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Justice System PLUS THE Conditions Of Miscarriages Criminology Essay


Cases of miscarriages of justice attended to light in recent years and have become a celebrated issue in the modern culture. Different reasons have been given for this like poor investigative interviewing techniques, court processes and custodial tactics. However, investigative interviewing methods is the most scored as the cause of these injustices, hence, the goal of this article is to observe how these instances of miscarriages of justice have helped in changing investigative interview tactics for better.


An interview is a talk intended to yield information, it is essential to obtain right, detailed and detailed explanations that are abundant with detail from all those engaged within the unlawful justice process; from victims, witnesses, co-workers, friends, neighbours, family and suspects. Interviews are usually non-accusatory; during the course of an investigation the investigator will conduct interviews with all available witnesses and potential suspects. (Milne & Bull, 2003, p. 111)

Investigative interviewing can be an important area of the investigative process for patrol officials, loss prevention realtors, detectives or other researchers. Most information is derived from people, rendering it important to acquire knowledge and skill in interviewing, to be able to get the best of the interview process. The investigator should ask open-ended questions so that they can elicit the maximum amount of information as is feasible. The interview subject matter must do most (75%) of the conversing during the conversation (Reid & Affiliates, 2001). If, during the interview it is found that the subject has lied, the investigator should generally not confront the topic. In most cases it is advisable to challenge a lie during a follow-up interview or once the interviewer has relocated into an interrogation.

Interviews are conducted at different degrees of the investigative process, which range from the initial law enforcement officials interview of an victim, witness, or suspect to an in-court interview in front of a judge or other decision producers. Interviews conducted through the initial period of the authorities analysis are usually the most significant in deciding whether a unlawful case is resolved (Fisher, Geiselman, & Raymond, 1987), especially when there is little if any physical facts and only 1 witness to guide the investigation. At this point in the exploration, there is significant potential to extract extensive, exact information, because the function is still fresh and, hence, relatively accessible in the witnesses' storage. Furthermore, witnesses experienced little time to take into account the event, so their immediate perceptions will tend to be pristine, untainted by later influences. Properly conducted interviews may thus advance the police analysis immeasurably by yielding detailed, accurate data of the offense details. On the other hand, poorly conducted interviews have the potential to distort the witnesses' memories and contaminate the entire investigative process. (Hoffman, 2005)

Among the most crucial traits for an effective interviewer are Empathy, Communication and Professionalism. All three of the characteristics incorporate to send a powerful message to the subject. That's, that the interviewer is an honourable person, who may have every one of the necessary evidence, and truly comprehends the thoughts of guilt within the topic. Empathy is known as an essential feature of a good interviewer.


Empathy is the capability to understand and talk about in another's thoughts (Webster, 1972). Investigators who take up empathy easily identify with other people "see things through another's eyes". An interview or interrogation is a dialogue between two human beings. The topic and interviewer are on an equal basis. Unlike the interviewer, the subject likely does not have any training whatsoever in interviewing. But as a person the interviewee communicates with others at all times and can identify when coping with someone who is insincere. It really is difficult to convincingly offer explanations and understanding to a topic when the interviewer cannot identify with the other person. This might make the interviewer seem insincere and make it difficult to obtain a fair bank account of the issue on earth.


One of the most crucial traits of your good interviewer has been able to communicate excellently. When people speak they use more than words. Tone, inflection, size and pauses are all essential aspects of Para-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication is really as important as what's actually being said. Gestures, posture, hand, eyes and head movements (or absence thereof) are essential parts of a person's non-verbal communication. The interviewer should also take note of the messages sent by the subject's physiological reactions such as skin tone, sweating and respiration. In a few circumstances the interviewer will notice that you can visibly screen the subject's heartrate by watching the carotid pulse. The main communication obstacle for the interviewer is usually to be aware of many of these ways of communication. The interviewer must observe what he or she is receiving and also of what is transferring across. The main of interviewing is communication, but the way the interviewer presents oneself to the topic is the first communication that occurs.


