Posted at 11.29.2018
Keywords: jung mindset, jung theory analysis
Carl Jung was a psychologist and scholar who pioneered the initial field of analytical psychology. The field is seen as a complex and obscure theories that cover various complicated principles, such as spirituality and the symbolic dynamics of personality. A lot of Jung's ideas mirror the abstraction of the concepts that they try to discuss. Despite its ambiguity, Jungian therapy nevertheless reveals the field of mindset with valuable ideas about the individual personality, as well as ground breaking implications for therapy. It really is highly comprehensive, responding to and conceptualizing a great diversity of ideas, such as ingenuity, religion, spirituality, and personality. In addition, Jungian therapy can be successfully in comparison to other varieties of remedy. Its psychoanalytic qualifications provides it many relationships to the theories of classical psychoanalysis and Freudian therapy, while its goals and liberal method of therapy makes it much more much like humanistic remedy. However, several questions come up when inspecting the applicability of Jungian theory to the scientific field of mindset and psychotherapy.
While his complex ideas allow his theories to explore the invisible depths of the individuals mind, his insufficient precise operational meanings for those concepts helps it be difficult for any of his theories to be empirically analyzed. Similarly, many of his concepts are incredibly vague and provide more questions than answers. Nevertheless, despite an evident absence of a scientific base for his theories, the effect Jung has had on the field of mindset and on other areas is undeniable. His ideas led therapists to look to domains such as artwork and music in order to incorporate new and creative methods into remedy that, while more cosmetic than scientific, proved to be quite effective. Among these procedures are dream interpretation, music therapy, and art remedy. It is important, however, to notice that Jungian psychology is not the right strategy for all therapists and clients. Only a particular group of men and women would find Jung's theories appealing and useful. Therefore, its lack of universality can be seen as another important issue. That said, a lot more can be done to check and evaluate the full use of Jungian theory in mindset.
Overall, Jungian theory keeps a confident view of individuals, believing for the reason that they may have the inherent potential to stick out as unique individuals. However, the procedure of individuation is complicated, making a person notice and reconcile conflicts with the unconscious elements of his personality before he can truly individualize. Individuation is the means through which people can perform self-actualization, or self realization. If people cannot individualize, they can never reach self-actualization, which is the ultimate goal of Jungian remedy and, regarding to Jung, it is the ultimate goal of living (Harris, 1996).
The procedure for individuation is very complex and consists of individuals integrating various principles to their lives which may be beyond their current, conscious understanding of the earth. In therapy, there could be two levels, the one which is shallow and the one that is deeper. Inside the first one, your client can experience issues, begin to comprehend it, and then understand how to handle it or even to solve it (Harris, 1996). However, in the next level, the clients look beyond their apparent problems and commence to explore concealed elements of their psyche so that they might not only find a solution to their problem, but so they could also go through a complete transformation process, in which they undergo dramatic changes that permit them to gain deeper meanings in what distinguishes them from other people (Harris). Analytical psychotherapy tries to create a link between your mindful and unconscious so that principles that seem to be illogical could become understandable and interpretable.
Structure of the Psyche
The Jungian view of personality is based on understanding the framework of the psyche. The psyche is exactly what Jung thought to be the entire and total personality of an individual. It's the vessel of a continuing move of energy that goes between the consciousness and the unconsciousness. This energy manifests itself in a person's thoughts, emotions, and manners. The psyche itself consists of many subsystems that are oppositional, yet very interdependent with each other. Those interdependent systems can be grouped into the conscious, the personal unconscious, and the collective unconscious. The conscious involves perceptions an individual is constantly alert to, such as immediate stories, thoughts, and thoughts. (Jung, 1971a).
At the center of the mindful is the ego, which is the conscious' main research point and the psyche's unifying element. It contains immediate thoughts, emotions, memories, and other experiences. In addition, it creates the framework for people's view themselves and their personality (Jung, 1971b). Within the ego is the persona, which is the general public image one allows other folks to see. It's the conscious element of the self applied - usually developed in childhood - that manifests itself in everyday roles at the job, university, and other sociable institutions. Likewise, it reconciles the issue between personal needs and the requirements of population, thus rendering it a mediator (Jung, 1971a). In terms of the goal of individuation, the persona is what hinders an individual's voyage towards that goal. A lot more one concentrates and operates on the communal self applied, the less you can have access to the internal world and so steps further from individuation and self-actualization. Likewise, disregarding the persona by over-focusing on inside experiences leads to social issues and limited knowing of the outside world (Jung, 1959a).
