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Leadership Styles And THE WORK Satisfaction Of Nurses

Every day nurses have the responsibility for medical as well as the health of their patients and for that reason to ensure a continuity of the individual good care each every nurses on a device work tougher to ensure that they achieve the distributed goals. The cohesive team thus work diligently to market then patent health, security and recovery and to achieve such unity medical director coordinates and supervises all the connections that go on between all the associates he is in charge of (Longerich, et al 2003). Nurse leaders may be nurses mangers who are responsible for one nursing unite or a nurse executive held accountable for all the in-patient nursing devices. Nurse steam leaders achieve their jobs by applying the various nursing leadership style such as: transformational, transactional as well as strong leadership. A mixture greater than one leadership style is often considered far better but an individual type also will serve the intended purpose with respect to the situation that the leader is at (Mahoney, 2001).


The nursing pros faces one of the greatest challenges of producing future market leaders as powerful authority skills will be required all nurses i. e. those accountable for providing immediate acre to those in the most notable management position for example anyone searched after as an power ranging from a nurses caring for a patient to the people responsible for offering assistance to others. All of them are considered s market leaders. Another difficult that encounters leadership for health care professionals is the fact that most of the leadership theories weren't developed based on the healthcare context but instead with in the business context then applied to healthcare.

A clinical nursing leader is involved with direct patient attention as well as offers a continuous improvement of the attention by influencing others. Market leaders have skills, activity that they utilize to as an attitude that inform habit leading to constant superior performance with long-term benefits to all those included. Head s not alloy control other but are more of visionaries who provide to supporting employees to lead, plan, organize and control their activities (Jooste, 2004).

In the past 10 years shelf life of market leaders in medical service has halved and rather than working in surroundings that encourage creative thinking especially about the future of health care there is one that includes vast paper tracks that are characterized by motions masquerading as activity. Thus the luxuries of personal lives for the older staff are tumbled after especially in some of the professional medical organizations where 60- hours working in weekly has become quite normal. This example has made some healthcare staff to no longer work with patients but rather to be motivated by pronouncements from administration representatives, advertising expose a straight on the latest scandal regarding misuse of general population money (Woolnough, 2002).

Health care and attention system has observed various areas of the health corporation focus on different things which is often marred with poor coordination across the various departments with objectives being sandwiched between keeping costs down with initiatives to increasing patient services. Such in-coordination as been thought by the hospital administrators especially at times when requirements for administrative services increases and so administrative jobs are trim.

Making selections require certain amounts of freedom, thought, actions, time for weighing options, as well as time for reviews of such decision, regrettably in health cares market leaders lack such luxuries as the reliable, easy to get at and relevant information they might need to make decision is often not unavailable. Further more resources and time that is vital for such duties is missing and this affects much of the health health care leaders who are powered by gut feeling which is associated with strong sense of personal worth regarding what is right, just and reasonable(Outhwaite, 2003).

Irrespective of the countries which healthcare market leaders operate they are really always expected to fulfill the pursuing roles: being truly a diplomat, a visionary, politician, discord resolver, coach, figure head as well as a human being failure to which no leader can assert to the title. as a matter of fact most market leaders face the stresses of sharing just a little pieces of themselves with anyone that ask for it, moreover healthcare market leaders face real dilemmas regarding several issues like means of radically changing their organizations with no guarantees of success regardless of the well prepared changes and having the ability to accept the results of their actions, working with political agendas or legislations which they disagree with and also acknowledge the results, apportioning of resources of the available as pretty as you possibly can while also taking the consequences, stating no when they would like to say yes and also admit the results, trying to act ethically yet sometimes leading to failures and realizing that despite their selfless effort someone some how cries foul. In addition to that healthcare market leaders are confronted with challenges of earning decision like making selections regarding decisions on acting on absolute rule or creative several flexible reactions, to keep particular services or even to discard them, creating a open firm and growing closer ties with the service users yet at same time having little or no control over the eventual final results, to continue to lead or not (Outhwaite, 2003).

Failure to act in decisive manner by healthcare leaders can lead to general delay action for instance insufficient medical and medical action in the overview of wanted treatment in entrance brings about inaction for delivering the procedure. The pivotal role of the leader may be overshadowed by fear of unjust critism which result to delayed decision which its ultimate result of having to deal with sense of failure and guilt.


