Posted at 11.16.2018
The Joint Procedure Planning Process, or JOPP, facilitates planning at all levels as well as for missions across the full selection of military businesses. This planning process applies to both contingency planning and Cover. The JOPP is an orderly, analytical planning process that includes a set of logical steps to investigate a mission, develop, assess, and compare alternative COAs, or training of action, select the best COA, and produce a plan or order.
Step 1: Initiation. The Joint Procedure Planning Process or JOPP begins when the President, SecDef, or CJCS recognizes a potential for military capacity to be used in response to a potential or actual turmoil and initiates planning by deciding to develop military options. The GEF, JSCP, , and related strategic guidance statements serve as the principal guidance to get started contingency planning. Military services options normally are developed in blend with other nonmilitary options so that the President can respond with all the current appropriate tools of national ability. Often in Cover, the JFC and personnel will perform an diagnosis of the initiating directive to ascertain time available until objective execution, the existing status of cleverness products and staff estimations, and other factors relevant to the specific planning situation.
Step 2: Mission Analysis. The principal purpose of quest analysis is to comprehend the problem and reason for the operation and issue appropriate guidance to operate a vehicle the rest of the planning process. A primary awareness for a supported commander during objective research is the countrywide strategic end talk about -the broadly indicated political, military, economical, communal, informational, and other conditions which should exist following the conclusion of the campaign or procedure. The primary inputs to mission analysis are the higher head office planning directive, other tactical guidance, the Joint Cleverness Preparation of the Operational Environment or JIPOE, and preliminary staff estimates. The principal products of mission examination are a restated objective declaration and the JFC's primary intent statement, the Commander's Critical Information Requirements or CCIRs, and planning advice. The figure below describes the key inputs and resulting outputs of quest analysis.
Step 3: Course of Action (COA) Development. A COA contains the following information: which kind of military services action will happen; why the action is necessary (purpose); who will take the action; when the action will begin; where the action will arise; and the way the action will take place (approach to employment of causes). A valid COA will have characteristics defined in the body below. Once a valid COA is developed, the staff turns the approved COA into a CONOPS. COA persistence will contain four most important activities: COA development, evaluation and wargaming, comparability, and acceptance.
Step 4: COA Analysis and Wargaming. The commander and personnel review each tentative COA separately according to the commander's information. COA analysis recognizes benefits and drawbacks of each proposed friendly COA. Wargaming provides a opportinity for the commander and individuals to analyze a tentative COA, improve their understanding of the functional environment, and obtain insights that usually might not have occurred. Based upon time available, the commander should wargame each tentative COA against the most probable and the most dangerous adversary COAs.
Step 5: COA Evaluation. An objective process whereby COAs are considered independently of the other person and assessed against a set of requirements that are proven by the staff and commander. The target is to identify the advantages and weaknesses of COAs so that a COA with the highest probability of success can be decided on or developed. The commander and staff develop and examine a list of important criteria, or regulating factors, consider each COA's benefits and drawbacks, identify activities to overcome disadvantages, make final assessments for feasibility and acceptability and weigh the comparative merits of each.
Step 6: COA Authorization. The staff establishes the best COA to recommend to the commander. The personnel briefs the commander on the COA assessment and the examination and wargaming results, including a review of important helping information. This briefing often needs the form of your commander's estimate. This information could include such factors as, the current status of the joint make; the existing JIPOE; and assumptions found in COA development. The commander selects a COA or forms an alternate COA based after the staff referrals. The nature of the potential contingency will make it difficult to determine a particular end state until the crisis actually occurs. In these cases, the JFC might want to present several valid COAs for authorization by higher power. A single COA may then be approved when the turmoil occurs and specific circumstances become clear.
Step 7: Plan or Order Development. The commander and staff, in cooperation with subordinate and encouraging components and organizations, develop the approved COA into an in depth joint operation plan or OPORD by first growing an executable CONOPS, which evidently and concisely expresses the particular JFC intends to accomplish and how it will be done using available resources. It details how the activities of the joint force components and accommodating organizations will be integrated, synchronized, and phased to accomplish the mission, including potential branches and sequels. Contingency planning will result in procedure plan development, while Cover typically will lead right to OPORD development.
