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Lean Tools Management

Lean manufacturing identifies a manufacturing improvement process based on the fundamental goal of Toyota production system (TPS) to be able to minimize or eliminate waste material while maximizing creation circulation (Tapping, 2002). Many creation organizations recognize the value of applying lean techniques. However, few organizations apply slim techniques with the required knowledge and proven tools to accomplish it.

Today, businesses about the world have a significant possibility to reduce their costs and customer lead-time and cycle time through the use of Lean Manufacturing functions. Its roots rest in the creation industry and are firmly influenced by the development system principles at first developed by the lead motor vehicle company called Toyota in Japan. These Trim Manufacturing technologies have been extensively employed and applied by numerous developing companies worldwide.

The reason for this job is to use lean production tools and techniques in food industry with focus on delivery and takeaway restaurant. The first step is to recognize the seven deadly wastes and implement the 5s, this ensure easiness in implementing trim creation tools and techniques. The next step was to develop value stream map for this restaurant. This particular tool allows company to fully capture processes, material flows, information flow also to report lead-time, inventory levels and cycle-times of confirmed product family and helps to identify waste products in the system. After execution of VSM the next step would be applying Just in time (JIT) and Solo minute exchange of dies (SMED) to lessen installation- time. These trim manufacturing tools will help this company to achieve reduction in inventory levels, decrease in manufacturing lead-time, and delivery lead-time.



I wish to thank ALLAH my lord for presenting me the power, patience and assistance in the month of Ramadhan to go through this project.

I point out my sincere gratitude to my supervisors, Mr. Graham Baker and Dr. Raj Bhatti, because of their invaluable assistance, proper advice and beneficial ideas throughout my Msc and task.

I am deeply indebted to my parents whose regular encouragement and support allowed me to go after my studies. I am also thankful to entire staff and faculty of Msc Anatomist Management for their help and co-operation

September, 2008. Jibran Khan.





CHAPTER 1: Benefits (1-5)

1. 1 Benefits 1

1. 2 Company Overview 2

1. 3 Affirmation of Problem 3

1. 4 Project Objectives 3

1. 5 Task Approach 3

1. 6 Books Survey 4


2. 1 Origin of Trim 6

2. 2 What's lean 7

2. 3 Five Principal elements of Trim manufacturing 8

2. 4 Constant Improvement 9

2. 5 Value creation and Waste materials 11

2. 5. 1 Main kind of misuse 11

2. 6 Value Stream 12

2. 6. 1 Value Stream Mapping 12

2. 7 JIT 15

2. 8 SMED 18

CHAPTER 3: Job DESIGN AND Strategy (20-23)

3. 1 Release 20

3. 2 Project Design 20

3. 3 Technique 20

3. 4 Ongoing Improvement 20

3. 5 Data Collection 21

3. 6 Id of waste 21

3. 7 Value Stream Mapping 22

CHAPTER 4: Job ANALYSIS AND Execution (24-35)

4. 1 Introduction 24

4. 2 Execution of 5s housekeeping 24

4. 3 Analysis of wastes 25

4. 3. 1 Defect Examination 25

4. 3. 2 Inventory Evaluation 26

4. 3. 3 Transportation waste 26

4. 3. 4 Throw away due to hanging around 27

4. 3. 5 Overproduction Evaluation 27

4. 3. 6 Inappropriate Control 28

4. 4 Execution Plan 28

4. 5 Value Stream Mapping 29

4. 5. 1 Data Set 30

4. 5. 2 Products 30

4. 5. 3 Customer Need 31

4. 5. 4 Working time 31

4. 5. 5 Production Process 31

4. 5. 6 Circulation Chart 32

4. 5. 7 Development Control 32

4. 5. 8 Process Information 33

4. 6 Realization 34

4. 7 Observation 34

4. 8 Recommendation 35


5. 1 Debate 36

5. 2 Results 36

5. 3 Realization 37

5. 4 Opportunity of Future of Work 38





In this competitive world processing companies are constantly striving to increase their efficiency and output of the operation. Their goal is to fulfill customers with exact product, quality, amount and price in the shortest timeframe.

Lean creation is greater than a cost reduction program or problems solving way (Tapping, 2002). The main idea is that an efficient production can be achieved by a thorough approach to minimize wastes. This implies eliminating excess development and inventory, redundant activity of material, ready and delays, over processing, excess worker motion, and the necessity for rework and corrections.

Part of slim manufacturing is looking at businesses for those components, processes or products that add cost rather than value (Tapping, 2002). Each step of the production process is supervised to find out if it offers value to the product. If it does not add value, the process could be delegated to a subcontractor or outsourcing company in order to target the personnel on value-added functions of its center business.

