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Leadership styles, characteristics and management skills

The word authority drives its meaning from the word 'Leader'who is thought as a person capable of inspiring and associating others with a goal. " Hence, it is important that organizations have a objective to fortify the management of its directors.

Leadership can be described as the "procedure for social influence in which one individual can enlist the help and support of others in the success of an common activity". Alan Keith of Genentech says that, "Command is in the end about creating a way for individuals to contribute to making something incredible happen. " Regarding to Ken "SKC" Ogbonnia, "effective management is the capability to successfully assimilate and boost available resources within the internal and exterior environment for the attainment of organizational or societal goals. "

Leadership can even be thought as the action of organizing a group of people to accomplish the goal. " The leader may or might not have any formal specialist.

Leadership is also the way in which or the procedure by which a person affects others in an organization to accomplish pre-defined goals in a cohesive and coherent manner.

The leaders must have all the required knowledge and skills. Market leaders should clearly share themselves, know very well what they want and speak it with their subjects for cooperation.

In basic, management is the experience of resolving a disorderly situation into an intentionally orderly situation, to achieve pre-determined (i. e. , purposeful) effects.

Since disorder continually arises from ingenuity, destruction, decay, variance, versioning, chaos, and other natural and intentional changes, resolving that disorder into an designed order requires constant tracking and modifications in the "structures" of the supposed order's parts, part relationships, and part and relationship attributes.

Management is a practice of utilizing all available resources to secure a desired result.

Management is essential because

A desired result must be founded,

Someone must be delegated, or expect the authority, to acquire, coordinate, guide, and direct those resources toward the desired final result. Someone must "manage" the entire process. Because of this, all persons engaged must consent to the desired final result, and even if not in total agreement with the plan being advocated, still consent to the plan so as not to consciously or unconsciously sabotage the journey.

I think it's safe to say that the success of any managed project is determined in direct ratio to the control of most resources applied, especially human resources.

Management is also the fine art of getting things done from others. Management is a universal phenomenon and it exists in every the sectors. In case there is private sector the management is very transparent. The goals are properly defined and all the employees are incredibly well alert to their goals and are compensated well for effort. In case of public sector, there's not much transparency.

Management may also be thought as the function or art work of managing; the manner of treating, directing, carrying on, or using, for a purpose; conduct; administration; direction; control;.



1. Authenticity "After years of studying market leaders and their features, I believe leadership starts and ends with authenticity. "

2. Want to Provide Others "Authentic market leaders genuinely want to provide others through their command. "

3. Empowering People "They may be more enthusiastic about empowering people they lead to make a difference than they are simply in electricity, money, or prestige for themselves. "

4. Led by Heart, interest and compassion "These are as guided by qualities of the heart and soul, by love, and compassion, because they are by features of your brain. "

5. Acknowledge their shortcomings "Authentic market leaders use their natural skills, nevertheless they also acknowledge their shortcomings and work hard to beat them. "

6. Lead with Purpose "They lead with purpose, meaning and ideals. "

7. Build Enduring Interactions "They build long lasting associations with people. "

8. Clear Where They Stand "Others follow them because they know where they stand. "

9. Won't Compromise "When guidelines are analyzed, they refuse to compromise. "

10. Develop Themselves "Authentic market leaders focus on developing themselves because they know that learning to be a leader requires a duration of personal expansion. "


There are four Main Command Styles





Autocratic Command Style

This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains the maximum amount of power and decision-making expert as you can. The manager does not talk to employees, nor are they permitted to give any type. Employees are anticipated to obey purchases without receiving any explanations. The determination environment is made by creating a set up set of rewards and punishments.

This authority style has been greatly criticized during the past 30 years. Some studies say that organizations numerous autocratic leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organizations.

