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Leadership Style And Ability Practices Of Gandhi Background Essay

With the aid of management theory and specific examples, this paper displays after and analyses the leadership style and electricity and influence practices of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi as portrayed in the movie "Gandhi". The research is primarily based on Gandhi's personal id and behaviour with regards to others and the exterior environment. Way more, the relationship distributed between him and his fans is inserted throughout the newspaper to further support the evaluation. Lastly, this paper makes a short comparison between your leadership style of Gandhi and Jinnah.

Gandhi is popularly referred to as 'Mahatma' Gandhi, signifying 'great soul', and is often called 'bapu' in India, indicating 'dad'. He's officially honoured in India as the 'father of the nation', as it was under his control and assistance than the liberty movement in India gained momentum, eventually resulting in India's independence in 1947. Gandhi was a nationwide leader, a flexibility fighter, a visionary, a humanist, and a socialist reformer. He has been a source of ideas and role-model for not only the normal man, but many other market leaders such as Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela as well.

Defining Leadership

According to Yukl (2010), "Leadership is the process of influencing others to comprehend and agree about what needs to be achieved and the way to undertake it, and the process of facilitating specific and collective initiatives to accomplish distributed objectives".

Gandhi's Authority Style

Gandhi had not been a born leader, but he certainly had traits of one (Exhibit 1). He was a straightforward man leading a simple life, but strongly presumed in and employed the beliefs of unity, equality, truth, non-violence, justice, and integrity. His prices and personality were instrumental in struggling with the might of the English. He was patient but prolonged, as he realized it was no simple job attaining India's independence. While he was defiant, resilient, daring and provocative sometimes, he always remained calm, nurturing, humble and polite. He exhibited particular characteristics, characteristics and behaviours of any charismatic leader, transformational innovator and level 5 head, that happen to be analysed below.

Charismatic Leadership

According to Weber (1947), charismatic market leaders are more likely to emerge in problems situations. As depicted in the movie, India was experiencing the atrocities of the British rule for many years, causing widespread problems. People were desperate to get rid of the anguish, but were not able to find a solution. Gandhi provided the eyesight of "Separate India", and led various actions from leading. India's social turmoil provided Gandhi with the perfect stage to rise from among the masses and lead India to self-reliance.

Most significantly, his activities were highly unconventional. He fought the British isles using the technique of real truth, non-violence, non-cooperation and peaceful amount of resistance, somewhat than using violent means. These unconventional method of protest impressed and encouraged his supporters, who saw him as incredible and charismatic.

Yukl (2010) suggests that leaders will be viewed as charismatic if they make self-sacrifices, take personal risks, and incur high costs to attain the perspective they espouse. Within the movie, there were various instances when Gandhi made personal sacrifices and needed personal risks. For example, he stopped putting on western clothes and donned a simple 'dhoti' to blend with the masses; he was jailed on numerous situations for lengthy durations; he led a straightforward life without materialistic pleasures; and even received beaten sometimes.

Gandhi was highly trusted by his followers, given the fact that he had not been encouraged to free India for personal self-interest, but for the betterment and matter of individuals. He drew huge admiration anticipated to his commendable intentions, high moral principles and ethical expectations. During his funeral procession in the movie, the commentator rightly explained, "The thing of this significant tribute perished as he previously always lived. An exclusive man without prosperity, without property, without established name or office. Mahatma Gandhi was not the commander of armies, nor a ruler of vast lands. He could not feature any scientific accomplishment or artistic present. Yet men, government authorities, dignitaries from across the world have joined up with hands today to pay homage to this little brownish man in the loincloth who led his country to freedom".

Gandhi was highly self-confident, and firmly assumed that India would gain freedom. It had been his opinion that it was simply a matter of 'when' and 'in what form'. It was his assurance and enthusiasm to free India that united his enthusiasts to jointly accomplish what seemed impossible to attain.

Gandhi's vision, creativity, confidence and good attitude motivated and increased the collective effectiveness of individuals, inspiring the fact that unity is critical in order to free India. This collective belief fuelled the conviction of his fans to willingly devote additional work, and persist the long, hard street to independence.

Gandhi was in no way an impressive leader by appearance either. Despite being old, brief, and slim-built, he had the ability and charisma to appeal to the masses through his presenting and public speaking and interpersonal skills, which possessed a widespread impact. In short, he was a "crowd-puller". Meindl (1990) points out this spontaneous get spread around of emotional and behavioural reactions among the people through the process of communal contagion. The people of India were psychologically and physically prepared to make self-sacrifices to be able to gain independence. Gandhi activated this social identification amongst individuals, at the same time when their success had been threatened. For example, the movie shows how the people of Champaran were facing a public crisis, and how Gandhi travelled there to see, notice and feel their pain. Gandhi's mere existence in Champaran led to his arrest, and what adopted was extraordinary. Being a crowd-puller, rioting ensued in your community, and the folks swarmed the court docket room at his ability to hear. Without the heroics, Gandhi could pressurize the British to make changes. However, his enthusiasts looked at him as heroic and exceptional, and this feeling started to multiply spontaneously on the list of people, stirring the whole nation.