The reason for this task is to implement lean creation tools and techniques in Bombay Bicycle Club, which is a food industry in London, concentrating on delivery and takeaway restaurant. The first step is to recognize the seven deadly wastes and execute the 5s. The next step was to develop value stream map because of this company. This particular tool allows company to fully capture processes, material moves, information flow and also to document lead-time, inventory levels and cycle-times of confirmed product family and really helps to identify waste products in the system. These results can be used to map the near future state and use lean manufacturing. The main goal is to identify and eliminate the muda from the production process. After execution of VSM the next step would be further minimizing the inventory and set up time, well how this can be achieved? In order to achieve this I will use the two slim tools namely Just with time (JIT) and Solitary minute exchange of dies (SMED). These tools can reduce inventory, lower making lead-time, and lower installation time.


The Bombay Bi-cycle Club is recognized as the best Indian Food in London and with both restaurants and delivery kitchens throughout London. [URL 1] The task scope is to boost in-house creation and material movement by unique procedure of Lean ideas and using low fat tools and techniques.

In might work with Bombay Bike Club, I have seen many problems existing in delivery shop, which may be eliminated by employing lean production tools and techniques.

The Bombay Bicycle Club name dates back to twenty years. They have reputation of providing a quality food that the customers are prepared to pay premium. This company depends on responsiveness alternatively on efficiency when it comes to client satisfaction. They had been able to build a strong market occurrence in South-West London over the years through: (1) Good quality food, and (2) Customer satisfaction. These two elements allowed these to expand in a good reputable firm.

The turnover Bombay Bi-cycle Membership in Fulham Broadway branch is around 10k weekly and there are 15 employees including 5 drivers, which deliver in a radius of 4 mls. The utmost delivery time is reported to be within an hour.

However, as time approved, the marketplace evolved and competition acquired become fierce. With so many delivery and takeaway cuisines coming into play, which were also less expensive than the Bombay Bicycle Club, it was deriving fewer income. In order to achieve higher gains this Club were required to re-structure there management on technical grounds, which is often done with the aid of lean manufacturing tools and techniques.

The Cuisine acquired to operate 8 time a day and 7 days a week to be able to meet customer demand, which didn't allow any recovery time and didn't remaining any room for blunders. Many customers also demanded for more capacity and overall flexibility, which is often found but with heavy constraints and less attempts were designed to improve it.

1. 3 Assertion OF PROBLEM

The operation maintained in Bombay Bike Golf club (BBC) was a similar in every branches. This, subsequently, meant that most their branches acquired long delivery lead-times compared to the marketplace essential. The management also put in substantial timeframe hastening all products through the service to be able to fulfill customer demand, which led to high device cost. This example was stealing good chunk of revenue as the customer's demand for discount rates on delivered items. In addition, BBC was obtaining unfavorable opinions from the customers.

Even though BBC had stable sales earnings at that time, it was becoming increasingly apparent that situation had not been going to carry on unless something is improved. There is an increment available on the market competition, that have been trying to remain competitive on price and delivery lead-time. To be able to improve efficiency, BBC acquired to lessen lead-time and then effectively maintain on-time delivery stability of 95% or better.

Moreover, BBC need a significant changes in shop floor layout, as well as traditional inventory management, and slight issues like accessories not maintained, direct labour piece work bonuses and undisciplined housekeeping methods.

It was clear that operation needed to make some substantial changes to compete in industry. With these determined issues as motorists for changes, it had not been difficult to put into action lean manufacturing key points within this corporation.


  • Reduce the Inventory levels by 10-20%.

  • Achieve on-time delivery performance of 95% or better.

  • Reduce creation lead-time.

  • Improve space utilization.

  • Improve responsiveness through versatility.


The first step required for this task is to recognize and define the study of the trim developing tools and techniques. This will likely be accompanied by carefully selecting the low fat tools that are best suited for the execution in the meals retail outlet to achieve the given objectives.

The next step in this task required towards applying lean principles is to analyze the current situation of the company and according to that develop the technique to implement trim creation tools and techniques.

First obstacle is to identify the wastes and then to put into action 5s in the company. Value Stream Map is utilized to map the existing express of the BBC. This will identify the foundation of waste materials then using its identification a proper trim tools can be use to reduce it. The near future point out map is made for an organization with slim tools applied to it.


Feld (2001:4) identifies five principal elements to provide the various facets required to support a solid lean manufacturing programme, namely manufacturing flow, organization, process control, metrics and logistics. For each of these elements there are in least six tools for a business to be and promote trim manufacturing

Bicheno (2000:8) details lean creation as a viewpoint, not a system or a method. It really is about simplicity, stream, visibility, relationship and value. He illustrates five lean key points from Womack and Jones for the reduction of waste:

Specify value from the point of view of the client.

Identify the worthiness stream.

Make value circulation.

Pull at the customer's rate of demand and seek perfection through continual improvement.

Seek perfection through continual improvement.

According to (Moore and Ron, 2007) Among the important strategy in job of lean creation is utilizing Kaizen event founded focused approach. Kaizen is a Japanese expression meaning change for the better of continuous improvement. It is fundamental to trim manufacturing that people must continuously make an effort to progress.

