We accept

Key metaphors: Strengths and weaknesses

Kurt Lewin theorized a three-stage model of change that has become known as the unfreezing-change-refreeze model that requires prior understanding how to be rejected and replaced. Edgar Schein provided further aspect for a far more comprehensive style of change calling this process "cognitive redefinition. " The first level is when individual is becoming encouraged to change. This period of change is built on the theory that human patterns is established by past observational learning and ethnical influences. Change requires adding new causes for change or removal of a few of the prevailing factors that are in play in perpetuating the action. It is necessary to move at night possible anxieties for change to progress. This can be accomplished by either having the survival stress be greater than the learning anxiousness or, ideally, learning stress and anxiety could be reduced. In the next stage, human must change what must be altered. Once there is enough dissatisfaction with the current conditions and a genuine aspire to make some change exists, it's important to identify exactly what must be evolved. Three possible impacts from handling new information are: words undertake new or broadened meaning, concepts are interpreted in a broader framework, and there is an modification in the range used in analyzing new insight. A concise view of the new status is required to obviously identify the difference between the present state and that being suggested. Activities that assist in making the change include imitation of role models and looking for personal solutions through trial-and-error learning. Refreezing is the ultimate level where new action becomes habitual, which include developing a new self-concept & personal information and building new interpersonal associations.

Morgan's organism metaphor

The main assumption root evolutionary theories is the fact that change is a response to exterior circumstances, situational factors, and the surroundings encountered by each business (Morgan, 1986). Community systems as diversified, inter reliant, complex systems progress naturally as time passes because of external demands (Morgan, 1986). Teleological ideas or designed change models expect that organizations are purposeful and adaptive. Change occurs because leaders, change agents, and others see the need of change.

White-water rapids metaphor

For the White water rapids metaphor, change is frequent in a energetic environment. Really the only certainty is continuing uncertainty. Competitive advantages do not last. Managers must quickly and properly respond to unexpected events. They should be aware of problems and opportunities and be change brokers in stimulating, applying and supporting change in the organization The white drinking water rapids metaphor is regular with the conversation of doubt and vibrant environment. Additionally it is consistent with a global that is progressively more dominated by knowledge, information and idea. However, this metaphor is lack of environmental stability and predictability and it also requires managers and organizations regularly adapt to endure.

Bergquist's fire metaphor

Bergquist explain the changing framework as grounds to reexamine organizational set ups and culture, necessitating internal change. He describes the postmodern period as posing new problems for organizations, particularly around the problem of change (1998). Postmodernism requires organizations to improve their size and form to respond to a more fragmented and complex environment. Reexamining the institutional quest is a significant priority (Bergquist, 1998). As establishments rethink their reasons for being, the establishments themselves change their identities; Bergquist lists several institutional reactions. First, the postmodern environment means that organizations move from more singular types of operation to evaluating multiple ways to be successful. Second, organizations might positively engage the various subcultures within higher education institutions, including the politics, bureaucratic, symbolic, and individual learning resource cultures. Third, other organizations might develop entrepreneurial cultures and constructions in which they are able to adapt to changes. Last, they could find their distinctive niche categories, focusing on specialized aspects rather than more comprehensive mission as advanced schooling institutions have done before. Organizational change is conceptualized as an attempt at becoming less homogenous and attentive to the multiplicity of various constituents customers, or interest groups. According to Bergquist, the postmodern period is demanding organizations to change; there is absolutely no way to avoid this circuit.

There are several reasons for folks resists organizational changes. The major reasons are as employees are concern with failure, and they feel uneasy about the creature of patterns, some of them have closed mind. Another factor is the staff may think there is no need of change, and if it is necessary, they may mistrust the sufficient supports systems. What is more, unwillingness to learn and fear of learning may avoid the changes internally as well.

Part two

The roots of OD can be traced back to the 1940s whenever a team of research workers, led by Kurt Lewin, attempted T-groups. We were holding small, unstructured organizations where the members learnt various areas of group behavior using their own encounters. The research workers who initially facilitated the T-groups reviewed the processes and final results of the classes amongst themselves at the conclusion of each program. Eventually, the participants asked the research workers if indeed they could be contained in the review process. These review and reviews periods were a abundant learning reference for the members. OD has moved on since this experimental phase. The word OD is now considered to be an umbrella term that includes many programmes and techniques for bringing about change. There may be some contention as to which of these programmes and techniques come under the OD banner. However, it is commonly regarded that action research and process consultation are central to the viewpoint and methodology of OD.

