Posted at 11.14.2018
Knowledge can be regarded as human potential that evolves from blend of data, information, experience and specific interpretation (Syed-Ikhsan and Rowland, 2004). It is the most deliberate suggestions to keep up the competitive good thing about any given firm. Knowledge is known as intangible possessions where it advances when used and decrease in value you should definitely used unlike tangible property. Knowledge transfer can be described as travelling of knowledge from one place, person or possession to some other. It involves two or more parties with the occurrence of source and destination or sender and device (Syed-Ikhsan and Rowland, 2004). Knowledge transfer requires the willingness of an organization or individual to utilize others and share knowledge with their shared benefits. The development and copy of knowledge within an organization has turned into a critical factor in an organization's success and competitiveness. Many organizations are now concentrating their initiatives on how knowledge can be transferred across the business. Although knowledge copy is very important in an group, the actual copy and performance of knowledge within firm still remains a problematic issue. Effectiveness means degree to which goals are achieved and lengthen to which knowledge has been transferred accurately. The effectiveness of such exchange is determined by the effectiveness of the link between source and recipient (Syed-Ikhsan and Rowland, 2004). The potency of the knowledge copy essentially depends on the determinants or factors that influence knowledge copy.
Knowledge transfer (KT) does not only become a medium for imagination and innovation but also supplies the means by which helps the firm to advance and grow through new ideas. Organizations should embed knowledge copy in every day business processes in order to find the right reap the benefits of a knowledge transfer. Organization should build a knowledge transfer strategy, identify knowledge reservoirs, develop knowledge posting proficiencies, encourage networking, capture best practices, ensure content management, define and communicate knowledge performance (Szulanski, 2000). Knowledge transfer basically impacts working relationships, habits of influence, syndication of vitality, and alters how specific define their tasks (Argote, 1999). A KT effort needs motivational and change management in an organization. Therefore when starting a KT effort, it's important to recognize what are required to achieve successful outcomes. The firm might need to change employees' action, increase employees' desire, redirect attention or build commitment and social cohesion. In other words, the organization must promote a feeling of commitment or effect employees' habits and feelings. A good way to encourage approval of KT initiatives is to look at the rewards, appraisals and acknowledgement structure to ensure that knowledge transfer principles and conducts are aligned (Darr, Argote, and Epple, 1995). Organizations can be categorised based on their degree of difficulty, variability and business process. Different organizations are affected by different kind of knowledge copy determinants. Thus, it's important to study the organization's business process, culture, environment, management, technology and people before employing the strategies. Telecommunication companies deal with plenty of difficult duties, which reckon the need of knowledge copy in the business (Waren and Davies, 2000). Knowledge copy is highly encouraged in Telecommunication companies because the changes are major in this kind of high technology organizations. Among the great problems of today's company is about how to acquire more data and flip them into valuable knowledge for the firm. Majority companies are quite worried that they are not fully making use of the knowledge that is available within their company. What factors affect knowledge transfer in Telecommunication companies or how to encourage employees in such firm to talk about their knowledge, skills and knowledge is still a fundamental question. This research firstly deals with the concept of knowledge copy, knowledge transfer reservoirs and the critical success factors of knowledge copy, which include socio-psychology, management, firm and technology. The research reviews the prior studies done by researchers and organizations on knowledge transfer in various organizations including some Telecommunication companies like English Telecom. The study was done on the diverse areas of knowledge copy in Malaysian Telecommunication Company known as Telekom Malaysia. Review was done to understand the employees' view towards knowledge transfer. Finally, organization determinants of effective knowledge transfer in Telekom Malaysia have been identified and recommended.
Knowledge transfer in essence requires everyone in the business and it needs the engagement of employees from all levels. Writing the abilities and experiences is essential to develop knowledge in business businesses. This research examines the critical success determinants for a knowledge copy within Telekom Malaysia which include socio-psychology, management, firm and technology. Following are the research questions of the study, which has been conducted in Telekom Malaysia.
What is the existing express of knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia and is also the overall environment of Telekom Malaysia is advantageous for effective knowledge copy implementation?
What are the determinants that affect knowledge copy and management to start effective knowledge transfer implementation in Telekom Malaysia?
What is the understanding of employees' on knowledge copy and exactly how easily they can defeat the resistance to improve as well as transfer their knowledge within Telekom Malaysia?
There are amount of important issues which may have been debated to be able to identify the factor that affect the potency of knowledge transfer. Question that hits are: What is the current condition of knowledge transfer in Telekom Malaysia and it is the entire environment of Telekom Malaysia is advantageous for effective knowledge copy implementation? What exactly are the determinants that affect knowledge transfer and management to start effective knowledge transfer implementation in Telekom Malaysia? What is the understanding of employees' on knowledge transfer and exactly how easily they can conquer the resistance to change as well as copy their knowledge within Telekom Malaysia? This study concentrates mainly on determinants of effective knowledge transfer in Telekom Malaysia. The study helps Telekom Malaysia in conditions of the managerial, technological and organization technique to identify methods that can be used to improve Knowledge Transfer. Additionally, this study shows the value of socio-psychology in Telekom Malaysia. The targets of the study are to study and identify if the knowledge has been transferred to the right person at the right time via right tool. In addition, it helps to research the potency of moved knowledge in Telekom Malaysia. The study will also further explore the employees' belief on knowledge copy and the degree of resistance to change in Telekom Malaysia.