The interviewer should be dressed in a professional manner. The interviewer should put into consideration the subject and the positioning of the interview before making a decision on attire, the interviewer's frame of mind should be professional. No matter the results of the interview, the interviewer shouldn't make sarcastic or disapproving remarks during or following the interview. The interview should start civilly with a handshake and end in the same manner. The ultimate role that professionalism and reliability works in the interview is the focus on detail paid to the confession and assertion. Someone, perhaps the interviewer, spent valuable time preparing the investigation. The investigation document is going to be full of depth and description. Once the subject confesses, the professional interviewer will follow through with producing the confession and taking it in a detailed and accurate declaration.

Investigation is a primary obligation of policing. Given that the interviewing of victims, witnesses and suspects is central to the success of an investigation, the highest benchmarks need to be upheld. In order to do this, pushes need to develop and maintain the valuable tool that the abilities of the interviewers represent. Interviews that are expertly carried out and quality assured can understand several business benefits. Specifically, they can:

Direct a study, which in turn can lead to a prosecution or early on release of innocent person;

Support the prosecution case, thereby conserving time, money and resources;

Increase public self confidence in the Police Service, specifically with witnesses and victims of crimes who come into direct contact with the police.

Conversely, inability to professionally undertake and assure quality interviews can have adverse consequences in conditions of failure to stick to legislation, lack of critical material, unsolved crime, insufficient credibility and lack of self-confidence. The gathering of information from a well-prepared sufferer and witness interview will contribute significantly to the inspection. An effective interview of a suspect will commit these to and bill of happenings that may include an admission. In the admission, the think may detail how the offence was devoted and thus the exploration can become more focused. The worthiness of a properly obtained admission can prove the mens rea of the offence, certainly. (Hoffman, 2005)


The mistakes that arise within the unlawful justice system can be referred to in various ways; the criminal justice system is founded on the presumption of innocence; a legal fiction intended to insulate the individual from abuses of talk about electric power and reduces the probability of a factually innocent person being convicted. In order to cast this defensive net as broadly as it can be, the appellate test needs to be indicated in the neutral term of 'safety'. The press and campaigners have different motivations and usually concentrate upon instances of innocence to be able to attract general population interest and to achieve reform. Regardless of the moral and politics impact of innocence situations, for those who seek to guard the protection under the law of defendants and also to uphold the integrity of the legal justice system, it is imperative to withstand allowing the criminal justice argument to degenerate into contending claims of guilt versus innocence.

Miscarriage of Justice has been defined as "A grossly unfair outcome in a judicial proceeding, as when a dependant is convicted despite lack of evidence on an essential element of the offense. " (Barak, 2007). This classification can be attributed to wrongful arrests, wrongful charges or indictments, wrongful phrases, but most notably wrongful convictions arising from improper and inadequate investigations. Corresponding to Barak, There are two general types of miscarriages of justice which are 'mistakes of anticipated Process' and problems of impunity'. "Errors of scheduled process involve unwarranted harassment, detention or conviction, or unnecessary sanctioning of people suspected of crimes". Problems of impunity refer to a "Lapse of justice that allows a culpable offender to stay most importantly or get away justice for some reason. Error of credited process can lead to mistake of impunity, thus, if one is wrongly caught, convicted and imprisoned for a crime that he/she didn't commit. There is a good chance that the true offender will stay absolve to commit other offences, on the other hand, there is a probability that the true offender will be arrested, convicted and imprisoned for another crime. Both types of mistake can undermine the integrity and legitimacy of the Criminal Justice system.

The origin of most miscarriages of justice can be said to be from the root base, which is the law enforcement agents. The authorities have a big role to play in guaranteeing justice is completed always, however in accomplishing this, proper investigations and interview have to be carried out to ascertain the right facts. There were many celebrated instances and many more of miscarriages of justice, as in the case of Stephen Downing who was simply convicted of the murder of Wendy Sewell in a Bakewell churchyard in 1973. The 17-year-old got a reading get older of 11 and functioned at the cemetery as a gardener, he was made to signal a confession that he was struggling to read by the authorities. The case gained international notoriety as the "Bakewell Tart" murder. After spending 27 years in jail, Stephen Downing premiered on bail in February 2001, pending the consequence of an appeal. His conviction was finally overturned in January 2002.