The studies say that autocratic leaders:

Rely on dangers and punishment to influence employees

Do not trust employees

Do not enable employee input

Yet, autocratic command is not absolutely all bad. It is sometimes the most effective style to make use of. These situations range from:

New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which steps to follow

Effective supervision can be provided only through comprehensive purchases and instructions

Employees do not respond to any other command style

There are high-volume development needs on the daily basis

There is bound amount of time in which to make a decision

A manager's ability is challenged by an employee

The area was poorly managed

Work must be coordinated with another office or organization

The autocratic leadership style should not be used when:

Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful

Employees have a much their views heard

Employees commence depending on their director to make almost all their decisions

There is low staff morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage

Bureaucratic Control Style

Bureaucratic management is where in fact the manager manages "by the reserve Everything must be done according to treatment or coverage. If it is not included in the e book, the manager identifies the next level above him or her. This manager is really more of a officer than a innovator. She or he enforces the rules.

This style can be effective when:

Employees are undertaking routine tasks over and over.

Employees need to understand certain expectations or techniques.

Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definite group of procedures to operate.

Safety or security training has been conducted.

Employees are executing tasks that require controlling cash.

This style is ineffective when:

Work behaviors form that are hard to break, particularly if they are no longer useful.

Employees lose their involvement in their jobs and in their fellow employees.

Employees do only what is expected of them and no more.

Democratic Management Style

The democratic control style is also known as the participative style as it encourages employees to be a area of the decision making. The democratic administrator keeps his or her employees educated about everything that affects their work and stocks decision making and problem fixing responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who gets the last say, but gathers information from workers before making a decision.

Democratic authority can produce high quality and high volume work for extended periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and reply with assistance, team spirit, and high morale. Typically the democratic leader:

Develops designs to help employees evaluate their own performance

Allows employees to establish goals

Encourages employees to expand face to face and become promoted

Recognizes and encourages achievement.

Like the other styles, the democratic style is not necessarily appropriate. It really is most successful when used in combination with very skilled or experienced employees or when applying operational changes or resolving individual or group problems.

The democratic management style is most effective when:

The leader desires to keep employees up to date about things that impact them.

The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving tasks.

The leader wishes to provide opportunities for employees to build up a high sense of personal expansion and job satisfaction.

There is a sizable or sophisticated problem that requires lots of suggestions to solve.

Changes must be produced or problems fixed that affect employees or sets of employees.

You want to encourage team building and contribution.

Democratic leadership should not be used when:

There is insufficient period to get everyone's type.

It's easier plus more cost-effective for the director to consider.

The business can't find the money for mistakes.

The supervisor feels threatened by this kind of command.

Employee security is a crucial concern.

Laissez-Faire Authority Style

The laissez-faire management style is also known as the "hands-off style. It really is one where the manager provides little if any direction and provides employees just as much freedom as is feasible. All specialist or power is directed at the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and deal with problems on their own.

This is a highly effective style to make use of when:

Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.

Employees have pleasure in their work and the drive to do it effectively independently.

Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used

Employees are trusted and experienced.

This style shouldn't be used when:

It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of your manager.

The director cannot provide regular reviews to let employees know how well they are really doing.

Managers cannot thank employees because of their good work.

The administrator doesn't understand his / her responsibilities and is wishing the employees can cover for him or her.

Factors Affecting Leadership Styles

While the correct leadership style depends upon the situation, there are three other factors that also impact which management style to make use of.

1. The manager's personal background. What personality, knowledge, principles, ethics, and experience does the manager have. What does he or she think will work?

2. The employees being supervised. Employees are individuals with different personalities and backgrounds. The leadership style professionals use will change depending upon the individual worker and what he or she will respond better to.

3. The business. The traditions, principles, philosophy, and concerns of the business will influence what sort of manager operates.



Management success is gained through achievement of quest and objectives. Professionals fail when they don't accomplish quest and aims. Success and inability are tied right to the reasons to be in business, i. e. , objective and goals. However, accomplishing quest and targets is not sufficient. Success requires both effectiveness and efficiency. Professionals who attain their mission and aims are reported to be effective. Efficiency explains the relationship between your amount of resources used (type) and the degree to which aims were completed (output). If the expense of accomplishing an objective is prohibitive, then the aim is not genuine in the context of the firm's resources. Additional planning is essential.

Management is creative problem handling. This creative problem dealing with is achieved through four functions of management: planning, managing, leading and managing.


Planning is the ongoing procedure for growing the business' quest and goals and deciding how they will be accomplished. Planning includes both the broadest view of the business, e. g. , its objective, and the narrowest, e. g. , a tactic for accomplishing a particular goal.