Lying deeper than the conscious is the non-public unconscious, which is made up of material that is repressed or neglected but for the most part it can be easily retrieved, usually with the aid of therapy. Materials in the personal unconscious is exclusive to the individual (Jung, 1971a). Just like the ego is the center of the mindful, the self is the center of the personal unconscious. The home regulates and stabilizes the personality, which is also the mediator between the conscious, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious (Jung, 1959b). The home is also reliant on the other systems of personality, as it cannot until get started to build up until other systems become totally developed, which often happen around middle era. Its development begins when individual starts to be more religious and philosophical, which really is a sign of the blending of the mindful and the unconscious. The home is ornamented by the shadow, anima/animus, and a various complexes, the facts of which will be mentioned after a brief explanation of the collective unconscious (Jung, 1959a).
The collective unconscious is the deepest area of the psyche and is perhaps Jung's most complex and most misinterpreted concept. Unlike the personal unconscious, which includes content that was once in the mindful but then ignored, content in the collective unconscious never been around in the mindful nor achieved it even contain any personal, individual encounters. (Jung, 1971c). Similarly, it was never bought by the individual; alternatively it was inherited from primordial years. It involves symbolic material, such as complexes and archetypes. Jung's basis for the thought of the collective unconscious is situated in the fact that all individuals have got generic images, misconceptions, and icons that are biologically passed on through generations and that are partially in charge of guiding how people think, feel, and take action. The collective unconscious includes concepts such as light and dark, heaven and hell, and birth and death. Though it can't ever be directly utilized by the mindful, the collective unconscious nevertheless occurs in images, visions, and/or archetypes (Jung).
Archetypes and Symbols
Archetypes are designs that contain manifested themselves in a variety of cultures throughout all of record. Jung (1971b) also calling them "primordial images, " particularly because they are so traditional. Certain archetypes, such as the anima/animus and the shadow, have developed so fully that they now stand as separate systems in the personality. They are really supported by common patterns or widespread motifs, making up the essential content of tales, myths, and legends. They start to surface usually in the form of dreams and visions (Harris, 1996). The anima/animus is the masculine and feminine archetype, a thought that is similar to the idea of the ying and the yang. Anima symbolizes the feminine qualities in men, and animus symbolizes the masculine characteristics in women, with the features being those that are stereotypically associated with each gender. A good example would the anima emerging as sensitivity in males and the animus appearing as aggression in females. Jung (1971b) believed that the goal of the anima/animus is the fact that it allows men and women to comprehend and properly connect to an added. This archetype originated from many centuries of males and females living along and dealing with each other's personalities (Jung, 1951b).
The shadow, which was discussed earlier, is an integral part of both personal and the collective unconscious. It's the inside content that is usually repressed to its socially undesirable and uncivil mother nature. The shadow symbolizes the darker and much more evil aspects of the personality that folks usually refuse even exist as a result of strong opposition of society. The shadow occurs in the form of negative thoughts and actions that are rooted in canine intuition. These negativities could be aggression, sexual desire, selfishness, and any traits and attributes that are considered evil by world. In essence, the shadow is the immediate opposition of the persona, the general public image. The shadow from the personal unconscious is usually more easily identifiable and manageable than the shadow from the collective unconscious, which is rooted more deeply (Jung, 1971b). In remedy, the acknowledgment and knowing of the shadow can be an essential part of moving towards the resolution of issues and coming better towards individuation. This acknowledgement, however, is in no way simple, as it comes into conflict with the socially satisfactory and positive image one would like to provide to society. Consciously integrating the shadow into personality is usually the first stage of the healing process (Harris, 1996).
Conceptualization of Conflict
Application to Psychotherapy I: Restorative Process
As discussed earlier, the main goal of Jungian therapy is to help your client come to an increased talk about of self-actualization, or self-realization. This is a continuing process that the average person partcipates in throughout his life time, from youth to past due adulthood, and it never completely comes to end. The idea of self-realization is more ideal than real which is the actual procedure for moving towards self-realization, alternatively than obtaining it, that needs to be the purpose of every individual. Actually, Jung presumed that full self-realization can't ever happen, specifically because self-realization is not real. (Harris, 1996). Sometimes, however, the procedure may be hindered if in childhood a person was raised in a tough environment where in fact the parents were unreasonably demanding. When the self-actualization process is halted, certain personality dysfunctions, such as neurosis and psychosis, tend to form. When in that express, a person doesn't have a balance between the subsystems of his personality. People who come for remedy have either completely lost touch with the internal world or are excessively centered on and preoccupied with it. The therapist must therefore help recreate the bridge between your interior and the outside worlds while still keeping them segregated and avoiding them from merging alongside one another (Dehing, 1992).