Few of the Kaizen event outline are to identify the region (bite size), identify focus (changeover, one piece circulation, kanban, quality), identify ideal times, gain management determination, select team, create TAKT time, preparation, training, standard mapping, create sub-teams, mapping & data collection, original analysis, original changes & testing, further changes and standardization. (G. Baker, 2007)

A value stream is a collection of all actions (value added as well as non-value-added) that must bring a product (or a group of products that use the same resources) through the main flows, starting with raw materials and closing with the client (Rother and Shook, 1999). These actions consider the flow of both information and materials within the overall supply chain. The ultimate goal of VSM is to recognize all sorts of waste materials in the worthiness stream also to take steps to try and eliminate these (Rother and Shook, 1999). While research workers have developed a number of tools to optimise specific operations within a supply chain, most of these tools fall short in linking and visualizing the type of the materials and information movement throughout the company's entire supply chain. Taking the value stream viewpoint means working on the picture as a whole and not specific procedures. VSM creates a common basis for the creation process, thus facilitating more thoughtful decisions to enhance the value stream (McDonald et al. , 2002).

Slack, Chambers and Johnston (2001:482) illustrate lean manufacturing techniques under the heading of JIT (Just In Time). JIT is designed to meet a demand instantaneously, with perfect quality and almost no waste. JIT is a disciplined approach to improving overall output and eliminating waste. It offers for cost-effective development and delivery of only the necessary quantity of parts at the right quality, at the right time and place, while using a bare minimum amount of facilities, equipment, materials and human resources. JIT would depend on the total amount between your supplier's flexibility and the user's overall flexibility. It is completed through the use of elements that require total employee involvement and teamwork. A key school of thought of JIT is simplification (Slack et al. , 2001: 482).



2. 1 Origins of LEAN

After World Warfare II, Japanese manufacturers were facing the dilemma of insufficiency of materials, financial problems, and recruiting (Ohno, 1988). The issues that japan confronted differed from those in the us. For many generations America had cut costs utilizing the mass production system while producing fewer types of end items while for the Japanese the condition was how to cut costs while producing small numbers of various kinds of end items.

According to Ohno (1988),

Imitating America is not necessarily bad. We've learned a lot from the U. S. car empire. America has generated wonderful development management techniques, business management techniques such as quality control (QC) total quality control (TQC) and professional engineering (IE) methods. (p. 3)

In the 1940s a German employee could produce three times up to a Japanese worker, and an American worker could produce three times approximately a German worker (Ohno, 1988). Therefore, the proportion of production between North american and Japanese work forces was nine to 1. In order to make a move toward improvement, the Japanese leader Toyoda Kiichiro proposed to lessen the gap with America in three years, leading to the birth of the low fat manufacturing routines.

The term lean manufacturing was first used to describe the execution of what is now regarded as part of slim manufacturing such as a Kanban or just-in-time (JIT). It started out as a description of procedures employed by the Toyota Motor Company from 1950 through the 1980s (Ohno, 1988). Now low fat means a lot more. The Toyota production system started as part of a technique to survive produced by Taiichi Ohno, currently vice chief executive of the Toyota, in an effort to save capital, eliminate waste, reduce inventory, and reduce development times and operating expenses while increasing quality and production flexibility at the same time. The Toyota creation system was proved to be successful and integrated throughout the complete company.

Toyota exposed its first major procedure in the United States in 1984 through the joint venture with Basic Motors in Fremont, CA (Ohno, 1988). Since then, Toyota has made ongoing improvement adapting its creation system to a diverse labor force and a geographically multiply supplier bottom part. The reputation of the company is continuing to grow across the world. While most companies have had to endure enormous losses in business cycle decrease, Toyota has not lost money since 1960. The major contributor with their success has been Toyota development system.

The Toyota creation system has been created on the practice and development of one very helpful approach that reduces cost and time while problems every activity in the worthiness stream (Ohno, 1988). It really is applying a strategy known as the Five whys. By asking just why an activity is performed and then requesting why after every response, it is frequently possible to get to the origin of the issue. Understanding the root cause facilitates in successful redesign.

2. 2 What's LEAN

According to Womack, Jones, and Roos (1990), the term lean represents something that utilizes fewer inputs to be able to create the same outputs than those created by a traditional mass production system, while increasing the range of different done goods for the finish customer. The term lean processing is synonymous with different names, such as agile manufacturing, just-in-time manufacturing, synchronous manufacturing, top notch manufacturing, and constant flow.

Lean manufacturing can be an operational strategy oriented toward attaining the shortest possible pattern time through the elimination of waste material (Liker, 1997). It really is produced from the Toyota production system and its own objective is to raise the value-added work by eliminating wastes and lowering needless work. The technique often decreases enough time between a customer order and shipment, and it is designed to improve profitability, client satisfaction, throughput time, and employee motivation.

