-item menstrual Examination Form was implemented to 207 suburban-based adolescent females in Turkey. Subject matter got a mean age group of 17. 6 years, 89% were white, 59% were in high school, and 28% were in school. Almost all themes reported dysmenorrhea (96%) or average (89%) severity; while many reported changes they considered severe (59%) or extreme (43%). The most commonly reported changes in physical condition were general uncomfortableness, fluid retention symptoms, fatigue, and autonomic physical changes. The mostly reported changes in spirits and patterns included impaired sociable function, depressive changes, and impulsive tendencies. These changes were most severe in those adolescents who reported having dysmenorrhea.

Banikarim et al (2000) conducted a report to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea among Hispanic girl adolescents its effect on academic performance, school attendance, and activities and social activities; and its own management. A complete of 706 Hispanic female adolescents, in grades nine to twelve, completed a 31-item questionnaire about the existence, duration, severity, treatment, and limits of dysmenorrhea at an area urban high school. Dysmenorrhea was highly common among Hispanic adolescents and was related to institution absenteeism and constraints on social, academic, and sports activities. Most of the adolescents did not seek medical advice for dysmenorrhea.

Hillen et al (1999) conducted a study to explore the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and its own impact on school, sporting, public activities, management strategies, and their understanding of available treatment among high school young girls in Perth, American Australia. A total of 388 female students in Levels 11 and 12 at three metropolitan secondary schools completed an anonymous questionnaire administered during class time. it was found that the prevalence and impact of dysmenorrhea was high, and they lack knowledge and connection with effective treatment. Health education actions were had a need to prevent unnecessary hurting and interruption to institution routine.


Introduction to yoga

Yoga is now popular in every parts of the earth. For the restless brain it offers solace; For the unwell this is a boon; For the common man it is the fashion of your day to keep him fit and beautiful. Some utilize it for improving ram intelligence and imagination with its multifold advantages it is becoming a part of education. Specialists use it to unfold deeper levels of awareness in their move towards perfection.


The term yoga exercises originates from a Sanskrit word which means yoke or union. Typically, yoga is a method joining the individual personal with the Divine, General Nature, or Cosmic Awareness. Physical and mental exercises are made to help accomplish that goal, also known as self-transcendence or enlightenment.

On the physical level, yoga postures, called asanas, are made to tone, strengthen, and align your body. These postures are performed to make the backbone supple, healthy and promote blood flow to all the organs, glands, and cells, keep all the systems of the body healthy.

On the mental level, yoga uses breathing techniques (pranayama) and meditation (dyana) to calm, clarify, and willpower your brain.


Yoga is used to alleviate problems associated with high blood circulation pressure, high cholesterol, migraines, asthma, shallow breathing, backaches, constipation, diabetes, menopause, multiple sclerosis, varicose blood vessels, carpal tunnel symptoms and many persistent illnesses. It also has the capacity to promote leisure and reduce stress.

As of late 2002, yoga is ever more recommended for dysmenorrhea, premenstrual symptoms, and other disorders. Hatha yoga, a avenue of yoga is dependant on physical purification, strengthening and self-transformation. It has a system of asanas (postures), which helps to promote mental and physical well-being, with particular emphasis on making the spine supple and healthy and increase circulation and allow your head to focus and turn into free from distraction for very long periods of meditation, along with pranayama (breathing control). It really is a highly developed system of nearly 200 physical postures, actions and deep breathing techniques designed to tune your body to its optimal health.

Yoga counters menstrual problems

Yoga encompasses breathing techniques which relaxes your body, which is effective in minimizing stress credited menstruation. Performing the many positions in Yoga promotes body flexibility, the muscles become supple helps removing pain as a consequence to menstrual cramps and other causes.

Yoga increases the well-being. Yoga demonstrates to women not to concentrate too much on the issue, rather it educates them to figure out how to accept the unavoidable changes in life.

Yoga, being a physical breathing exercise, helps bring about good blood flow. Because of this, menstrual cycle will not be a problem any more, thus lessening pain.

Yogasanas effective in lowering dysmenorrhea and stress

Cobra Present (Bhujangasana) is one of the extremely powerful backward bending asana in Hatha Yoga beneficial for people with back aches. This good posture decreases tightness in the lower back again, enlarges the torso, and strengthens the hands and shoulders. This Asana is also good to overcome menstrual irregularities, and helps alleviate stress. It includes a huge amount of benefits which cover all your body systems. In women it tones the ovaries and the uterus and helps to reduce gynaecological disorders such as leucorrhea, dysmenorrhea and amenorrhea.

Adho mukha Virasana (hero's cause) reduces fat surrounding the thighs & calves. It enhances the digestion quietens your brain and reduces tension and congestion in pelvic organs.

Corpse Pose (Shavasana) the body parts are steadily extended and relax muscles. It aids in complete rest.