Voice: Planning initiation starts when the Leader, SecDef, or CJCS identifies a potential for military capacity to be used in response to a potential or actual crisis. The primary purpose of the next phase, mission examination, is to understand the problem and purpose of the procedure and concern appropriate guidance to drive all of those other planning process. Next, planners must develop a COA to accomplish the mission. During plan of action analysis and wargaming, the commander and staff assess each COA independently according to the commander's instruction. COA analysis recognizes advantages and disadvantages of each suggested friendly COA. Wargaming offers a opportinity for the commander and individuals to investigate the COA and improve understanding of the functional environment. During COA evaluation, COAs are considered independently of one another and assessed against a set of criteria, that are established by the staff and commander. The goal is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of COAs to select the COA with the best possibility of success. Next, the personnel establishes the best COA to recommend to the commander, which is generally presented in the form of a briefing for approval or further direction. Finally, the commander and personnel, in collaboration with subordinate and encouraging components and organizations, increase the approved COA into an in depth joint procedure plan or OPORD by first growing an executable concept of businesses, or CONOPS. The CONOPS plainly and concisely expresses what the JFC intends to accomplish and how it'll be done using available resources. Frequently contingency planning will cause procedure plan development, while CAP typically will lead right to the introduction of an OPORD.
Title: Contingency Planning
A image is shown, which signifies the four degrees of planning information: 1) Commander's Estimate 2) Bottom part Plan 3) CONPLAN 4) OPLAN. The next content material is shown on the right of the display screen to get the narration:
Initiated by publication of the Instruction for Employment of the Drive (GEF) and the Joint Strategic Functions Plan (JSCP)
Conducted during peacetime
Develops plans for a broad selection of contingencies
Compliments and supports other Department of Security (DOD) planning cycles
Facilitates the move to turmoil action planning (CAP)
Voice: Contingency planning usually begins with the publication of a fresh GEF and JSCP. It is a peacetime process that builds up plans for a broad range of contingencies with apportioned resources. It's performed in a continuing cycle that matches and helps other DOD planning cycles and facilitates the change to problems action planning, or CAP.
Contingency planning is accomplished through four planning levels based on JOPES procedures and instruction.
Title: Contingency Planning Levels
Action: On the left side of the screen is a visual representing the the four degrees of planning details: 1) Commander's Estimate 2) Foundation Plan 3) CONPLAN 4) OPLAN. The next text is included as pop-up bins to the coordinating the different parts of the visual:
Focuses on creating a developed Plan of action (COA)
Provides the SecDef with military COAs to meet a potential contingency
Reflects the supported commander's examination of the various COAs probable contingency
Describes the CONOPS, major forces, concepts of support, and anticipated timelines for completing the mission
Normally does not include annexes or a TPFDD
CONPLAN is an operation plan in an abbreviated format
Requires expansion and alteration to convert into OPLAN or OPORD
Includes a base plan with annexes, as required by the JFC and a reinforced commander's estimation of the plan's feasibility
Produces a TPFDD, if applicable
OPLAN is a complete and detailed joint plan with a full explanation of the CONOPS, all annexes applicable to the program, and a TPFDD
Identifies the specific forces, practical support, and resources necessary to perform the plan
Can be quickly progressed into an OPORD
Voice: Contingency planning encompasses four levels of planning detail with an associated planning product for every single level. Level 1 planning fine detail is the commander's estimate, which focuses on producing a developed COA. These military services COAs enable the SecDef to meet a potential contingency. The aim of Level 2 planning detail is a base plan which describes the CONOPS, major causes, ideas of support, and the required timelines to complete the envisioned quest. This level normally does not include a detailed transportation feasible stream of resources into the movie theater. In Level 3 planning fine detail, the idea plan or CONPLAN is formulated, which can be an operations plan within an abbreviated format. It offers annexes as required by the JFC and the backed commander's estimate of the plan's overall feasibility. The CONPLAN may own an associated time-phased force and deployment data, or TPFDD, if relevant. Finally, the aim of Level 4 planning details is a fully-developed operation plan, or OPLAN, comprising an entire and detailed joint plan with a full explanation of the CONOPS, all annexes required for the plan, and a TPFDD. The OPLAN identifies the specific pushes, useful support, and resources necessary to execute the plan. The OPLAN can be quickly developed into an OPORD.