The benefits of lean making generally are lower costs, higher quality, and shorter lead times (Liker, 1997). The term lean manufacturing is created to symbolize less human work in the business, less developing space, less investment in tools, less inventory in progress, and less engineering hours to build up a fresh product in less time.

2. 3 Five Principal Elements for Trim Manufacturing

The five primary elements to consider when applying lean making are manufacturing flow, firm, process control, metrics, and logistics (Feld, 2000). These elements stand for the variety of aspects had a need to sustain an effective lean manufacturing execution program. Manufacturing flow addresses physical changes and design standards. Organization recognizes people's functions/functions, trained in new means of working, and communication. Process control is fond of monitoring, managing, stabilizing, and pursuing ways to improve the process. Metrics addresses visible results-based performance steps, targeted improvement, and team rewards/identification. Logistics provide the definition for functioning rules and mechanisms for planning and managing the movement of materials.

Issues in Low fat Manufacturing

Lean manufacturing is immediate opposition with traditional manufacturing approaches seen as a use of monetary order volumes, high capacity utilization, and high inventory (Feld, 2000). In changing from a traditional environment to one of lean creation, ethnical issues will emerge quickly, as well as level of resistance to change. Employing lean processing techniques will change the organizational culture because everyone needs to be more involved and accountable and people may be let go. A fast managing change program is required to accompany your time and effort. A slow procedure generally does not work or achieve significant results.

Lean processing is not really a marvelous solution (Feld, 2000). It requires a change in leadership that requires extensive communication, coordination, and group which results in a big change in the company's culture. Just utilizing one lean strategy such as a Kanban system will not result in lean implementation. Positive worker reaction to low fat manufacturing is vital to success, but does not always happen since becoming slim improves efficiency and can reduce the number of personnel needed. Laying people off and asking the rest of the employees to be more involved may not work.

Feld (2000) stated that in order to create a lean developing environment, the business needs to be aware of where it is at that point. They must know why they have to change and why change is important. It is necessary to provide the answers to these questions to employees so they become more engaged in the process. Motivation, tenacity, leadership, and way all play roles in the successful deployment of your low fat program (p. 7). Feld also mentioned that functions within the team and how team members connect to one another are important. All members must understand their jobs and why these were selected because of their assignment.

2. 4 Ongoing Improvement

Continuous improvement is another important principle of low fat production. Kaizen, which is japan word for a continuing endeavor for excellence, is becoming popular in the west as a paramount idea behind good management. Kaizen is a organized approach to continuous, orderly, constant improvement. In manufacturing settings improvements can take place in many forms such as reduction of inventory, and reduction of defective parts. Probably one of the most effective tools of ongoing improvement is 5S, which is the foundation for an efficient low fat company. 5S is an initial, modular step toward serious throw away reduction. 5S involves the Japanese words Seiri (Kind), Seiton (Straighten), Seiso (Sweep and Clean), Seiketsu (Systemize), and Shitsuke (Standardize). The underlying idea behind 5S is to look for waste and then to try to eliminate it. Waste products could be in the form of scrap, defects, excess raw materials, unneeded items, old damaged tools, and outdated jigs and fixtures (Monden, 1998).

The first S, Seiri, handles moving those items which are not currently being used on a continuing basis (e. g. , items that will never be used for the next month or so) from those that are. Moving those items and tossing away needless items can make material flow well; and staff move and work easily (Feld, 2000).

Seiton has to do with getting the right items in the right area. Items that do not participate in confirmed area should not be in that area. For a given place of work area tools must be marked and arranged as belonging for the reason that area. This can make it easier to move those items that are not tagged from that area. Organizing items in the right place can make tools, jigs, fittings, and resources apparent, detectable, and user friendly (Feld, 2000).

Seiso deals with cleaning and sweeping the task place methodically. The workplace should look neat and clean and prepared to use for the next shift. The task place should be maintained frequently (e. g. , daily). All tools and items should maintain the right place and little or nothing should be missing. A well-maintained work place creates a healthy environment to utilize (Feld, 2000).

Seiketsu is preserving a higher standard of housekeeping and office arrangement. A normal audit should be run and ratings should be assigned for areas of responsibilities. If all areas has people assigned to it then everyone has responsibility to maintain a higher standard of housekeeping and cleaning (Feld, 2000).

Shitsuke is management's accountability to train visitors to follow housekeeping guidelines. Management should put into practice the housekeeping guidelines in a utilized fashion so that their people can purchase into it. Management should walk the shop floor, clarify what they want from people, praise those who follow and instruct those who do not (Feld, 2000). Used together, 5S means good housekeeping and better workplace organization.

Kaizen tools such as 5S aren't only a way to increase success of a firm but also allow companies to reveal potential strengths and capabilities which were hidden before (Hirai, 2001). Sweeny (2003) and Cox (2002) have reported good results applying 5S.