OD incorporates a planned approach to change that aims to improve the performance of organizations through the folks in them. It is important to note that not all change occurring within organizations is designed. Many of the changes that occur are emergent - that is, these are unplanned, trivial changes that arise through the natural span of conducting business. While OD helps bring about a planned method of organizational change, it is typically considered to be concerned with incremental change and orderly transitions alternatively than drastic and quick changes. While many authors would still argue that is the truth, others would argue that transformational change is currently considered to be under the OD banner. Orderly transitioning is facilitated by using a big change agent or specialist. The OD consultant works together with the client business to help identify problems and opportunities and to take appropriate action. The role of the advisor is not merely to guide the organization onto the most likely avenue, but also to instruct key organizational participants how to solve their own problems in the future. This ends up with a decreasing reliance on the specialist over a period of time. Theoretically, OD is dependant on the eventual withdrawal of the specialist.

OD views organizations as complicated sociable systems where changes have to be system-wide. Individuals within organizations are customers of various communities. These range from friendship groupings to departmental teams to work clubs. These groupings interact and are often interdependent. OD consultants discover the key role that clubs play in the development and maintenance of organizational culture. A significant implication of the assumption is the fact that interventions must attempt to impact culture through attention to workgroup subcultures. Indeed, if the culture is not evolved then nothing else can effectively be modified.

In conclusion, OD has lots of distinguishing characteristics. Namely, it is incremental in nature and views organizations as complicated cultural systems. This causes continuous changes with a concentrate on culture and procedures and the popularity of the value of teamwork and cooperation between organizational leaders and associates. OD practitioners also have certain characteristics. OD practitioners are facilitators, collaborators and co-learners, who train organizational leaders, and members, ongoing learning skills, therefore enabling the organization to resolve the own problems.

Part three

Organizational analysis produces the street maps that guide and immediate organizational change interventions. The identification usually is initiated from specific, group, and organizational levels; and explores a more integrated approach to diagnosis suitable for a time of sweeping organizational change. A standard organizational diagnosis usually starts from three different perspectives: (1) macro views of organizations, (2) contributions of people, and (3) management and inspiration in the high-involvement work place. Diagnostic models for company development and emerging organizational firms established the stage for diagnosing ethnicities for realignment and making effective prize systems. The broadening concentration of training needs evaluation and strategic methods for addressing future personnel requirements place the spotlight on real human talent, while diagnostic issues for work clubs stress the growing importance of groups.

In another perspective, organizational prognosis proceeds in three orderly phases: access, data collection, and opinions. The primary objectives of entry are to determine which units of the machine (individual, group, and organization) will take part in the diagnosis also to determine if the client and specialist can reach contract about their respected roles during data collection and opinions. Entry commences with the first face between client and expert and ends with a decision between client and expert stating whether they can work along to complete the diagnosis. Admittance is also a time for data collection, as the consultant begins to learn about the client system through discussions, observations, and the principal objectives of data collection are systematically to gather valid information about the type of your client system and to prepare an analysis of this data for delivery to the client during responses. Data collection starts when the consultant prepares a technique for eliciting information and associates members of the client system to put into action the technique documents.

The primary purpose of opinions is to promote increased understanding of the client system by its people. Feedback typically includes some meetings between your consultant and customer where the consultant presents the data research and the gatherings discuss and interpret the data. In undertaking reviews, consultants "reenter" the system after having been away while they ready the data examination. Client reactions to the feedback and their tendencies during meetings provide another source of data which could confirm or disconfirm the analyses provided in the reviews. Reviews also brings the analysis to completion and possibly prepares for a transition to prepared change.

According to prospects diagnose process; the specialist uses the techniques and theory of prognosis to understand a client system on its own terms, never to impose preconceived methods or conclusions. Each part of the diagnosis will depend on a powerful working romantic relationship between consumer and specialist. Every phase in the process builds on the task of preceding stages. If properly carried out, the methods explained here are self-correcting because each phase provides opportunities to discover and to alter constraints of the preceding phases. For client systems who wish to learn, this strategy provides the opportunity-if it is utilized by consultants who've been thoroughly and properly trained.

Part four

The literature relating to organizational change will fall into one of two main categories, the one that stresses organizational efficiency and the other which stresses cultural change. Within these two groupings a desired final result is emphasized somewhat than creating a clear knowledge of the dynamics of organizational change.