The relationship between your therapist and your client is one factor in Jungian remedy that distinguishes it from a great many other strategies. In Jungian remedy, your client is not viewed as someone who needs treatment and the therapist is not a person who is the curer. Rather Jungian therapists are people who help guide other folks to delve into the unconscious and also to create meanings in their lives (Dehing 1992). The therapists are experts because they have got the data of the structure and functions of the psyche, so the therapist can teach, give support, scold, or think about the client's processes and encounters. However, a lot of Jungian therapy would depend on an equitable relationship between consumer and the therapist, and for this romance to can be found, the therapist must reject any emotions of superiority and expert, as well as the desire to affect the client's restorative process. Furthermore, Jung affirmed that the therapists should be equally as equally involved in their own self-realization process as their clients (Dehing).
The therapy process itself includes four stages. Through the confession stage, your client acknowledges his problems and limitations. He becomes alert to both his own weaknesses and the weaknesses of humankind, to which he's unavoidably linked with. That is a cathartic process where transference occurs, and the client begins to transfer thoughts and feelings onto the therapist, thus causing many unconscious elements to come quickly to the surface. This article that is brought to the surface is clarified by the therapist in elucidation, the second stage, where the client discovers about the foundation of his problems. In the third stage, the education stage, the clients learns to incorporate the new meanings and insights he increases from remedy into his personality. In the ultimate stage, change happens are due to progressive changes and dynamics in the client-therapist romance that exceed the environmental world and that create an active activity towards self-realization (Harris, 1996).
Application to Mindset II: Healing Techniques
Overall Jung was hesitant to apply specific therapy techniques, as he thought that they would restrict clients in their process of exploration and self-realization. He does discover, however, that assessments were necessary to become able to find out about the client's record and understand how past conflicts lead to maladjustments (Harris, 1996). Using psychological types was the most important technique for assessment. Jung created an outline of the major attitudes that define a one's personality. Both most fundamental behaviour are the contrasting extroverted personality and introverted personality, with the first characterized as outgoing and public and the next characterized as introspective and shy. While everyone's personality consists of a mixture of both attitudes, there's always one which is dominant and it is in consciousness and the one that is inferior and it is in the unconsciousness. In addition to the attitudes, thinking, sensing, sensing, and intuiting are four major functions that also separate one's personality type (Jung, 1971d).
The four functions are also divided into contrasting pairs, sensing with intuiting and thinking with sense. Sensing and intuiting characterize how one activities and perceives the planet, and intuiting and pondering characterizes how one evaluates their activities. Sensing types perceive the planet by using conscious acknowledgment of what they can see, listen to, smell, touch, and flavour. Intuiting types perceive the world unconsciously through unexplained hunches and arbitrary moments of insight. From there, considering allows one to understand phenomena by way of reason and reasoning, while being allows someone to judge a meeting psychologically (Jung, 1971d). Through the characteristics from the emotional types, later analysts created the Myers-Briggs Type Sign (MBTI), a 166 item inventory discovering a person as an extraverted or introverted type so that as a feeling, considering, intuitive, or sensing type (Ryckman, 2004).
In addition to the using the internal types, Jung also used word associations to evaluate his clients. By using word associations Jung aimed to identify complexes. Clients got to give swift replies to stimulus words by declaring whatever words took place to them. The stimulus words were chosen to be able to energize all complexes that contain been within practice. Times were recorded between the display of the stimulus and the client's response. Any sort of hesitation or problem that occurred was discovered as the fundamental conflict or organic. Upon learning about the complexes the therapist brings them into the conscious awareness of the client so they might be further explored (Ryckman, 2004).
Jungian remedy also contains various exploratory techniques. Included in this the most dominant is desire interpretation.
Relation to Freudian and Humanistic Psychology
Because of Jung's psychoanalytic track record, many evaluations can be produced between his theories and the theories of his modern-day Sigmund Freud. However, when examining the Jungian approach to counseling and remedy, there is a much stronger parallel with the humanistic way, especially with Gestalt remedy. Jung's theories can be in comparison to Freud's on ideas such as personality development, conflict, and the structure of the unconscious. In terms of personality development, both Jung and Freud stress the value of the development of a healthy and stable personal. In Freudian theory that personal is the genital persona and in Jungian it is the individualized personality. However, unlike Freud, Jung did not believe development could ever before have an answer. As stated before, the Jungian concept of personal development is seen as a a constant movements towards self-realization and the consistent balancing of the internal and the outer self. For the most part, this cannot fully happen until all elements of the personality become developed, which is not until adulthood. This varies greatly from Freud who presumed that the bigger part of an individual's personality forms in youth.