Leadership can be explained as the procedure of influencing others, achieving goals by obtaining the co-operation from those around them and acquiring the resources to accomplish their goal. To be always a head you must make a decision to act; doing so requires skill, knowledge, energy, vision and self-confidence (Tappen, 2001). Alternatively, leadership might not be apparent or visible procedure for influencing others, however the very control features within the individual may trigger other people to act regarding the main person. Carney (1999) defines control as persuading others to follow a standard goal by putting away individual concerns, while Marquis & Huston (2000) states that "authority comprises of authority and accountability. " They define specialist as the power you have to direct the work of others and accountability as well as the moral responsibility that comes with the position of leadership. Most existent theories will pay attention to command as an individual feature which is pretty much helpful when achieving goals within the business rather than for individual goals. However, this newspaper work would give attention to both parts as control in nursing field requires the same amount of focus on the task of organization and the average person as well. Quite simply, if adding all meanings mutually, we get the theory that authority involve influence on others, power, achievements of goals through demand work and the leader's moral responsibility. The basic question is how the leader arranges his / her priorities, the work of personnel, atmosphere, etc.

Leadership theories

Trait theory

Much has been written about the differing management styles and theories during the last seventy years. Many management theories have changed over the last century you start with 'Trait theory'. It really is based on the assumption that a lot of people possess personality traits which solo them out as natural leaders and the ones who possess such features should be nurtured into authority positions (Marquis& Huston, 2000). However, this theory was forgotten by the 1940's as no set of consistent traits could be recognized and so research focused on the behavior and behaviour of managers based on the assumption that authority styles are based on specific behavior. (Sellgren et al, 2006) Nowadays, many ideas of trait theory are turned down as psychology studies provided research that leadership though shows up as every individual's feature isn't that helpful when endeavoring to nurture it so this theory now has only historical alternatively than functional importance.

Behavioral theory

Research on control has shifted concentration from leadership traits to leadership action (Bass, 1981 cited in McNeese-Smith, 1996). Behavioral ideas particularly focus on what a leader does indeed (Whitehead et al, 2007). This process was implemented from the 1950's onwards following two major tests by American universities. It viewed what a head does and what they should do, what is leader's role when facing certain problems, the patterns exhibited by market leaders and the affect of leadership style over a group's performance. Research into behavioral theory was based on the premise that each leader has a style based on their personality, they experience and education (Ekvall, 1992 cited in Sellgren et al, 2006). Also, the idea was interested on leader's connections in group work, and exactly how customers of the group respond to each other and especially, the best figure. For further examination, the leader's habit can be separated into three main management styles - Authoritarian, democratic and Laissez-faire (Tappen, 2001). Management style is related to the quantity of control or flexibility which the head affords to the group (McCarthy, 1998).


Authoritarian market leaders keep almost all of the power and make most of the decisions without much consultation with the group. Autocratic authority style will not allow group participation and will not nurture creativity. This might have the effect of de-motivating the team members in the permanent (Whitehead et al, 2007). In some instances it can even be said that autocratic leader does not even 'need' an organization work; all what counts is group's ability to follow the 'requests'. Authoritarian style can however, be useful in situations where group involvement would be counter-productive or where immediate decisions need to be made. Still, immediate decisions do not assure success, so this type of control in many cases is rarely appropriate.

There are certain analysts nowadays who take a look at the leadership and leader's habit of important historical statistics. They draw a conclusion that lots of presidents, politicians and generals of days gone by were good authoritarian market leaders as the very lifestyle back then were predicated on social position and the energy within the contemporary society (Whitehead et al, 2007). Education also enjoyed an important role and the nice leader was the main one who could lead the complete region to success by making decisions by himself. Fortunately or not, nowadays this kind of management is often cured as unacceptable patterns rather than type of leadership.