The literature which emphasizes achieving organizational efficiency bases its assumptions on the work of Kurt Lewin. There are two forces which maintain organizational balance: driving causes and restraining pushes. The driving causes are those elements of the business which support a desired organizational change. Keeping the organization in equilibrium are the restraining causes. Change occurs when one of these two forces becomes more robust than the other (disequilibrium). After the change has took place, the business reverts to a new express of equilibrium which reflects the required change. The next grouping of books concerning organizational change targets social change.

Strategic planning interventions.

The proper planning intervention process help to make decisions about where it should work, with whom it will work, and what kinds of providers and products it should support. The tool is made up of four parts. The first project-level section is designed to help the project identify priority areas o fields for implementation of job activities slicing across all areas of the organization. Each one of the other three component-level portions was created to identify priorities for component-specific interventions. Each section is made up of a conclusion tree. This section represents how the decision tree is used to makes options for job interventions. We first determine the universe. The universe of alternatives is placed near the top of your choice tree and then - in sequence - some criteria is put on each choice in the universe. Then, we sequentially apply a list of predefined requirements to each component of the world finally; we have carefully reviewed the outcome of the world mapping process.

2. Structural interventions

Structural interventions, like proper planning interventions, concentrate on different levels in the business. We will look at structural interventions to enhance the potency of individual jobs, groups or clubs, and entire business.

The term "structural intervention" is a member of family newcomer to a longstanding function of implementing changes beyond the individual in order to change organizations habits and final effects. As a result, there remain versions in the precise definition of the word. We first differentiate structural levels of causation from other macro-levels for the reason that structural interventions affect laws, insurance policies, and standard operational procedures executed through activism, lobbying, and changes in insurance policy. Interventions that they review set structural-level intervention with those that are environmental. Besides, we could also portray structural intervention as synonymous with "enabling approaches". There exists plainly disagreement in the restrictions of what may certainly be a structural intervention. Some of the difficulties to find a clear classification of structural intervention are reflections of the multi-disciplinary aspects of organizations, where different theoretical frameworks and conditions refer to similar concepts. In addition, structural interventions may be associated with other levels of intervention either immediately or indirectly.

3. Organizational culture interventions.

The culture of a business is a development of communal development. As people within the business change, so will the culture. By evaluating the existing culture, market leaders and managers can become change realtors to transform a business for the better. Setting up a vision for the future and clearly connecting and employing that vision contributes to success in an organization. Leaders and professionals are responsible for assessing the existing organizational culture and determining positive influences that should remain intact within a cultural change) In addition they are in charge of developing new affects that promote organizational success and deriving strategies for employing changes, including planning ongoing communication. Developing steps predicated on a cultural eyesight that lead to a fresh environment completes the social transformation. Change, however, can be an ongoing process because the ethnical environment is always changing and could require modification as an organization and its management and control ideas evolve. Specific and organizational performance can also be affected by myriad politics influences, which can come from both interior and external sources. Romantic relationships can be developed from and dependant on politics. Changing an organization's environment should coincide with changing problematical political practices. This may mean splitting up old relationships to produce more positive and productive ones. Any diagnosis performed to improve an organization's environment should include possible political ramifications of transformation.

4. Human process interventions

The human being process interventions could be grouped into the pursuing points.

1. GOAL SETTING TECHNIQUES: This change program includes setting up clear and challenging goals. It endeavors to improve company effectiveness by creating an improved fit between personal and organizational aims.

2. Performance Appraisal: This intervention is a systematic procedure for jointly examining work-related achievements, advantages and weaknesses.

3. Compensation Systems: This intervention requires the look of organizational rewards to improve worker satisfaction and performance.

4. Career Planning and development: It generally targets professionals and professional staff and is seen as a means of improving the grade of their work life.

5. Managing labor force diversity: Important styles, like the increasing amount of women, cultural minorities, and literally and psychologically challenged people in the workforce, require a more flexible set of policies and techniques.

6. Employee Wellness: These interventions include employee assistance programs.


As far as I am worried, the metaphors mentioned above strongly direct and support the problems regard to organizational changes. Employee in organization normally won't change since there exists some dread and problems about the learning and helps. Also the organizational examination produces the street maps that guide and direct organizational change interventions. This may give more recommendations and constructive tips to the future management.

More than 7 000 students trust us to do their work
90% of customers place more than 5 orders with us
Special price $5 /page
Check the price
for your assignment