Everything has a place and everything in its place! If it does not warrant a label, it does a not warrant a place in the region! They are words to reside by in a slim creation environment. So, what is so important about housekeeping? Regarding to authors Henderson and Larco (Lean Transformation: HOW EXACTLY TO Change Your Business into a Slim Enterprise), it is vital: A lot of people underestimate the value of security, order, and cleanliness at work. Our former co-workers at Toyota and Honda will tell you that 25 to 30% of most quality problems are directly related to the issue. (Henderson 1999)

2. 5 Value Creation and Waste

In Lean Developing, the worthiness of a product is defined exclusively predicated on what the customer actually requires and is willing to pay for. Production functions can be grouped into pursuing three types of activities:

Value-added activities are those activities, which convert the materials in to the exact product that the client requires.

Non value-added activities are activities, which aren't necessary for transforming the materials in to the product that the client wishes. Anything, which is non-value-added, may be defined as waste. Anything that adds needless time, effort or cost is considered non value-added. One other way of considering waste is that it is any material or activity for which the client is not eager to pay. Tests or inspecting materials is also considered waste since this is taken out insofar as the creation process can be increased to remove defects from occurring.

Research at the Lean Enterprise Research Middle (LERC) in the United Kingdom mentioned that for a typical making company the percentage of activities could be broken down the following [Hines P. et al, (2000)].

Value -added activity 5%

Non value -added activity 60%

Necessary non value -added activity 35%

Total activity 100%

2. 5. 1 Main Sorts of Waste

Originally seven main types of misuse were identified within the Toyota Creation System [Sullivan et al, (2002)].

a) Over creation - Producing too soon, resulting in poor move of information or goods and excessive inventory.

b) Defects - Repeated errors in paperwork or materials/ product quality problems resulting in scrap and rework, as well as poor delivery performance.

c) Pointless inventory - Abnormal safe-keeping and delay of information or products, resulting in excess inventory and cost, resulting in poor customer support.

d) Inappropriate control - Heading about work procedures using the incorrect set of tools, techniques or systems, often when a simpler methodology may become more effective.

e) Excessive transportation - Excessive movement of people, information or goods, resulting in misused time and cost.

f) Waiting around - Long periods of inactivity for people, information or goods, resulting in poor move and long lead times.

g) Unnecessary movement - Poor office organization, leading to poor ergonomics, e. g. , unnecessary bending or stretching and frequently lost items.

2. 6 Value stream

A value stream is the set of procedures, including value-added and non-value-added activities, necessary to transform recycleables into finished goods that the clients value (Womack & Jones, 1996). Value streams bring a specific good or service through three critical management responsibilities: problem resolving (determining what must be evolved), information management (strengthening information stream), and physical change (implementing changes). Tapping (2002) explained that, There are several value streams in a organization, in the same way there are extensive rivers flowing into the ocean (p. 27).

2. 6. 1 Value Stream Mapping

Value stream management is a management tool for planning, controlling, putting into action, sustaining and linking lean-manufacturing advancements to daily work (Tapping, 2002). Value stream management involves eight steps: investing in lean, choosing the worthiness stream, studying lean, mapping the current state, determining low fat metrics, mapping the near future condition, creating Kaizen programs, and putting into action Kaizen.

A value stream is a collection of all activities (value added as well as non-value-added) that are required to bring something (or several products that use the same resources) through the main flows, you start with raw materials and concluding with the client (Rother and Shook, 1999). These activities consider the circulation of both information and materials within the entire supply chain. The best goal of VSM is to identify all types of waste in the value stream and to take steps to eliminate these (Rother and Shook, 1999). While experts have developed a number of tools to optimise specific operations in just a supply chain, almost all of these tools fall short in linking and visualizing the type of the material and information movement throughout the business's entire supply string. Taking the worthiness stream viewpoint means focusing on the big picture and not specific techniques. VSM creates a common basis for the creation process, thus facilitating more thoughtful decisions to improve the value stream (McDonald et al. , 2002).

VSM gives you a large picture of the functioning functions of the organization and can help you understand the business enterprise all together. Identifying the sources of waste becomes much easier. The map shows a link between the information and material move, which will help to build and improve on the materials flow and generate a futuristic map with less waste material.

Value stream mapping is a visual representation of all the specific activities, like the flow of materials and information, which occurs along the value stream preferred for a product or family (Tapping, 2002). The value stream mapping process will probably reveal that a significant amount of non-value-added activities are present in your present techniques. These activities ingest financial and human resources and make longer lead-time without adding value.

However, many of these activities are actually necessary in the process; therefore the idea is to minimize their impact. Figure below shows the worthiness stream icons used to describe each procedure for manufacturing or assemblage.

Tapping (2002) explained the following:

Mapping materials and information flow will allow you to visualize the entire manufacturing material stream, instead of a single, isolated operation (such as fabrication, welding, or set up), visualize how operations currently talk to creation control and with one another, see trouble spots and source of throw away, locate bottlenecks and WIP, spot potential basic safety and equipment concerns, give a common language for many manufacturing staff, and gain perception into the way the operation truly is operating that day. (p. 80)

There are four steps to value stream mapping (Place, 2001):

1. Product development: In this step the company must identify customer requirements; number required daily, method of transportation, etc.