This design of leadership requires the thoughts of the group into account. Your choice making is shared with the group paying attention to every single critique and comment from other users of the group. This style induces group involvement and exercises general, somewhat than close guidance. (Carney, 1999) In other words, it is all observed in the very expression 'democratic'; the leader within the group is viewed as more important number than everyone else, but the head himself / herself is in charge of creating a sense of equality; work in such group usually would be followed by friendly and positive atmosphere as every person in the group would be seen in many cases as more important physique than the problem these are solving. Possible disadvantages may be that democratic market leaders are just strong when every specific feels strong in the group, but some leaders are not capable of withstanding their judgment if it could affect the atmosphere within the group. Even though, these instances are rarely mentioned as after such incidents the expert of the first choice may be 'reduced' and the group would be looking for other leading shape.

Laissez - faire

In this style the first choice allows the group to determine their own way of working and will not provide much route, responses or decision making. This sort of leader is unaggressive and non-directive; they provide little support for the group and in truth may turn demands for support and help back to the group generally (Tappen, 2001). Some organizations require 'unaggressive' innovator, who in a way will got all responsibility, but activities and decisions would be produced by other folks in the group. It does not necessarily claim that this kind of control is provoked by group customers; the first choice should be conscious about the problem and accept that. Some patterns analysts and psychologists even points out that this kind of control requires more emotional knowledge and personal power than others; not many people allows such independence for the group without having to be afraid to simply accept full responsibility of these activities (Tappen, 2001).

In more recent times, research completed by Kouzes & Posner (1988) and Bass (1995) demonstrated interesting results about authority behaviors. They analyzed over 1, 300 market leaders and have recognized five different leadership behaviors:

Challenging the process: they are leaders who are impressive and experimental; their work should be considered a challenge.

Inspiring a distributed eye-sight: Intuitive market leaders who picture the future and enlist others to become involved;

Enabling others to do something: these are empowered and supportive leaders who build trust and team work;

Modeling just how: Leaders who become role models, preparing an example and exercising what they preach;

Encouraging the heart: Market leaders, who support their followers, recognize and encourage their accomplishments, while some analysts nowadays questions ways of leading the group through rewards (especially material).

These leadership conducts are incredibly useful and can be used as independent parameters to measure both manager's opinion of these style of authority and that which is perceived by those they take care of. Therefore can be utilized as a sign of employee's satisfaction with their manager's style.

Situational leadership theory

This management theory is based on the premise that management style should be determined by the problem or the individuals included (Marquis & Huston, 2009). The differing control varieties of situational leadership proposed by Hersey et al (1997) are based on the maturity or readiness of the follower. They set out four levels of readiness ranging from low (unable or unwilling) to high (able, prepared and proficient) and with respect to the level of the follower the leader's style is directive, coaching, supportive or delegate in way. There would be helpful to present an example which would illustrate this theory better. For example, the leader who is dealing with group of individuals which is known to them would follow absolutely different steps or provide different behavior when working with other group of men and women which they has not satisfied before. That is because new people would consciously or not question shown leader's power, their working methods may contradict the techniques by which head chooses to act, etc. Quite simply, this theory targets the new direction which was not discussed before - the discord between group people and head when facing certain new issues, or anything at all what is innovative rather than known how to deal with. Situational leadership stresses out the importance of leader's activities in new situations where group work should be organized meticulously (Hersey, 1997).

Charismatic Theory (Transactional and Transformational leadership styles)

New control styles are suffering from in more recent times and which involves the transactional authority and transformational leadership, both which are part of Charismatic theory (Rafferty, 1993). In swiftly growing health sector, these sorts of leadership are especially notable up for this day. Transactional management is seen as a bargaining, it stresses the organizations goals while knowing the rewards that people value. Once goals have been achieved the leader rewards those who helped to attain them (Lindholm et al 2000, Carney 1999). It seems as a very reasonable method - to give attention to goals alternatively than rewards; the collection of activities is very tight, showing that efforts would be rewarded only if they were effective. Transformational authority has charisma as its emphasis. The leader provides the vision, instilling a sense of pleasure in accomplishments, while increasing trust and respect from the group. Transformational management raises both leader and follower to a high level of motivation and morality as both stocks the value matching to Burns (1978) who coined the term. In other words, both leader and the follower are on a single level, the main differentiation is who leaded who to such level. To shortly summarize, this theory essentially was called charismatic as leader must have the ability to build up the strategy consciously and think ways of how group can effectively be included into achievement of necessary goals.