Action: The next text is shown to the right of the look level detail visual:
The contingency is critical to national security and requires detailed previous planning.
The magnitude or timing of the contingency requires detailed planning.
Detailed planning must support multinational planning.
The feasibility of the plan's CONOPS cannot be determined without comprehensive planning.
Detailed planning is necessary to determine make deployment, work, and sustainment requirements, determine available resources to complete recognized requirements, and validate shortfalls.
Voice: Furthermore, an OPLAN is normally prepared under the next circumstances: if the contingency is crucial to nationwide security and requires specific planning; the magnitude or timing of the contingency necessitates the planning; detailed planning is required for a multinational planning effort; the feasibility of the CONOPS demands detailed planning; or if an in depth effort is essential to look for the levels of drive deployment and sustainment.
Title: Turmoil Action Planning
Action: Some pictures representing Turmoil Action Planning is presented on screen. The next word replaces the pictures when pointed out in the narration:
Planning activities that occur in non-crisis situations; relies heavily on assumptions and projections
Based on facts and real planning as a crisis unfolds
Action: The group of pictures is brought back with additional images put into it and is currently used as a record.
Voice: Because it's difficult to anticipate where so when an emergency will occur, planners must have the ability to rapidly react to problems as they happen. Unlike contingency planning, which prepares programs in anticipation of future situations, problems action planning allows organizers to respond to situations based on circumstances which exist during planning. Crisis action planning procedures parallel contingency planning, but are more versatile and responsive to changing occurrences. In time-sensitive situations, the JPEC practices formally established Cover procedures to change and implement previously prepared contingency strategies by changing them into OPORDs or even to fully develop and execute OPORDs where no useful contingency plan is available.
Title: Problems Action Planning Activities
Action: In the background is a graphic representing the actions associated with crisis action planning. When pointed out in the narration, the equivalent parts are outlined.
The graphic shows a visual labeled "Event, " immediately under a package labeled "Situational Understanding. " Boxes continue in two rows, demonstrating a linear series connected by arrows in a zigzag structure. An arrow tagged OPREP-3 PCA points from Situational Understanding to Decision. An arrow included in a document labeled "Warning Order" details to COA Development. An arrow labeled "Commander's Estimate" details from COA Development to COA Selection. An arrow covered by a document tagged "Planning or Alert Order" factors from COA Selection to Detailed Planning. An arrow labeled "Operations Order" items from Detailed Likely to Plan Authorization. An arrow covered by a document tagged "Execute Order" items from Plan Endorsement to Execution.
Graphic bands at the top divide the visual into three portions. Situational Awareness exercises across the whole screen, long lasting throughout the procedure. Planning covers COA Development, COA Selection, Complete Planning, Plan Authorization, and Execution and the intermediary products. Two arrows over the bottom, labeled "Prepare to Deploy Order" and "Deployment Order, " extend over the same region as the Planning band. A group tagged "Execution" extends from close to the end of Plan Endorsement through the Execution activity.
Voice: Cover activities are similar to contingency planning activities; however, Cover is based on powerful, real-world conditions somewhat than assumptions. CAP procedures give the rapid and effective exchange of information and research, the timely preparation of military services COAs for thought by the Leader or SecDef, and the prompt transmission of the decisions to the JPEC. The precise flow of the methods is largely dependant upon the time available to complete the look and by the importance of the problems. The following steps summarize the actions and connection that occur during Cover.
When the President, SecDef, or CJCS opt to develop armed service options, the CJCS issues a planning directive to the JPEC initiating the development of COAs. Next, a WARNORD is issued that describes the problem, establishes command connections, and recognizes the quest and any planning constraints. In response to the WARNORD, the supported commander, in cooperation with subordinate and encouraging commanders and the rest of the JPEC, reviews existing joint OPLANs for applicability and develops, analyzes, and compares COAs. Next, the feasibility that existing OPLANs can be customized to fit the precise situation is set. The CJCS then reviews and evaluates the supported commander's estimate and suggests a COA selection. On acquiring your choice of the Chief executive or SecDef, the CJCS issues an Alert Order to the JPEC to announce the decision. The supported commander then produces the OPORD and promoting TPFDD using the approved COA. The reinforced commander then submits the completed OPORD for agreement to the SecDef or Leader via the CJCS. Finally, in CAP, plan development goes on after the President or SecDef makes a decision to perform the OPORD or to go back to the pre-crisis situation.