2. Process design: In this task all the possible information for each process of the value stream selected including routine time, changeovers times, amount of operators, inventory in process, available time, etc. must be collected

3. Preparation: Record the maximum amount of information as you can and draw the existing status map.

4. Planning: Develop the near future condition map.

Figure below shows an example of a value stream map.

2. 7 JIT

After World Conflict II, japan incrementally applied new management routines to boost their global competitiveness. With refinement and systematic integration of the new practices the Japanese achieved a new making paradigm and, by the 1970s, a competitive superiority available on the market. In an effort to emulate the success attained by Japanese manufacturers, US managers began to apply these new management routines in their organizations. These management tactics were presented as just-in-time (JIT) production. US managers have advanced through a series of learning from your errors efforts to apply these new management methods and still do not understand many of the issues associated with JIT implementations. This research attempts to address some of the misunderstandings associated with JIT implementations. A systems strategy is used for collecting data and studying pertinent relationships associated with JIT implementations in US manufacturers. Results from the analysis suggest that an association exists between carried out JIT procedures and kind of production system. In addition, this is actually the first study showing that the huge benefits related to JIT execution as a function of implementation position of specific JIT management practices and kind of development system. (Richard E. White 2001)

The Japanese auto company, Toyota, developed the JIT idea and its main technique, the kanban system used for creation planning and inventory control for multi-stage development inventory systems. The JIT system contains the right-on-time approach and automation. (Takahashi 1998). The JIT system is the methodology in which creation is pulled through the system as so when it is necessary. Automation identifies a system with built-in functions to avoid the production of faulty parts and also to automatically check on damage to equipment.

Although the first idea of the JIT system focused on the production lines, it's been expanded to be the current approach called the just with time system which still suffers from a lack of consensus about its interpretation, at least on the part of manufacturing organizations. While some managers notice as a close to total system of constant improvement, others simply respect is as only the Kanban system (Bukchin 1998 and Hemamalini 2000).

Among the many authors favoring the bigger scope of this is of JIT, some respect it as an elaborate philosophy comprising of varied techniques to improve productivity, reduce throw away, and achieve constant improvement. Relating to (Voss C and Robinson 1988), the JIT strategy is that which aims to improve overall productivity by reducing waste and this leads to increased quality. Other opinions about JIT are posted in Desk given below

Golhar (1991) recommended that the benefits of JIT include reduced inventory, increased output and top quality of products. It should be known that JIT has been included in many other competitive tactics such as TOP NOTCH Developing (WCM) (Schonberger, 1986), lean development (Womack 1990), and Kaizen (Imai 1986). However, JIT implementation will involve additional costs because of the required provision of new equipment and employee training programs (Golhar 1991)

The program of JIT concepts can be beneficial for the food retail industry: Quality, reduced amount of manufacturing business lead time and market advantages. Food quality is measured by three factors: quality of raw materials, creation process quality and freshness of the final product. For example, in planning any curry made out of veggie using fresh uncooked vegetables will improve the quality. Fresh vegetable tastes better than frozen vegetables. Minimizing the storage period of the raw materials and using fresh materials can be done only by a transition to the JIT system, Xin (2002) offered a study that showed the effects of long storage area periods of raw materials in relation to the quality of the done product.

Moreover, just-in-time is a critical tool to control the external activities of your company such as purchasing and syndication. It could be regarded as comprising three elements: JIT production, JIT circulation, and JIT purchasing. More details are given for every in the following sections.

2. 8 SMED

Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) is one of the numerous lean production methods for reducing throw away in a creation process. It offers an instant and useful way of converting a manufacturing process from jogging the existing product to operating another product. This quick changeover is paramount to reducing production great deal sizes and thereby improving flow which really is a 'Lean' aim. Additionally it is often referred to as Quick Changeover (QCO). Undertaking faster change-overs is important in creation, or any process, because they make low cost flexible businesses possible. [Web address 2]

In March 1999, Bel-Ron a supplier of engineered string products, hosted SMED program to support the gains and keep progress continue. These mini-Kaizen assignments were used to regularly reinforce the guidelines of low fat and show the workforce that Bel-Ron was seriously interested in utilizing this process to increase the business. The huge benefits achieved following the execution of SMED in the inventory levels were extraordinary. (Feld 2001)

Application of the SMED technique to reduce misuse and achieve set up reduction is thought as the procedure of reducing the quantity of time had a need to change over an activity from the previous part for the prior product to the first good part for another product run (Marchwinski & Shook, 2003). The SMED technique is applied through application of a six step process. First, the entire setup is measured in the current status. Next, the setup is analyzed to recognize internal and external setup elements including computation of individual elements of the installation. Next, elements are further analyzed and wherever possible, internal functions are converted to external operations. Enough time for the required internal and external setup activities are reduced and lastly the new changeover treatment is standardized.