Miscarriages of Justice highlights the shortcomings of the Offender justice system, it also demonstrates a propensity for police investigators to develop a theory concerning responsibility for a criminal offenses and then to exclude all the avenues for inspection. (Dixon 1999). This may occur as a result of not pursuing up other potential avenues of research or by lively manipulation of data to support the theory. As regarding The Cardiff Three, Steven Miller, Yusef Abdullahi, and Tony Paris who have been falsely jailed for the murder of prostitute Lynette White, stabbed more than 50 times in a frenzied episode in a set above a betting shop in Cardiff's Bute town area on ROMANTIC DAYS CELEBRATION 1988, and jailed in 1990. This was a serious circumstance of miscarriage of justice consequently of poor analysis and interrogation by the authorities officers engaged, the young men were bullied and coerced to falsely confess to a criminal offense they didn't commit, these were charged to court docket with the barest minimum of information and were later cleared on charm in 1992; it had not been until 2003 Jeffrey Gafoor was jailed for life for the murder. The breakthrough was scheduled to modern DNA techniques applied to evidence taken from the crime landscape. Eventually, in 2005, nine retired Police Officers and three serving Officers were arrested and questioned for phony imprisonment, conspiracy to pervert the course of justice and misconduct in public areas office.

Another celebrated case of miscarriage of justice is that of Rachel Jane Nickell (23 November 1968-15 July 1992) who was the victim of a intimate assault and murder on Wimbledon Common, London, on 15 July, 1992. She was stabbed 49 times. On 18 December, 2008, Robert Napper, 42, pleaded guilty to Pass up Nickell's manslaughter on the grounds of diminished responsibility. Colin Stagg experienced earlier been costed and then acquitted in relation to this murder, as there was no forensic evidence linking Mr Stagg to the arena, the police asked legal psychologist Paul Britton to create an offender profile of the killer. They determined that Mr Stagg installed the account and asked Mr Britton to assist in developing a covert operation, Operation "Ezdell", to see whether Mr Stagg would eliminate or implicate himself, an undercover authorities girl using the pseudonym 'Lizzie James' contacted Mr Stagg, posing as a friend of a woman with whom he used to communicate via a lonesome hearts' column. She attemptedto obtain information from him for over five months by feigning an enchanting interest, get together him, speaking to him on the telephone and exchanging words containing erotic fantasies. Believing on the advice of the Crown Prosecution Service that there is sufficient research to convict Mr Stagg, the police arrested and charged him on 17 August 1993 with Miss Nickell's murder. If the case reached the Old Bailey, Mr Justice Ognall judged that the authorities had shown "excessive zeal" and possessed attempted to incriminate a think by "deceptive conduct of the grossest kind". The entrapment information was excluded and the prosecution withdrew its case. Mr Stagg was acquitted in September 1994. This case is a example of a miscarriage of justice from different facets; bad investigative interviewing, ignorance of other leads, bad decisions and mistakes on the part of the police officials. The primary culprit was left roaming around and continued committing offences before he was eventually found for another crime.

There have been tons of other conditions of miscarriages of justice with poor investigative interviewing being the major cause and other factors too. This resulted in the introduction of Judges' Rules which was drawn by Judges in 1912, which was revised over time and added to over time and remained in effect until they were replaced by the authorities and Criminal Information act (PACE) 1984 and the Rules of Practice (Home Office Circular 89, 1978) consequently public outcry involving highly publicised miscarriages of justice (e. g. Guildford 4) in the united kingdom, the house Office is the central administration department in charge of the criminal justice system) and Relationship of Chief COPS (ACPO) developed the investigative interviewing; ethos and Tranquility program in the 1990s Tranquility continues to be the Police Service framework for interviewing. You can find five phases to the Tranquility framework that are:

Planning and Preparation: This includes what to consider when planning an interview, understanding the key goal and the substance of the interview to the situation accessible.

Engage and Explain: This explains how to handle the special top features of getting an interview started, involving the interviewee in the chat, building rapport, preparing the interviewee relaxed and informing him/her about privileges and other legal essentials, and establishing the ground rules.