Title: Campaign Planning
Action: The following bullet point list and offer from Joint Publication 5-0 are shown on screen, plus a picture representing marketing campaign planning, in support of the narration:
May commence during contingency planning and continue through CAP
Primary way combatant commanders achieve unity of work and guide planning of joint operations
Operationalize combatant commander movie theater and efficient strategies and integrate steady-state-activities, including current procedures and security co-operation activities
Require the broadest strategic concepts of procedure and sustainment for obtaining multinational, nationwide, and theater-strategic objectives
A marketing campaign plan describes how a series of joint major procedures are arranged in time, space, and purpose to achieve proper and operational aims. - Joint Pub 5-0
Voice: It's important to notice how plan planning relates to the two types of joint procedure planning. Joint procedure planning and planning for a campaign are not independent planning types or procedures. Plan planning may start during contingency planning and continue through Cover, thus unifying the entire process.
A marketing campaign plan "describes how a group of joint major operations are arranged with time, space, and goal to achieve tactical and operational aims. " Campaign planning is, the burkha means by which combatant commanders arrange for strategic unity of work and through which they guide the planning of joint functions within their theater. Campaign ideas operationalize combatant commander theater and efficient strategies and integrate steady-state-activities, including current businesses as well as security assistance activities. They might need the broadest proper concepts of operation and sustainment for reaching multinational, national, and theater-strategic goals.
Title: Types of Campaigns
Action: History image shows combatant command AOR map of the world. The following text is proven to support of the narration:
Global Campaign-Encompasses proper targets on multiple AORs. Several recognized GCC possible and competing requirements for travelling, ISR property, and specialized devices and equipment. The Global Conflict on Terrorism is an example of a global campaign.
Theater Campaign-Focuses on activities of any reinforced combatant commander. Accomplishes strategic or operational aims within a theater of conflict or theater of operations. Procedures DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM comprised a movie theater marketing campaign in the 1990-91 Persian Gulf Discord.
Subordinate Campaign-Describes the actions of the subordinate JFC, which accomplish (or donate to the fulfillment of) tactical or operational goals in support of a global or theater advertising campaign. Subordinate JFCs develop subordinate marketing campaign plans
Voice: You can find three basic types of campaigns, which fluctuate generally in opportunity. A global campaign is one that requires the fulfillment of strategic targets in joint operations in multiple areas of responsibility, or AORs. In cases like this, there could be more than one reinforced geographic combatant commander, or GCC. Planners must be aware of competing requirements for probably scarce proper resources, such as vehicles and ISR assets, as well as special and unique items and equipment, such as special operations and tankers. Global promotions will often build the strategic and operational construction within which theatre and subordinate promotions are developed. The "Global Warfare on Terrorism" is an exemplory case of a marketing campaign that spans all AORs.
A theater advertising campaign encompasses the actions of a reinforced combatant commander. It accomplishes strategic or operational goals within a theatre of warfare or theater of operations, generally within the backed commander's AOR. An OPLAN for a theater plan is the functional extension of any commander's theater strategy, and translates theater strategic concepts into unified action. Adjacent combatant commanders may carry out supporting businesses, within the AOR of the backed commander or within their own AORs, under the overall way of the backed commander. Functions DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM comprised a movie theater campaign in the 1990-91 Persian Gulf Issue.
A subordinate plan describes the actions of a subordinate JFC, which complete, or donate to the accomplishment of, tactical or operational targets in support of a worldwide or theater marketing campaign. Subordinate JFCs develop subordinate marketing campaign strategies, if their assigned missions require military services operations of substantial size, complexity, and length of time and cannot be completed within the construction of an individual major joint operation. Subordinate campaign strategies should be constant with the proper and operational direction and direction produced by the recognized JFC.