Several reviews on journals were done in order to identify the research gap. Earlier research was mostly done knowledge transfer strategy, knowledge management, knowledge stickiness and knowledge copy determinants on several businesses. Organization's determinant of effective knowledge transfer varies depending on firms' business process. Prior research implies that knowledge copy in a given organization seems to complete well when ideal determinants are applied. However, no research has been carefully done on knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia. Thus, the study gap is figuring out the determinants of effective knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia.
Journal on knowledge transfer stickiness
Process model of knowledge copy.
Measure of knowledge stickiness
Difficulty to copy knowledge
Journal on competitive advantage of knowledge transfer
Why knowledge transfer is difficult
Identify the sorts of knowledge that are difficult to copy in firms
Journal on learning through others experience
Factors impacting knowledge copy in firms
Barriers to accomplish knowledge transfer
Journal on knowledge development cycle
Ghanesh D. Bhatt
Knowledge development process and framework
Journal on relationship between knowledge transfer and knowledge stickiness
Chia Ying Li
Increase in knowledge stickiness may have a good and significant affect on knowledge transfer
Journal on knowledge transfer mechanism
Sajjad M. Jasimuddin
Exploring knowledge management and knowledge transfer on Global Corporation
Journal on knowledge management
Indentify the partnership between organizational elements and the performance of Knowledge Transfer
Identify the independent variables that could influence knowledge transfer
Journal on knowledge management at English Telekom
Paul Warren and Graham Davies
Case analysis on knowledge management in British Telecom
Table 1: Reviews on Journals to recognize research gap
Table 1 shows the synopsis of the publications which were done to be able to identify the study space. Nine main journals were thoroughly researched to have an improved understanding on knowledge transfer issues. These journals basically help to draft the guidelines for this research.
Influence of socio-psychological factor on efficiency of KT
Influence of management factor on effectiveness of KT
Influence of organizational factor on efficiency of KT
Influence of technology factor on efficiency of KT
1) Social identity
2) Social capital
3) Sociable dilemma
4) Friendly exchange
5) Social identification
2) Personnel Turnover
3) Work Design
6) Performance Appraisal
7) Personal rotation
1) Organizational Culture
2) Organizational Structure
1) Information Technology
2) ICT Infrastructure
3) ICT Tools
4) ICT know-how
Organization Determinants of Effective Knowledge Transfer in TM
Technology factorFigure 1: Research Model
An organization should take into consideration everything the organization will to make knowledge accessible to the business. Successful knowledge transfer entails combination of many organizational elements such as technology infrastructure, people, management process and organizational culture. There may be relatively little information or conclusions on knowledge management in Telekom Malaysia. It is vital to create a knowledgeable modern culture in Telekom Malaysia where important information embedded within the business should be distributed and transferred proficiently. Sharing the embedded knowledge is a competitive gain for Telekom Malaysia. There are plenty of knowledge copy research done on organizations such as United kingdom Telecom, PETRONAS and several public organizations. Yet, different organizations will be influenced by different facets of knowledge copy. Findings implies that there are no studies has been conducted on knowledge transfer determinants on Telekom Malaysia. Predicated on the analysis from several studies, four determinants have been identified and analyzed on Telekom Malaysia. Those determinants or factors are socio-psychology, management, corporation and technology. Physique 1 basically points out the research model of this study. It talks about the construct, theory, independent factors and dependent variables.
The aptitude to transfer knowledge from one point to another can quite simply lead to organizational performance. The data that is transferred between individuals not only benefits the business but also profit the individuals itself. There are numerous factors engage in the knowledge copy process for the process to occur efficiently. The reliant factors in this research are corporation determinants of effective knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia.
There are four unbiased adjustable involve in this study. Firstly, socio-psychological factor was mentioned where the build developed is affect of socio-psychological factor on effectiveness of knowledge copy. The ideas were further subdivided into cultural identity, interpersonal capital, social issue, social exchange and cultural identification.
The hypothesis analyzed:
AH1 : There is a positive romantic relationship between socio-psychological factor and performance of knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia.
0H1 : The relationship does not exist between socio-psychological factors and success of knowledge transfer in Telekom Malaysia.
Secondly, management factor was identified and assessed. The build developed is impact of management factor on performance of knowledge transfer. The concept was further subdivided into publishing, personnel turnover, work design, staffing, training, performance appraisal and personal rotation.
The hypothesis analyzed:
AH2 : There's a positive marriage between management factor and performance of knowledge transfer in Telekom Malaysia.
0H2 : The relationship does not are present between management factors and efficiency of knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia.
Thirdly, organizational factor was reviewed with the construct developed as influence of organizational factor on effectiveness of knowledge transfer. The concept is further reviewed by organizational culture and organizational structure.
The hypothesis tested:
AH3 : There's a positive romantic relationship between organizational factor and performance of knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia.
0H3 : The relationship does not can be found between organizational factors and efficiency of knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia.
Fourthly, technology factor was discovered and the build developed is impact of technology factor on performance of knowledge copy. The ideas are further explained as information technology, ICT infrastructure, ICT tools and ICT know-how.
The hypothesis tested:
AH4 : There's a positive marriage between technology factor and performance of knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia.
0H4 : The partnership does not are present between technology factors and efficiency of knowledge copy in Telekom Malaysia.