Account, Clarification and Concern: This deals with the central issue of obtaining the interviewee's bank account, clarifying this and, where necessary, challenging it.

Closure: That is an important aspect of the whole process, a good closure is essential to ensure that there is a common understanding about everything that transpired, it describes the considerations before concluding an interview.

Evaluation: This includes asking questions in what was achieved through the interview and how it fits in to the whole investigation. Analysis also includes the introduction of an interviewer's skill level, through evaluation (self applied, peer and administrator) and reviews.

According to Griffith& Milne (2005) "Most of the identified problems with authorities interviews prior to Tranquility were scheduled to miscarriages of justice linked to wrong confessions". These false confessions were anticipated to bad police interviewing techniques, though following legislative which has authorised compulsory sound tape recording of all interviews with suspects and the right for a suspect to truly have a legal consultant present should avoid a repetition of such occurrences. Miscarriages of Justice also led to the necessity to review police force interviewing initiated under the auspices of the Connection of Chief Law enforcement officials Offers (ACPO) and the Home Office. The Country wide Strategic Steering Group on Investigative Interviewing prevails to guarantee the development and delivery of the most effective interview strategy. Its role is to ensure that a constant and professional way is implemented by the Police Service, which can tolerate judicial and academic scrutiny and has the ability to instil public assurance. The overall aim of the National Strategic Steering Group on Investigative interviewing is:

To provide course on the development of policy, routines and procedures to ensure that the interviewing of victims, witnesses and suspects supports professional analysis. The terms of guide of the Country wide Strategic Steering Group on Investigative interviewing are:

To keep a highly effective dialogue with key stakeholders to ensure high expectations of professionalism and reliability and service delivery.

To screen the potential impact of any changes in legislation and process on interviewing tactics and make advice on further changes as necessary.

To provide advice to ACPO and other key stakeholders on technological and procedural conditions that impact on the professional practice of investigative interviewing.

To make sure that the National Occupational Standards appropriate to investigative interviewing are fit for goal.

To inform the design and development of effective learning and development products that helps the National Investigative Interviewing Strategy.

To determine an effective relationship with the NPIA to develop professional practice and maintain operational support.

The principles of investigative interviewing (NSLEC, 2004, pp. 16-20) which have generally stood the test of time have been modified. The Rules of Investigative Interviewing 2007 are:

The aim of investigative interviewing is to acquire appropriate and reliable accounts from victims, witnesses or suspects about matters under police investigation, accurate information to seek truth and not coercing wrong confessions.

Investigators must respond pretty when questioning victims, witnesses or suspects, prone people must be cured with particular thought all the time.

Investigative interviewing should be contacted with an investigative frame of mind.

Accounts extracted from the person who is being interviewed should always be analyzed against the particular interviewer already is aware of or what can relatively be set up, investigative interviewing should be approached with an available mind.

When executing an interview, investigators are free to ask an array of questions in order to obtain materials which may assist an investigation.

Investigators should recognise the positive impact of an early on admission in the context of the unlawful justice system.

Investigators aren't bound to simply accept the first answer given. Questioning is not unfair just since it is prolonged, the interviewer's work is to get exact and reliable information from an interviewee no matter the amount of times the question is asked, so long as it is performed carefully and not within an oppressive manner.

Even when the right of silence is exercised by way of a suspect, investigators have a responsibility to put questions to them, if the interviewer thinks real truth can be derived from the person involved.

Miscarriages of justice threaten the very basis of a modern culture, because atlanta divorce attorneys liberal legal system, rights and autonomy are paramount. Miscarriages of justice undermines these individual rights which has led to an outcry by world and prompted the required bodies to build laws, regulations and practices to be adhered to in order to avoid further miscarriages of justice due to investigative interviewing and therefore has improved investigative interviewing techniques.


R. v. Downing (2003, March 10) Newstatesman

R. v. Miller, Paris and Abdullah [1993] 97, G. App. R.

R. v. Stagg (1992) SUNLIGHT. Retrieved 3 January, 2011.

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