Title: Campaign Plan Design
Action: A collage of images representing Advertising campaign Planning are shown on display screen. The following word is shown to get the narration:
Mostly artwork, not science-no easiest way to develop campaign plans
Requires pondering creatively to make best use of resources to accomplish objectives
Involves Operational Art-the employment of military causes to attain proper and/or operational aims through the look, business, integration, and carry out of strategies, promotions, major businesses, and battles
Voice: Marketing campaign planning is relatively unstructured in comparison to contingency and turmoil action planning. Advertising campaign planning is mainly an art, not really a science; there is absolutely no set recipe or best way to build up a campaign plan. It needs a thorough knowledge of adversary and friendly capabilities, forces, and methods, as well as "out-of-the-box" thinking and creativity in order to make the best use of resources to achieve the desired aims.
Because marketing campaign planning is mostly fine art, it is inextricably linked with operational art, most notably in the design of the operational strategy for the campaign. Operational art identifies the employment of military forces to attain tactical and/or operational aims through the design, corporation, integration, and conduct of strategies, campaigns, major businesses, and battles. This is generally an intellectual exercise based on experience and judgment.
Action: A diagram is show to stand for the three key elements of functional design in the following narration. The diagram shows: "understand the tactical instruction, " bracketing the first and second degrees of the diagram, that happen to be "national proper objective"s with "conditions (results)" branched underneath; next level is "identify critical factors" which mounting brackets level three in the diagram, "centers of gravity"; finally, "develop an operational" idea is the last section bracketing "actions" under the "centers of gravity" boxes.
Voice: You can find three important elements of operational design. First, planners must understand the tactical advice from the civilian leadership. This involves determining what the required end point out is and what has to be completed militarily to make it happen. Once planners understand what military conditions must are present to achieve tactical objectives, they must regulate how to result those conditions. The main element to the is identifying the adversary's critical factors-their talents and tips of vulnerability, called Centers of Gravity (COGs). Finally, the planner must develop an functional concept, which describes the series of activities and the application of forces and features necessary to neutralize or damage the enemy's COGs.
Title: Joint Air Estimate
Action: Around the right of the display, operational airpower images are shown. The next text message and footer are shown on the departed of the screen in support of the narration:
Culminates with the creation of the Joint Air and Space Functions Plan (JAOP)
May be used to aid deliberate and crisis action planning
Voice: We've mentioned joint procedure planning in an exceedingly basic sense, but how does the Joint Drive Air Component Commander (JFACC) accomplish his specific responsibility to develop the air and space portion of the Joint Force Commander's (JFC's) marketing campaign plan?
The Joint Air Estimation Process is a six-phase process that culminates with the creation of the Joint Air and Space Businesses Plan (JAOP). The JAOP is the JFACC's arrange for integrating and coordinating joint air and space businesses. It courses the occupation of air and space functions and forces from joint push components to perform the missions assigned by the JFC. A Joint Air Estimation Process may be used during contingency planning to produce JAOPs that support Operation Programs (OPLANs) or Concept Plans (CONPLANs). It may also be utilized during problems action planning in collaboration with other theater procedure planning.
Title: Joint Air Estimation Process
Action: The next wording is shown to get the narration:
Joint Intelligence Planning of the Operational Environment (JIPOE) is initiated; JFC's quest and instruction analyzed
JIPOE processed; Friendly and adversary COGs are examined to aid in COA preparation
Advantages and disadvantages of each COA are identified
COAs are compared to predetermined criteria to recognize best career options
Staff briefs recommended COA to JFACC
Selected COA developed into JAOP
Action: A link to Joint Publication 3-30 is provided in the bottom of the page. Each of the bold word above are linked to the following pop-up word:
Mission analysis is crucial to ensure comprehensive understanding of the duty and subsequent planning. It results the Joint Push Air Aspect Commander's (JFACC's) mission statement which includes the "who, what, when, where and why" for the joint air procedure. Anticipation, prior planning, and a trained staff are critical to a well-timed mission analysis. Personnel estimates produced during mission examination are continuously revisited and kept up to date during the course of planning and execution.