Servant leadership

One of the newer leadership principles is Servant management. This style is very different to traditional views of management where the organizations needs take precedence. Servant command can be involved with service to the follower as opposed to engaging followers to support organizational goals (Natural stone et al, 2004). Servant leaders consider their followers needs first and this subsequently empowers them to accomplish organization's goal. This also sometimes brings problem of inequality in light as the leader's needs and the follower's would be of completely different level. Thus, one aspect could feel in ways 'used' but in many cases feelings would not be considered that important as many problems are solved in formal style and achievement of goals is the only real adequate solution. This theory was called servant for various reasons hardly any literature supplies the origin of such strategy, as the fact that organization's word is definitely the previous, is quite natural itself (Carney, 1999).

To sum up these kinds of leadership theories, the short progression of authority studies it is seen that analysis provides amounts of exceptions, and ambiguities. Every theory and all sorts of command can be recognized and interpreted in different ways considering every individual. Leadership is essential in group work to attain certain goals, but nothing can promise or provide a simple pattern to do so. However, following this discussion we have now would be concentrating on another part of this paper analysis; in what forms leadership appears in medical field and exactly how leadership styles can help achieve personal or institutional goals and bring satisfaction for the work.

Leadership styles in Nursing

What is clear from the literature is that no-one design of management and leadership is consciously used within nursing as a particular method to handle certain issues that nurses and ward managers are facing. However, what emerges is that predominantly health care has relocated away for the original autocratic style and towards a blend of transactional and transformational authority. A report of 71 Irish Health Professionals completed by Armstrong (1999) discovered that over 1 / 2 used transactional and transformational control. The reasons are quite obvious. The time period shows that the study is quite new and nowadays autocratic management is usually interpreted negatively. Transactional and transformational control, however are more effective in medical field as such kind of authority revealed great success in institutional work (Avolio, 1988). Nurses in general, aims to supporting people, and these two styles of management are emphasize the co-operation with other people; group work and look after others is extremely important to get successful results. Nowadays in medical field other models are rarely seen as effective and though it could be said that democratic authority is also quite typical, it usually appears in the band of nurses excluding their immediate innovator - the company. Democratic leadership often occurs where leader is not the one with higher position, but the one which is 'chosen' by the group as the most reliable roughly on (Bass, 1995).

In a study carried out by Lindholm et al (2000) he discovered that over fifty percent of professionals interviewed exhibited a combination of both transactional and transformational command styles and these professionals seemed to experience fewer management problems, less level of resistance to change and higher support from other professional teams within health care. What is not really acceptable is these studies do not provide enough information about minorities, who are using different authority styles. Although, it is merely natural to convey that leaders who uses different methods or have mixed features, often are said to be much better than those that can be applied only to one design.

The Hay group, a global management consultancy company which completed a study of leadership styles in seven NHS trusts in Brittan pieces out six leadership styles that happen to be prevalent in nursing (Kenmore, 2008):

Directive: A head who instructs personnel on what to do without assessment, this often seems as autocratic style, though also can be the transactional or transformational authority style innovator;

Visionary: The leader who provides permanent guidance and eyesight for future years, the team work is important and especially the trust for a innovator;

Affiliative: This innovator creates tranquility within the team as other way the achievements of goals would be much less effective as needed; this style is especially good if the certain group will co-operate in the foreseeable future, they might find ways to achieve goals effectively mutually as a team;

Participative: A innovator who creates ideas and builds up staff commitment; it can be an active leader who also works in an organization though he / she clearly 'declares' who's the first choice;

Pace-setting: This leader promotes high expectations and task achievements as they finds the incentive as the ultimate way to stimulate his group; reports show that money as desire is not the most important part for job satisfactory, but still this type of leaders are quite common;

Coaching: A leader who helps bring about self-development and further education; it is sort of investment in group for facing future responsibilities; also very effective if the team works together for an extended period of time.

The Hay group discovered that the very best ward professionals are adaptable in their strategy and used a number of these control styles in order to get the best performance from their staff (Kenmore, 2008). However there is absolutely no comparative analysis of control styles completed within Irish medical on this size which identifies an opportunity for further research in order to gain better understanding in the Irish context.