There is little hesitation that Gandhi was a positive charismatic, which he had a "socialized electricity orientation". Regarding to Yukl (2010), leaders with socialized vitality orientation exhibit the following characteristics, as have Gandhi:

Strong self-control

Motivated to meet the necessity for electricity in socially suitable ways

More psychologically mature

Exercise ability for the advantage of others

Hesitant about using electricity in a manipulative manner

Less egoistic and defensive

Accumulate fewer material possessions

Have a longer-range view

His leadership influence emphasized internalization alternatively than personal id. He was self-sacrificing and led from leading to speak his determination to the liberty have difficulties. Gandhi once stated, "You must be the change you want to see in the world". Gandhi's enthusiasts were responsive to his ideologies and appeals, and became ever more involved with this socialized charismatic relationship.

According to Yukl (2010), the affective response charismatic leaders arouse often polarizes people into opposing camps of dedicated followers and hostile competitors, and the strong negative response by a lot of people to charismatic market leaders explains why they are generally goals for assassination. Nathuram Godse, a Hindu fanatic, assassinated Mahatma Gandhi on 30th January, 1948, as he felt Gandhi was privately responsible for the partition of India as well for the deaths of thousands of Hindus.

Transformational Leadership

According to Bass (1985), transformational leaders own unique charismatic behaviours which include sacrificing personal gains for the benefits associated with the group, setting up a personal example for enthusiasts and demonstrating high honest standards. Gandhi's leadership style clearly showcases the essence of transformational leadership. For example, his supporters were encouraged by him, trusted him, respected him, were faithful to him, and well known him. Transformational leaders also appeal to higher ideals like liberty, justice, peace and equality. Gandhi resided for such triggers, and fought his entire life to stand by them.

Gandhi's transformational management encouraged his followers to transcend their own self-interest and struggle in unity. A large number of Gandhi's followers visited jail, and at times were violently beaten as well (e. g. Hundreds of Gandhi's followers willingly collected at the 'Dharasana Salt Works' and stood together while being beaten with sticks by the British officials. Nevertheless, they not once resorted to assault because they well known Gandhi's sentiments). In fact, according to Dirks and Ferrin (2002), transformational control is highly correlated with rely upon the leader.

According to Bass (1985), transformational market leaders exhibit the next behaviours:

Idealized Influence - This behavior arouses strong follower emotions and id with the first choice. Gandhi could influence the public because he was a man of his words, and always utilized what he preached. He was a job model for the masses, and triumphed in their respect and trust through his activities. He shown high ethical carry out (non-violence), self-sacrifice (voluntary poverty and non-materialism), determination and persistence to be able to realize India's independence.

Intellectual Activation - This behaviour increases follower awareness of problems and influences followers to view problems from a new perspective. Gandhi was always supportive of his fans, and encouraged them to think openly, ask questions, and solve problems. He was prepared to accept wrong-doing and faults, and had not been ashamed to discard a technique that didn't work as planned. For instance, he called off the non-violent advertising campaign despite opposition from his subordinates because there were some individuals who used violent means.

Individualized Factor - This behaviour includes providing support, encouragement and instruction to followers. Gandhi was always supportive of his followers. For example, he patiently paid attention to the grievances and concerns of the indegent in relation to their inability to maintain a livelihood scheduled to British plans. Gandhi was also extremely supportive of other leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru and Vallabhbhai Patel. He nurtured them, prompted them to talk about ideas, and even empowered them to make decisions, never making them feel reliant on him.

Inspirational Motivation - This behaviour includes communicating an appealing perspective, and using symbols to focus subordinate work. Gandhi stood by his personal beliefs, and consistently communicated his eyesight of freedom. By openly interacting his perspective, and using symbols like the 'Sodium Satyagraha' movements, he provided his enthusiasts with a feeling of meaning, which inspired them to remain positive and increase their effort.

Level 5 Leader

Jim Collins (2005) suggests that a "Level 5 Innovator" is someone who has genuine personal humility combined with extreme professional will. Gandhi exhibited different characteristics of such a innovator (Exhibit 2). He was extremely humble and modest, and lived a life on the concept of simple living and high thinking. He used the original Indian "dhoti" and shawl, which was woven from yarn spun yourself using a "charkha". He was humble and appreciative, and never hesitated in stating "MANY THANKS". However, he was extremely continual in his deal with to gain India's independence. Despite facing various obstacles and set backs in the quest for freedom, he never quit.

Leader - Member Exchange (LMX) Theory

Gandhi developed and distributed a high-exchange romantic relationship with his subordinates, supporters and other market leaders. This romance grew stronger after some time, producing a high degree of mutual dependence, loyalty, trust, admiration, support and affection.