3. 1 Introduction

This section provides detailed backdrop knowledge of project design and methodology used to execute the implementation of slim tools and techniques in this task.

3. 2 Project Design

In this project I have followed research design utilized by the researcher to perform his goals (Feld 2001:175)

The main purpose of this job was to remove the non-value added activities to be able to decrease inventory levels, reduce delivery lead-time and processing lead-time. This was to be achieve by selecting effective lean production tools and techniques.

The task scope impacted on the ongoing improvement through the use of some of the effective tools such as 5s, identifying seven dangerous wastes and minimizing them and then utilizing value stream mapping for execution of JIT or SMED.

3. 3 Methodology

The procedures because of this job have been chosen to meet each one of the project objectives. To have a first-hand knowledge of the production stream and to be familiar with the activities being performed at the shop floor, the first job was to identify each procedure process involved from recycleables to done goods, identify all the places where inventory is stored between the processes, and observe the material flows from one procedure to another.

3. 4 Continuous Improvement

In order to achieve the objectives of this project, the first rung on the ladder is to use the 5s on the shop floor this is carried out by explaining the aim of 5s housekeeping and benefits that can be derived by employing it, reward those who are carrying out this good and discipline those who are not should be used as motivational factor.

Most people underestimate the importance of safeness, order, and cleanliness in the workplace. Many quality defects are related to these issues. Hence 5s makes act the five key elements in 5s are kind, occur order, stand out, standardize and support.

The next step is to recognize seven deadly wastes and also to reduce it whenever you can.

3. 5 Data Collection

Methods that are used to acquire relevant data for this project:

  • By Observation of performance on the shop floor.

  • Collection of data from earlier documents like inventory studies, breakdown information, lead-time reports, absenteeism etc.

  • Interacting with people related to the work on shop floor such as supervisor, supervisor, kitchen workers, etc.

3. 6 Recognition of wastes and reducing them

This activity will involve in collection and id of wastes as identified by Tachi Onho. They are shown in following table:

S. no.

Type of Waste

Data Collection

Waste Identification method



Number of good parts made

Total no. of products made

Scrap during control.

Rework during handling.

Human Mistake

Difference in O/p and I/p.

Difference of products made and products provided.



Total raw materials waiting for you.


Finished goods stock.

Data from records


Transportation waste

Distance between machines

Direct dimension on shop floor.



Cycle-time, Setup time, absenteeism, breakdown, delays.

From time review records. Range of absents per month. Number of breakdown per month.



Total volume of parts produced. Total number of parts required.

Difference in total variety of parts and final number of parts required.


Inappropriate handling

Using wrong group of tools, strategies or systems. Inventory data observation.

From details. Difference between your weight of organic material and weight of finished product.


Motion waste

Distance between deliveries.

Data of delivery being made and offer string data observation.

3. 7 Value stream mapping

The next thing after reducing waste materials is to pretty much map the worthiness stream. The writer had selected the merchandise family group to be able to enhance the process. Every one of the process steps in product family got common production procedures. To be able to perform the worthiness stream mapping, the author had to accumulate previous data of number ordered over previous month and everything the operations steps they go through. The next table shows the family product of the Bombay bike club restaurant, which was selected by the writer to develop the worthiness stream map.

Family of Bombay bike restaurant selected to build up a value stream map

S. no.

Assembly Steps


Slicing of vegetables


Tenderizing of meat


Grinding and mixing of curry powder


Assembly 1 (making of main curries)


Assembly 2 (making of breads)


Assembly 3 (assembling items for delivery)

Once the worthiness stream was developed, the author analyzed and collected the info that was related to stream of information and material from raw materials to done goods. Beginning with the information stream, the author gathered the info from the inventory and forecasting reports of the customers, and the watching the demand design of the customers.

The author made a decision to map the current status of the production by focusing on the shop floor, starting from the raw material acquiring till the delivery area. Information about the material stream and inventory among processes was accumulated at this stage including process attributes such as,

  1. Quantity of items required per day

  2. Quantity of orders delivered per day.

  3. Number of company deliveries weekly.

  4. Available creation time

  5. Number of operators per process.

The author acquired also collected the individual traits related to current state.

  1. Cycle time

  2. Changeover time

  3. Cycle time

  4. Observed inventory per processes

Once the info was collected, the writer has to calculate the takt time and carefully attract the current point out map of the value stream selected. As mentioned in the Chapter 3, the following steps would be taken to perform the value stream mapping.

The last step was to use SMED methodology in order to make internal installation time as an exterior setup; this will reduce the production lead-time and so reduce the delivery lead-time. This gives an chance to eliminate waste from the system and increase the process flow and achieve the required objectives.