In Ireland the National Clinical Leadership Program (2008) was setup by the Office of the Nursing & Midwifery Services Directory website (ONMSD) to aid nurse managers to build up management skills which support the new and expanded ways of delivering quality patient good care. This program was used from the Royal School of Nursing's (RCN) Clinical Leadership Programme framework which aims to build up transformational leadership qualities in individuals (Clinical Control Pilot Evaluation Record, 2008). The theoretical framework focuses on:

Learning to self manage

Developing effective relationships

Patient focus


Political Awareness

This leadership program has since been developed further by the ONMSD to become the National Command Development Project. This project has developed competencies which promote professional medical market leaders. These, the ONMSD consider, will be the key to providing better care and developing management within medical. This pilot job commenced in March 2011 with the completion date establish for 2012. (NLDP, 2010). So far, this job received positive reviews by many researchers of healthcare studies and the nurses themselves.

Defining Job satisfaction - history and current thoughts

Job satisfaction is identified by Locke (1969) as: "a pleasurable or positive psychological state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience. " It is described as a confident affective orientation towards employment by Muller & McCloskey (1990). Job satisfactory is a crucial factor which influences individual's personal appearance in his / her work sphere which can lead to increasing or decreasing efficiency in job tasks.

As a formal area of research, job satisfaction didn't really exist before middle 1930's although there was a good deal of qualitative research and theorizing about the concept of job satisfaction. These included Freud (1922) who experienced that morale acted to control negative tendencies, stimulating personal sacrifice and commitment to group goals. Janet (1907) theorized that repetitive work encouraged someone to dwell on negative thoughts and cause obsessive thinking. Historically, analysts were enthusiastic about job satisfaction as a means of increasing efficiency. Scientific management theory assumed that most importantly things, personnel value economic incentives and would be happy to work harder for economic incentives. Taken these two opinions into account it is seen that having less personal or moral satisfaction still was not discussed widely.

This led to the Hawthorne studies that have been carried out by Professor Elton Mayo from the Harvard Business University between 1927 and 1932. This analysis began by analyzing the result of physical conditions on production, yet, in the span of his investigations he became convinced that factors of your social characteristics were impacting on job satisfaction and production. This study revealed that the thoughts and attitudes of workers influenced production rates and this led to him bringing out an interview program to assess the type of the relationship between methods of supervision and staff attitudes. Due to these interviews it became clear that small changes in work conditions temporarily increase efficiency but further investigations reveled that this increase resulted, not from the changes in conditions, but from the data that employees were being observed. Quite simply when interest was shown in personnel their efficiency increased but when this interest was withdrawn, the output fell. This later became known as the Hawthorne result. This research provided strong data that people help other purposes than pay as well and sparked a influx in research into other factors which have an effect on job satisfaction.

After these studies and thoughts about job satisfactory, numbers of tools for measuring job satisfaction seem. One of the most widely used is Maslow's theory of individual needs (1954). Maslow asserted that human needs emerge sequentially relating to a hierarchy of five need levels: physiological, basic safety, affiliation, success and esteem and self-actualization. Maslow argued that the satisfied need was not a motivator of tendencies and therefore the importance of higher needs raises as lower needs are satisfied. This was followed by Herzberg et al (1959) who continued to build up a theory of job satisfaction based on Maslow's hierarchy and figured not all factors increase satisfaction. They conclude that there was a relationship between job satisfaction and certain work actions as well as between job dissatisfaction and other work conducts. Hertzberg figured satisfaction and dissatisfaction were two completely different phenomena which develop from specific sources and possessed differing original and long term effects on habit. Hertzberg also found that the factors related to good feelings towards one's job were accomplishment and recognition, the nature of the work itself, responsibility, progression and salary. The bad feelings towards the job stemmed from company policy and administration, technological guidance, the question of repayment, interpersonal human relationships with supervisors and working conditions. Hertzberg's basic proposition is that workers are influenced by two different facets; hygiene and drive factors. Health needs related to the physical and internal environment where the work is performed while motivational factors relate with the nature and the challenge of the work itself. However, there has been severe criticism of Hertzberg's theory because of its lack of empirical support as well as the very notion of job satisfactory did not provide types of reasonably different job spheres.

The job satisfaction of nurses

There is an abundance of literature relating to job satisfaction in general management literature and a lesser amount, in nursing books. As soon as when job satisfaction became a field of psychological interest, amounts of considerable researches has been done on various areas of job satisfaction. One of the most noteworthy studies was carried out by the Hay group and it might be talked about further.