According to Graen and Uhl-Bien (1995), high-quality leader-follower connections are positively associated with transformational leadership behaviours. Even Deluga (1992) found a significant relationship between your transformational authority behaviours of charisma and individualized consideration and high-quality LMX.

While Gandhi provided the vision and inspiration, most of the ground work was carried out by his subordinates and supporters, who were highly focused on the freedom have difficulties. They also took considerable initiative on the part to handle the planning. For instance, Nehru used his contacts in the press to adopt Gandhi's subject matter to the masses.

It can also be mentioned that the exchange relationship Gandhi shared with his subordinates was favourable. Gandhi was highly supportive of his subordinates, and used to frequently consult them. He acted more as a mentor to them. He was non-dominating in conversations, and had to be highly persuasive with Jinnah on multiple situations. His subordinates began demonstrating organizational citizenship behaviour, as their trust in Gandhi grew more robust. Dirks & Ferrin (2002) validate this by proclaiming a favourable exchange marriage is highly correlated with subordinate trust.

Gandhi's Power and Effect Tactics

A leader needs to be influential, therefore was Gandhi. In the movie, Gandhi generally used the process of "internalization" to impact his supporters.

According to Kelman (1958), under the internalization process, the prospective person becomes focused on support and apply proposals espoused by the agent because they appear to be intrinsically desired and correct with regards to the target's principles, beliefs, and self-image. Gandhi was able to influence the masses by invigorating their beliefs of flexibility, justice and self-respect to fight against the Uk.

To a certain degree, personal recognition was also depicted. Kelman (1958) states that under personal recognition, the target person imitates the agent's behaviour or adopts the same behaviour to please the agent and be like the agent. Inside the movie, Jawaharlal Nehru was at first shown as using american clothes. But after Gandhi's influence on him, he thought we would wear clothes made of Indian fabric (khadi), thereby implementing the same attitude of Gandhi. Similarly, millions of Indians boycotted English garments in their support of Gandhi's view that people should wear khadi.

According to Yukl (2010), power is the capability to impact the attitudes and behaviour of individuals in the desired path. Gandhi was shown as exhibiting the use of referent electric power in the movie. Regarding to France and Raven (1959), referent electric power is derived from the desire of others to please a realtor toward whom they have got strong thoughts of devotion, admiration and commitment. Gandhi's friendly, attractive, enchanting and trustworthy figure empowered him with high referent vitality. He was able to increase this electricity by showing concern towards to needs of individuals, by demonstrating trust and respect, and by dealing with people rather and equally. In addition, his high levels of personal integrity and constant beliefs allowed him to keep up this referent electric power.

According to Yukl (2010), most electric power studies have found that referent power is favorably correlated with subordinate satisfaction and performance, and that effective leaders count more of referent power to impact subordinates. He further says that people will cooperate with an agent who have strong referent electric power. This partly points out the effective control of Gandhi, and reasons why his supporters were highly attracted to him.

Comparison Between Leadership Style of M. K. Gandhi and M. A. Jinnah

Gandhi and Jinnah, as portrayed in the movie, appear to be completely different in their features, behavior, appearance, lifestyle and leadership style.

Jinnah is proven to lead an appropriate, sophisticated and lavish lifestyle, and in certain ways emulates the English. Gandhi led a lifestyle quite contrary to that. While Gandhi was the first choice of the masses, Jinnah in no way arrived close. While Gandhi has been portrayed as warm and affectionate, Jinnah appears to be intimidating, arrogant, persistent, manipulative, and at times sarcastic.

In terms of leadership style, Jinnah displays characteristics of a poor charismatic. Negative charismatics have a "personalized electric power orientation".

In the movie, it could be pointed out that while Jinnah's original ideology was that of an independent India, by gaining power as time passes, his ideologies modified. He later in person advocated creating another Muslim point out - Pakistan. While his concerns were valid, they appeared to be highly exaggerated. More so, even though Gandhi persuaded and attempted to reason with Jinnah, he remained stubborn. It is only when Gandhi advised him he could become the 1st Leading Minister of India with full independence to choose his cabinet that he felt content. Hence, it appears that Jinnah had a larger concern for self-glorification and preserving power. On the other hand, Gandhi was never in the run after for electric power, which is recognized by the actual fact that he never presented an official subject or office.


Gandhi is a role-model and way to obtain inspiration for many generations. His unconventional means to combat injustice (real truth, non-violence, non-cooperation and peaceful level of resistance) have earned him high admiration and esteem. He led from the front to realize India's self-reliance, and influenced millions of followers to fight for a moral and simply cause. He epitomised life predicated on moral carry out, and proved its durability to the globe. While laying the foundation for democracy in India, he in addition has proved how unity and humanity can struggle the most powerful of forces. Although it is highly unlikely to see another Gandhi in our lifetime, humanity has critical lessons to study from his management and life.

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