4. 1 Introduction

This chapter reveals the key body of the work. It compensate the complete step-by-step analysis completed including step by step data collection and comparability with the give attention to lean manufacturing. The primary cause analysis is performed on recognition of seven wastes in the company. Then this section shows step-by-step strategy of value of stream mapping of the Bombay bicycle team restaurant.

The first obstacle was to identify the seven fatal wastes in the system and then to put into action 5s housekeeping, that could ensure easiness in employing other lean concepts in the machine. I explained the employees about seven lethal wastes and 5s housekeeping and benefits that may be derived from it.

4. 2 Execution of 5s Housekeeping

Most people underestimate the value of safe practices, order, and cleanliness in the workplace. Many quality defects are related to these issues. Hence 5s comes into action the five important elements in 5s are variety, set in order, glimmer, standardize and support.

My first task was to explain the supervisor about the 5s housekeeping and then with his permission start the procedure. Steps that I have taken in order to implement the 5s housekeeping:

SORT - form the inventory, eliminate excess inventory, eliminate the things that aren't being utilised, sorting of the administrator office, sorting of the work environment. Clear the production area of these items that are not being used on regular basis. Keep items that are used daily from items that are used not on regular basis separately. This sort of sorting made it better to work, easier for material circulation, and easier for providers to move.

SET IN-ORDER - retain in order the inventory and keep it in line with the job description, form and clearly show. Identify and organise items which belong in the region. All the items in the inventory should be sorted and tagged plainly. This made the reputation of the correct tooling, resources, and materials visible.

SHINE: clearing and sweeping the production area and the inventory area at the end of the every shift, this should not more than 2% of the timetable shift time.

STANDARDIZE: This is management responsibility to check that the employees shouldn't reverse to old patterns after following 5s housekeeping. A formal audit is done with results for particular areas accordingly. Assign area to each and every individual.

SUSTAIN: Again this is mangers responsibility, strengthen the value of 5s housekeeping was the first main goal for sustenance. One good notion of sustaining the 5s work was to compensate those who are doing it good and self-discipline those who find themselves not.

4. 3 Evaluation of Tachi Onho's Seven wastes

The categorized seven wastes in the Bombay bicycle team restaurant are:

  1. Defects

  2. Excessive Inventory

  3. Transportation waste

  4. Waiting

  5. Overproduction

  6. Inappropriate processing

  7. Motion waste

4. 3. 1 Defects Analysis

Data of the restaurant was collected combined with the rejected volumes and have been compiled from the restaurant information. The table shows the total quantity of foods produced each day combined with the declined items.

S. no

Food item

Total volume produced

Quantity good

Quantity Rejected







Murg Masala





Murg Korma





Aloo chat





Bhindi Sabzi





Plain Naan bread





Garlic Naan bread














This prices were detected for a week and the common of these values were used which the restaurant reported around 4% of reduction each day.

4. 3. 2 Inventory Analysis

The analysis of wastes induced due to increased inventory is given in the desk shown below. The info observed for this inventory was for each day.

S. no

Material type

Quantity of Natural material Inventory per day

Quantity of Material used per day



25kg bag




6kg bag







Naan flour


9. 5kg


Roti flour


3. 5kg





This table demonstrates materials required by the customer is much less than the inventory organic materials available in stock, which shows that the inventory levels can further be reduced in order to avoid inventory waste material.

4. 3. 3 Travelling waste

The transportation waste materials, which is the waste materials due to needless movement of material on the shop floor, was not that common in TBBC. Really the only matter was the showing of the tools on the list of employees, that was reduced by buying extra one. The general layout of the shop floor was at good condition. The material stream in the shop floor is smooth so there is not any problem related to pointless motion of materials. But sometimes the delivery will be repeated on a single road due to difference in delivery time simply by 15 minutes. This was eliminated by sending drivers together for the particular delivery and taking away ergonomics by re structuring cell by placing the food sealer near the kitchen, this might also reduced the development time.

4. 3. 4 Waste products due to waiting

The shop floor region of TBBC was examined to be able to measure the waste due to longing. Steps were taken to reduce the pattern time, set up time and malfunction time.

Waiting time can be categorized into two categories:

  • Avoidable delays

  • Unavoidable delays

Avoidable delays are anticipated to increased breakdowns, wilful absenteeism, large installation/cycle times, and providers missing from workstations. Unavoidable delays are allowances given scheduled to exhaustion or slumber on recommended by the federal government. The emphasis in this work has gone to decrease the avoidable delays.

Efforts were designed to reduce these times to get rid of wasteful activities, by making certain employees understand the benefit for the changes and promote proper use of the gear. Work practice modifications include proper use of work strategies and training the staff so they can understand the proper ways to use while accomplishing tasks. After training employees in shop floor, it was important to build up a method positively reinforce the practice. When staff learns a fresh work practice, it takes some time to develop the new behavior. Therefore, management and supervisors must actively work with staff to guarantee the compliance of work types of procedures and practices.

4. 3. 5 Overproduction Ana

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