Job satisfaction is not easily identified mostly since it means various things to different people. Job satisfaction is multifaceted and can be damaged by both inside and external factors. Atchison (2003) lists pay as the main external factor but expresses that inside factors like a good supervisor, professional development and a nurturing work environment are even more important. This is borne out by the extensive study carried out by the Hay group (1999) of over 500, 000 employees in 300 locations where they found that employees graded pay and benefits in only 10th position in the reasons for staff satisfaction. Regarding to Atchison (2003), pay assessments are entitlements and not motivators. The one time a pay check is motivating is when there is a threat of loss of the pay check. Atchison (2003) claims, that job satisfaction to nurses is unique as what motivates nurses is not really much pay and conditions but instead the well-being of the patient and a feeling of "employment well done". What is more, not payment, but the patient is one of the main results in nurses' job. Even though the patient results is not positive a nurse may feel a sense of satisfaction having fulfilled the patients needs spiritually, in physical form and psychologically. This is identified by the Hay group (1999) as "Meaningful work, making a difference" which is cited as the 3rd most popular reason given by employees for attempting to stay with a company. Pay ranked of them costing only 10th place as grounds for being, though this may vary in other countries depending on nursing conditions, market, etc. This research lists ten reasons overall (Hay group, 1999):

Career progress, learning and development

Exciting work, challenging

Meaningful work, making a difference

Great people

Being part of a team

Good boss

Recognition for job well done

Autonomy, sense of control over one's work

Flexible work hours and dress code

Fair pay and benefits

This is re-iterated by Lebbin (2007) who says that many people who work in healthcare are motivated by improving medical and well-being of their patients. He continues on to convey that personnel dissatisfaction can't be fixed by increasing pay and benefits but by the organization addressing its main aim which is 'nurturing'.

Blegin (1993) discovered that factors affecting staff satisfaction were: company dedication, communication with supervisors, autonomy, acceptance, and peer communication. This review also discovered that stress and routinization adversely affected employees satisfaction. Fundamentally, if a worker meets regular stress in work place or the job becomes as a program, the changes are necessary, and the repayment is rarely a remedy for these sorts of problems.

The resources of nurse's satisfaction include working conditions, connections, remuneration, self expansion, praise and reputation, control, job security and management styles matching to Lu et al (2005) having carried out an extensive books review. However, Tovey & Adams (1999) found from their research that professional medical grade variations of nurses echo differing sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. They point out that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction is often cured in another way within each band of nurses and especially within individuals. That is why they go to claim that different measurement tools are needed to accurately reflect all the differences as you can.

Not surprisingly, the work satisfaction usually has an effect on service user's satisfaction, patient final results, staff turnover and morale. Regarding to McNeese-Smith (1996) caregivers provide better health care when they are satisfied and committed to their employer. If the nurse increases satisfaction from the task he or she does, when the stress would become absent, jobs would be achieved in no hurry and patient needs would become a main concern as the caretakers who are facing the stress would not have the ability to pay very much attention to the individual as otherwise. Commitment to the employer is also very important. Employer is normally seen as the leader for group of nurses, so successful teamwork and positive atmosphere is essential to be designed for workers.

Measurement tools for job satisfaction

The dimension of job satisfaction is a difficult system of collecting data, reactions of nurses, questionnaires, etc. During the period when job satisfaction became a field of interest, numbers of way of measuring tools were developed. Mostly they are really helpful to accumulate statistics which should lead to raised job conditions, though not absolutely all of the tools are quite effective. For example, the Job-in Basic Scale (JIG) was developed by Smith et al (1990) to assess job satisfaction. It includes 18 responses for employees to spell it out their feelings towards the work. Responses include: positive replies such as "makes me content" or "worthwhile" to negative reactions such as: "waste of time" to "rotten". There, each response is given a score of just one 1 if positive, 2 for a question make or 3 if negative. This allows the auditor to rate the entire satisfaction of the respondent numerically. This tool was later criticized for obscure rather than detailed data; also it will not consider explanations why nurses find their job satisfactory or not.