Dhanurasana strengthens the back muscles and gastro intestinal problems associated with menstruation.

Pigeon pose opens the sides and help to prevent lower again pain.

Wide squat pose opens tight hips, releases stress in the lower back and exercises out the muscles in your feet.


Berger et al (2009) conducted a study to assess the result of yoga on wellbeing, stress scheduled to dysmenorrhea among fourth and fifth-grade students in Bronx, NY. Nearly all students participated in yoga reported improved wellbeing, as shown by perceived improvements in manners such as strength, flexibility, balance. The results suggested that yoga is a precautionary intervention and a means of reducing dysmenorrhea and stress.

Hartfiel et al (2009) conducted a study to assess the potency of yoga in boosting mental well-being and resilience to stress among university or college employees at Dru Education Centre, Snowdonia, UK. Six-week yoga involvement resulted in significant advancements in emotions of clear-mindedness, composure, elation, energy, and self-assurance. Furthermore, the yoga group reported increased life goal and satisfaction, and emotions of greater self-confidence during difficult situations. It had been concluded that a good brief program of yoga was effective for boosting emotional well-being and resilience to stress at work.

Laura (2008) said that stress anticipated to dysmenorrhea can have an impact on student's educational performance. He conducted a report to determine the impact of stress factors anticipated to dysmenorrhea on college students educational performance. Twenty students of School of North Carolina at Charlotte participated in the study. They were asked to complete a review, including the perceived stress scale. A lot of the students reported limited rest and absenteeism.

Brown (2000) said that Dysmenorrhoea is seen as a cramping lower stomach pain that could radiate to the lower back and legs and is often associated with nausea, headache, fatigue and diarrhea. He conducted a study to assess the effectiveness of yoga remedy on dysmenorrhea at New Zealand. He discovered that yoga reduced the Moos' Menstrual Stress Questionnaire (MDQ) score during the menstrual period (P < 0. 05) and a sustained decrease in symptoms on the three detected cycles.

Anice George, (1998) conducted a study to calculate the incidence of dysmenorrhea, marriage between stress and dysmenorrhea and the result of planned yoga therapy for 12 weeks on dysmenorrhea and stress of adolescent females in Karnataka talk about. An explorative review technique was used for the first stage, and the second period used evaluative approach with pre-test post-test control group design, where a 12 weeks yoga therapy was used as the involvement. She figured the incidence of dysmenorrhea was 87. 87%. A substantial positive relationship (r= 0. 1275, P < 0. 01) between the severity of dysmenorrhea and stress was found. Yoga remedy was found to be always a highly effective involvement in reducing the occurrence of dysmenorrhea, the strength of pain during dysmenorrhea, and the dysmenorrhea and stress scores.


The conceptual construction of the present study was developed by the investigator predicated on Ludwig Von Bertanlanffy's Standard System theory of learning (1968). Something is a set of interrelated parts which come together to form a "Whole". Each part is necessary to make a complete, meaningful whole. This involves components like,



Output and


In the present analysis the adolescent girls were considered as an available system. The machine uses input to maintain homeostasis.


The first element of a system is source, which is the information, energy or subject, which enters a system. For something to work well, input should contribute to achieve the goal of the machine. It identifies demographic data of adolescent females (time, order of delivery, religion and occupation of the mom or primary health care giver), pre test degree of stress during dysmenorrhea, degree of dysmenorrhea and plan for yoga remedy. These factors are taken into account as suggestions for assessing the amount of dysmenorrhea, stress during dysmenorrhea of the adolescent young girls.


It is the process which allows the suggestions to be transformed, so that it pays to to the system. The action needed to accomplish the desired task. The duty is to put into action yoga therapy also to evaluate the post test degree of stress and dysmenorrhea.


Based on the insight and throughput, the system returns to the environment in an changed state, the end result of product of the system. Outputs vary greatly with regards to the type and reason for the system impacting the environment. Therefore the output refers to the reduction of the stress and dysmenorrhea. Degree of stress and dysmenorrhea was interpreted as no, minor, average, and severe.


It identifies determine set up final result of the machine has been achieved. Feed back again emphasizes the result of the type, throughput and productivity. It demonstrates, whether no stress or gentle stress or modest stress or severe stress, no dysmenorrhea or mild dysmenorrhea or modest dysmenorrhea or severe dysmenorrhea has experience by adolescent young girls.





Age of the adolescent girl

Order if birth


Occupation of the mom or care giver


Age at menarche

Regularity of menstrual cycle

Menstrual cycle

Number of pads used per day

use of medications

Assessment of degree of stress

using recognized stress scale and the amount of dysmenorrhea using menstrual problems checklist

Plan for Yoga therapy



After the yoga therapy

reduction in

the degree of stress and

dysmenorrhea among adolescent girls


Assessment of degree of stress and dysmenorrhea among adolescent females using organized interview questionnaire.

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