Similarly, the two differ in the way they view and conceptualize turmoil. For Freud, psychopathology and other dysfunctions are rooted in negative years as a child and past experience, such as mistreatment or neglect. To be able to handle such encounters, a person builds up various body's defence mechanism, the most common of which are repressions and fixations. These defense mechanisms hinder development in that they do not allow one to effectively complete all the levels of development. Jung, on the other hands, didn't view the unsuccessful completion of the stages of development as the foundation of conflict, partly because he turned down the thought of the phases of development having completion. Issue, in Jungian theory, comes from an interior imbalance between the subsystems of personality. In the same way, unlike Freud, issue is not ignited by way of a traumatic or agonizing childhood event. Somewhat conflict is something that exists in people from the very starting and is an all natural part of personality. The Jungian notion of turmoil can be described in terms of the cosmological idea of chaos. Prior to the creation of the world, there was only chaos. Then in a slow process, order arrived to chaos and the entire world was able to fully form. It is the same with the individual, who begins life conflicted but slowly can gain internal balance and stableness.
It is quite apparent that the Jungian concept of the unconscious is based on Freudian theory. Both ideas emphasize the immense need for the unconscious and its affect on the individual, stating that issues are focused in the unconscious. In Freudian mindset the main unconscious process is the have difficulties between your superego and the id. In Jungian psychology, such battles also exist, mainly in the turmoil between the persona and the shadow. Furthermore, both Freud and Jung divided the individuals brain into three levels: the mindful, preconscious (or unconscious), and unconscious in Freudian theory, and the conscious, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious in Jungian theory. Jung's personal unconscious can be equated to Freud's preconscious. Both levels are deep, but not beyond gain access to, and both contain content that became lost to the mindful. Jung's collective unconscious is similar to Freud's unconscious for the reason that it is beyond the reach of the conscious, but usually manifests itself by means of dreams and symbolic images. However, unlike the Freudian unconscious, the Jungian unconscious is not only composed of repressed aggressions and erotic desires. It really is much more complicated, comprising both personal repressions and archetypal ideas of the greater humanity.
Jungian remedy is connected to humanistic therapy in its goals and approach to therapy, specifically the partnership between the customer and the therapist. In both therapies the ideal goal is the realization and actualization of the do it yourself. In therapy, this goal is achieved by placing strong emphasis on awareness of encounters. Like humanistic therapy, Jungian therapy acknowledges the importance of days gone by, but prefers to concentrate on the immediate present and the impending future. Specifically, previous experiences are just viewed in terms of the implications on today's and future. However, unlike the humanistic procedure, Jungian remedy places more emphasis on unconscious processes and exactly how they have an effect on the conscious. Jungian therapy is also just like humanistic, especially to Gestalt, in the way it views the role of the therapist and the relationship he has with your client. Like Gestalt remedy, Jungian therapy views the therapist as being equal constantly in place and superiority to your client, having know-how only in conditions of experiencing more understanding of psychological functions.
In basic, Jungian remedy and analytical psychology presents quite strong and well reinforced ideas, even while being, at times, sophisticated and ambiguous. The ideas are sound and extensive, covering a wide range of psychological phenomenon. It could therefore be utilized alone, with no conjunction of a different form of therapy. It creates on certain pre-existing theories from traditional psychoanalysis, yet offers a totally different and unique perspective to them, in addition to adding new ideas. Jungian therapy is particularly unique in its firmly philosophical mother nature that emphasizes abstract rather concrete ideas. Such concepts include spirituality, symbolic images, and the connection between the individual, humankind, and the greater cosmos. This unique factor of Jungian remedy may very well be both a durability and a weakness. It really is a strength for the reason that it describes and conceptualizes ideas that are usually limited and then philosophy, despite having such important functions in personal development. Everyone at some point attempts to search for the higher and deeper meanings in life. Jungian remedy recognizes and facilitates this need. However, its philosophical procedure is also a significant weakness. One reason behind this is that it lacks empirical information due to its abstract mother nature. Another reason is that the concepts are extremely complex and require a specific kind of mentality in order to understand them. This makes it difficult for Jungian remedy to be suitable to all clients.
I believe the types of clients that would probably have the most benefit from Jungian therapy are people that can think abstractly and who are incredibly patient. These people view the world in conditions of symbols that are in constant need of interpretation. They need to be keen on constructing meanings of both their own internal experience and the common, macrocosmic phenomena. People who have problems such as severe depressive disorder, personality disorders, and schizophrenia may be greatly helped by Jungian therapy. These are individuals who have lost or were not in a position to find greater meaning in life, thus triggering them to plunge in to the bafflement and chaos that characterizes the mentioned disorders. Jungian therapy would be able to help find that meaning, as well as provide them with a strong conceptualization with their activities. However, clients who prefer a more cement and direct approach to therapy would probably be very frustrated with a Jungian therapist and would probably not be aided by the process. If anything, their condition may only worsen from being overly baffled and frustrated. Clients with OCD, phobias, and other panic disorders should probably be treated with an alternative therapeutic procedure, as Jungian therapy may well not be the most likely technique for them. Therefore a therapist must be careful when choosing to make use of the Jungian procedure. The therapist should first have the ability to determine the client's mentality and determine whether Jungian remedy would be dangerous or beneficial.