There a wide range of different options of job satisfaction and they change greatly but regarding to Zangaro & Soeken (2005) the Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS) current is definitely the most well suited for calculating nurses' job satisfaction. This tool uses 5 parameters to evaluate job satisfaction and so much the results using this specific tool supply the most thorough information:

Pay: remuneration and periphery benefits received;

Autonomy: the amount of freedom, self-reliance and initiative allowed or required (although, it will not be neglected that loyalty to company is also very important);

Task requirements: the amount of activities that must definitely be completed as part of the job, nurses' duties;

Organizational policies: plans and procedures lay out by supervision;

Interaction: The amount of opportunities for both formal and casual assembly during work amount of time in the work place.

However, the earlier stated Hay group uses a bit different solution to evaluate job satisfactory. You will find no strict or fixed parameters presented, although inspecting specific literature, it was found that Hay group gives more attention to business affectivity and individual's feelings, without speaking much about repayment, for example. The Hay group highlights that the main thing for each and every nurse in their job is the feeling of personal progress (2008). So, if contrasting Hay group's opinion to these 5 variables offered by the Index of Work Satisfaction, autonomy, process requirements and discussion may be the crucial point which identifies positive attitude to the medical job and other factors would be considered of slight importance.

Moumtzoglou (2010) conducted a literature review prior to constructing a satisfaction range for Greek nurses and found the resources of job satisfaction to be similar throughout the books and common elements devised includes: connection and recognition, command styles and organizational coverage, self development and responsibility, remuneration and finally the task itself.

Leadership skills and the abilities of nurse manger have long being recognized to make critical contribution to soft operation of the inpatient unites as well concerning donate to the success of acute care private hospitals. Thus their control is increasing gaining attention especially when it comes to their contribution to staff attitudes and human relationships. since that first line nurse managers are positioned in a detailed proximity to the wok itself as well as to the nurse employed in the individual care make rests critical in the way the administrator implements the control roles that are destined to have significant effect on the working environment and organizational. Therefore nurse manger that affect the task environment favorably fosters the organization's determination of the personnel stimulating greater achievements at the machine level hence boosting the organizations competitive advantages.

Effect that control styles have on job satisfaction of nurses

While there are many literature focusing on authority in nursing area and the factors which have an effect on nurse's job satisfaction, there are incredibly few which make clear how certain management styles suggests positive or negative effect on job satisfaction. Thus despite the effects that management styles have on employees' job satisfaction there are other factors which likewise have a great effect and these other factors includes personal tendencies factors that respond to leadership.

A study carried out by McNeese (1996) found out that leadership action partially makes up about the job satisfaction of employees and that organizational culture, types of patients, quality of health care, organizational use of electric power, communication between management, even medical equipment and peers performed a substantial part. One of the important factors that serve to show that control in nursing might not exactly be the lone positive term is that each person has their own behavioral patterns and that every person has top features of command despite not being natural leaders (Bass, 1995).

Nurses' job is actually not the sort of work which signs a high sociable position as every nurse, for case ward professionals may feel that their profession status does not offer a higher level; thus command in medical field is a field which discusses leadership among the 'middle category' of hospital's personnel (Kenmore, 2008). Those who are more interested in their casual duties, and care of their patients, may be more content with their job if indeed they do not need to became leaders or be treated like ones among other colleagues. For others it might be an uneasy issue, as they presumably have other considerations like obtaining a pay raise, advertising or other possible bonus items that goes with being a innovator. This way, obligations and tasks wouldn't normally be done with this degree of satisfaction as the nurse would be consciously or not striving to achieve the goals her / his command features are resulting in. And it may well not be always possible taking into consideration the mentioned status of nurse; though nurses may differ in lots of ways, the very phrase in world of medicine is often considered to show lower position than checking to doctors, doctors, and so on (McNeese, 1993). However, it will not be ignored that a group of nurses may have few 'market leaders' in the team or none of them at all; this also brings problems an many misunderstandings as well as confrontations as the group could become a dysfunctional system. The job of such group would be led by stress, unreliability and it might be noticed by patients, whatsoever (Kenmore, 2008).