The first two tasks of situation and plan of action (COA) development are increasing and refining the initial JIPOE completed in Period I and COG evaluation. Expanded JIPOE is essential to developing and studying both enemy and friendly COGs. That is especially crucial for air and space planning given the point of view and opportunity of air and space procedures. The third activity is the development of friendly COAs. Air and space organizers develop substitute COAs by varying the ends, ways, means, and risks. The operational targets normally fill the what assistance for COA development; the supporting tactical objectives, effects, and jobs help define the how for organizers. Once planners identify the targets and supporting effects, they further refine potential air and space COAs based on the priority, collection, phasing, weight of effort, matched up resources, and analysis criteria. The result of COA development is a minimum of two valid COAs or an individual valid COA with significant branches or sequels. The final step is a risk examination of the COA in conditions of both functions and battle support
COA analysis requires wargaming each COA up against the adversary's probably and most dangerous COAs. Wargaming is a noted "imagine if" session of activities and reactions designed to visualize the move of the challenge and assess each friendly COA. Wargaming is a valuable part of the estimation process because it stimulates ideas and provides insights that might not often be found out.
Comparing the COAs against predetermined criteria provides an analytical method to identify the best occupation options for air makes/capabilities. This starts with the JFACC staff comparing the proposed COAs and figuring out the talents, weaknesses, benefits and drawbacks of each. This is followed by rating each COA centered upon the founded criteria.
COA selection starts when the personnel presents their suggested COA (usually in the form of a briefing) to the JFACC. This briefing includes a summation of the estimation process that resulted in the recommended COA. Based on the quantity of JFACC engagement throughout the planning process and the amount of parallel planning the commander accomplishes, COA selection will change from choosing among alternatives to direct approval of the staff-recommended COA.
The JAOP details the way the joint air effort will support the JFC's overall Procedure Plan (OPLAN). The JAOP accomplishes the next: integrates the work of joint air and space features and forces; recognizes objectives and duties; identifies measures or indicators of success; makes up about current and potential adversary COAs; synchronizes the phasing of air and space businesses with the JFC's plan; implies what air and space capacities and forces must achieve the targets.
Voice: While the stages of the Joint Air Estimation process are offered in sequential order, focus on them can be either concurrent or sequential. The stages are integrated and the products of each phase are checked out and verified for coherence.
The Process begins with Mission Evaluation. This first stage incorporates: an initial Joint Intelligence Planning of the Operational Environment (JIPOE); an evaluation of the higher headquarters mission; and the direction provided by the JFC with a target upon deciding the specified, implied, and essential duties in order to develop a concise quest statement. Through the second phase, Situation and COA Development, the JIPOE is processed and the id and refinement of friendly and opponent Centers of Gravity (COGs) is achieved. Potential friendly COAs are developed and risk evaluation of the COAs is performed. Advantages and disadvantages of every COA are determined in the third phase, COA Evaluation. The fourth period, COA Comparison, requires the contrast of the COAs against predetermined criteria, providing an analytical solution to identify the best employment options. Through the fifth period, COA Selection, the staff presents the recommended COA usually by means of a briefing for agreement or further information. The final process is to build up the Joint Air and Space Procedures Plan (JAOP). JAOP development is a collaborative work of the Joint Push Air Element Commander (JFACC) staff, the JFC personnel, and the component staffs.
Action: Music has in the backdrop while the narrator speaks. Screen presents images and text used throughout the lesson to bolster the narration, highlighting specific elements as they are mentioned.
Voice: This lesson has provided you with a synopsis of joint procedure planning. We reviewed who is involved in joint operation planning, what systems impact its development, and the types of joint procedure planning. In peacetime, the procedure is highly set up to develop completely coordinated, complex planning possible contingencies. In crisis, the process is adapted to emphasize versatility and rapid response. Though these processes are extremely different, they are interrelated.
Essentially, joint operation planning supplies the link between strategic targets and the tactical operations needed to achieve those objectives. The movie theater commander imparts his eye-sight of how to arrange related operations to achieve national strategic objectives to his component commanders who, in turn, develop plans to support the countrywide strategy by integrating the possessions under their command word. Throughout the Joint Air Estimate process, the Joint Force Air Element Commander (JFACC) personnel, the Joint Push Commander (JFC) staff, and the component staffs develop the Joint Air Procedures Plan (JAOP), which leads the career of air and space capacities and pushes from joint push components to accomplish the missions allocated by the JFC.
As you've seen, joint procedure planning is essential to assisting our countrywide security strategy. Your support in the development and execution of these plans is essential to ensure that air and space capacities and causes are properly used in support of nationwide objectives.