Organizing is building the inner organizational composition of the business. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of jobs and the circulation of information within the organization. It really is in this function that managers distribute specialist to job holders.

Staffing is filling up and keeping filled with competent people all positions available. Recruiting, hiring, training, evaluating and compensating will be the specific activities included in the function. Within the family business, staffing includes all paid and unpaid positions kept by members of the family like the owner/providers.

Directing is influencing people's habit through determination, communication, group dynamics, management and discipline. The purpose of directing is to channel the behavior of all personnel to accomplish the organization's quest and objectives while simultaneously supporting them attain their own career objectives.

Controlling is a four-step process of establishing performance benchmarks based on the firm's aims, measuring and reporting actual performance, comparing the two, and taking corrective or precautionary action as necessary.

Each of the functions requires creative problem solving. Creative problem dealing with is broader than problem finding, choice making or decision making. It stretches from evaluation of the surroundings within that your business is working to evaluation of the final results from the alternative implemented.


· It helps in Achieving Group Goals - It arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, combines the resources in effective manner to achieve goals. It directs group attempts towards accomplishment of pre-determined goals. By defining objective of organization clearly there would be no wastage of the time, effort and money. Management turns disorganized sources of men, machines, money etc. into useful organization. These resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in that manner that enterprise work towards attainment of goals.

· Optimum Utilization of Resources - Management utilizes all the physical & recruiting productively. This brings about efficacy in general management. Management provides maximum utilization of scarce resources by selecting its best possible alternate use in industry from out of varied uses. It makes use of experts, professional and these services causes use of these skills, knowledge, and proper usage and avoids wastage. If employees and machines are producing its maximum there is absolutely no under work of any resources.

· Reduces Costs - It gets maximum results through minimum insight by proper planning and by using least input & getting maximum productivity. Management uses physical, individuals and money in that manner which results in best combination. This helps in cost reduction.

· Establishes Audio Company - No overlapping of initiatives (smooth and coordinated functions). To establish sound organizational structure is one of the aim of management which is within tune with aim of organization and for fulfillment of this, it establishes effective expert & responsibility marriage i. e. who is responsible to whom, who can provide instructions to whom, who are superiors & who are subordinates. Management fills up various positions with right individuals, having right skills, training and certification. All jobs should be cleared to everyone.

· Establishes Equilibrium - It allows the business to endure in changing environment. It retains in touch with the changing environment. With the change is exterior environment, the initial co-ordination of firm must be altered. So that it adapts group to changing demand of market / changing needs of societies. It is responsible for expansion and success of organization.

· Requirements for Wealth of Modern culture - Productive management contributes to better economical development which helps subsequently to increase the welfare of individuals. Good management makes a difficult task easier by avoiding wastage of scarce resource. It improves standard of living. It increases the profit which is effective to business and world are certain to get maximum end result at minimum cost by creating employment opportunities which generate profits in hands. Business comes with new products and researches good for society.

Management Skills

There are three basic management skills: specialized, human being and conceptual.

A technological skill is the ability to use tools, techniques, and customized knowledge to handle a method, process, or process. A lot of the technology that farmers know and can use so well comes under this management skill.

Human skills are used to develop positive interpersonal relationships, solve human relationships problems, build popularity of your respective co-workers, and relate to them in a way that their tendencies is consistent with the needs of the business.

Conceptual skills entail the capability to see the firm as a whole and solve problems in a way that benefits the whole organization. (Higgins, site 15) Analytical, creative and intuitive abilities make up the manager's conceptual skills.

Introductory Management programs (Handling for Success) pay little focus on technological skills. Most managers in attendance are suffering from these skills far beyond their human and conceptual skills. In some advanced Management programs, e. g. , animal nutrition and financial management, the emphasis is on integration of complex, real human and conceptual skills alternatively than on a more traditional technical procedure.

The relative need for conceptual, real human and specialized skills changes as a person progresses from lower, to middle, to top management. Although all three management skills are important in any way three degrees of management, conceptual skills become relatively more important at the very top level of management. The regularly high level of importance of human being skills helps us understand why people problems are so often cited as a core cause of business failing.