Another factor that may affect nurse's job satisfaction as the culture of the organization includes more staff members with lower or higher status in specific job. Those whose individuality signals strong management features but their professional position does not provide freedom expressing their leadership, may be caught up in constant dissatisfaction using their work in a single way or another (repayment, relationships, care of patients, ). So to state, leadership is not only a confident thing within the organization, as there would always be members who want to be leaders in one sphere or another. The true leader which has the highest position should be aware of such issues and really should have the ability to control his / her organization so it could function and work properly and even more effectively (Kouzes, 1988).

On the other side, certain management styles within nurses' staff is quite beneficial for the whole business. Usually, the democratic style of leadership is known as to be the very best as nurses do not have visual power the leader but they may be able to plan the group work and increase group's self-assurance. Nurses, who are said to be democratic market leaders, would always focus on their fellow workers, their opinions, comments and critique by doing this, the patient is cared for as an essential number; usually with the primary nurse guaranteeing that everything is performed for the care and attention of the patents needs (Fradd, 2004).

More 'problematic' leader within nurse group would be an authoritarian style head. Though it is good and valuable personal feature, authoritarian market leaders usually will not get involved much in group work and make almost all of the decisions by themselves. Such command style is often misinterpreted and mistaken for bad behavior rather than a kind of personality; thus often bringing problems amongst acquaintances as a its regarded as a bad way to working in an organization (McNeese, 1993).

Remembering that which was stated before, it is known that this kind of authority also has numbers of advantages, but again, taking into consideration the real status of the nurse and how it affects the atmosphere among acquaintances it is painted in negative colors. The next authority style to be studied into account is previously mentioned laissez - faire. Regrettably, though such authority style exists, it is not really possible to state that laissez-faire management style can come in groups of nurses. Laissez - faire explains that innovator in such group is more unaggressive amount where other participants can solve problems on their own, although innovator still remains responsible for their work. In nursing field this sensation is uncommon because laissez - faire often is obvious in communities where all members have the same status, as they say - the first choice must be the one who is the most dynamic (by causing decisions, by achieving his / her goals, etc. )

To leave institutions aside, we should discuss one of the most important factors which bring job satisfaction to nurses. The needs of patient, takes on major role in this particular discourse as it is seen by many reports taken by famous researchers and offered above. Without watching specific control styles, every ward manager must treat their patient with professional health care. That is their main goal, excluding all repayment or job atmosphere questions (Lu, 2005). Good head in would organise his / her duties where in fact the patient's needs will be a priority and other obligations would only accentuate them. However, command styles may have impact on patient, as nurses with strong autocratic command features may be unable to maintain positive human relationships with their fellow workers, so certain problems can appear this way. Shortly, nurses who possesses democratic, transformational and transactional authority features provides better conditions for their patients, and satisfied patient brings satisfaction to the nurse (Lu, 2005). Essentially, the satisfactory of patient suggests what control styles within nurses are most helpful to achieve their professional aims.

To sum up shortly, these are examples which describe that command occurs in every minimal situation within each personnel group, but there are numbers of factors to be studied into account. To study all these things, it might be good for take some kind of example and make an effort to use way of measuring tools to observe how management style occurs atlanta divorce attorneys specific example; should it bring positive or negative end result and feedback from co-workers and patients (or workplace) and also, how it impacts the very individual, can it make the nurse happy about the job or not. Every different analysis of such cases may bring very interesting and various results.


Based on the research its clear that control occurs in medical field in many different ways and sometimes we have in mind the nurses' immediate employer as a innovator, but in other cases it can be a colleague who gets the same cultural and professional status, but personal features may sign trust and control of the problem. Sometimes control as phenomenon affects nurses' performance greatly. Ramifications of leadership may have strong or poor drive in increasing the level of efficiency of the employees in the business. More so, working in an organization with a innovator is one of the crucial factors you can use to gauge the levels of job satisfaction. Another important factor is the individual in that without providing the patient with professional good care; no nurse can be completely satisfied with the work. Most notable conclusions that could be drawn following this discussion is the fact that payment is definately not being the priority which brings satisfaction for job, and usually it is more of moral and mental elements that creates a good atmosphere and the opportunity to be observed as reliable staff member looking after patients. Although, you can find no one basic theory or way of measuring tool which can provide accurate answers when studying such field, basic elements always stay the same regardless of the time frame or the area of work.

Research Question: What are Impacts of Leadership Styles Utilized by Healthcare Professionals face to face Satisfaction of Nurses?

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