Differences between Authority and Management skills

The following matrix offers a good grouping of characteristics to think about for project professionals:

Leadership Skills

Management Skills

More worried about vision

More worried about implementation than the vision

Oriented toward generating change and anticipating environmental changes

Oriented toward adapting to change, not taking the initiative

Concerned with dynamics of a predicament, which provides tips on how to leverage or condition; concerned with setting up or changing the culture

Concerned more with strategy; sometimes preoccupied with preserving order and the position quo, but in any other case with adapting to the culture

Concerned with empowering

Concerned with BEING empowered

Actions show skill, but are firmly character based

Actions tend to be strongly skill-based

More concerned with positive possibilities

More concerned with negative consequences

Concerned with building and/or reshaping the business; willing to work with skills of persuasion to boost perspective and ideas of choices - irrespective of position

Concerned with filling in the prescribed firm; adopt tendencies and attitudes according to level or position; tend to be defensive of position, information, and knowledge; may feel that a situation has gone out with their control or influence

Understand their strengths and weaknesses, and are prepared to study from their problems and grow; able and considering helping others do the same

Tend to avoid dangers for self protection, and hence growth is more limited; might understand advantages and weaknesses, but unaware of how to manage them to attain goals

See associations as opportunities for expansion; personal goals in position with organizational goals; recognize that interdependence is the best way to achievement

See a far more limited web of associations in conditions of immediately adjacent areas; tend to focus mainly on goals placed by others, and work more individually within organizational limitations

Build systems to support goals, empower others, and provide direction; promote writing and collaboration; concerned with removal of performance obstacles; and continued development of team members

Concerned with segmenting areas of responsibility; become vital and part of the system; overly worried about what associates do and how they certainly it.

Leadership without management

. . . pieces a course or perspective that others follow, without considering too much the way the new direction is likely to be achieved. Other folks then have to work hard in the trail that is left out, picking up the parts and making it work. Eg: in Lord of the Bands, at the council of Elrond, Frodo Baggins rescues the council from issue by taking responsibility for the search of destroying the band - but most of the management of the group comes from others.

Management without leadership

. . . control buttons resources to maintain the position quo or ensure things happen corresponding to already-established programs. Eg: a referee handles a sports activities game, but will not usually provide "leadership" because there is no new change, no new way - the referee is managing resources to ensure that the regulations of the overall game are used and status quo is retained.

Leadership combined with management

. . . does both - it both units a new direction and handles the resources to accomplish it. Eg: a recently elected president or best minister.

What is the difference between management and control? It really is a question that is asked more often than once and also responded in various ways. The biggest difference between professionals and leaders is just how they motivate folks who work or follow them, which sets the build for most other aspects of what they do.

Differences between a Innovator and a Manager

The following shows the difference between a administrator and a Leader once confronted with different subject matter.








Leading people

Managing work











Sets direction

Ideas detail





Personal charisma

Formal authority

Appeal to



















Excitement for work

Money for work

















New roads

Existing roads





What is right

Being right








Leadership is approximately setting new direction for an organization while Management is approximately directing and controlling according to established principles.

The term leader and supervisor are compatible in this context because we can not separate control and management. Generally, the four models enables leaders choose what action intend to take when working with any situation that faces the company. An excellent leader should make an effort to use a blended form of the models since situations change. However, there are factors that know what style can be used, for example, how much time can be obtained and whether relationships are based on trust, respect or otherwise (Hersey 1984). If information is obtainable both from the management and the employees, participative style needs to be applied so that better plus more educated decisions are reached. The extents to which employees are trained is actually a determinant concerning how they must be dealt with. An employee on training must be treated within an authoritative manner so that they can learn. Incase of interior conflicts, it is good for the managers to exercise some specialist so that there can be a clear plan of action.

External troubles can be counteracted through occupation of marketing strategies that is aimed at putting the business at a competitive border and enable growth even in times of strains (Ivancevich et al 2007). Positive leaders treat employees with rewards, such as education to inspire them rather than using fines such as firing employees, warnings or even days off. Bosses work through the negatives while market leaders work through the positives.

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