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Islamic Ethics - An Analysis

Keywords: islamic business ethics, islamic management ethics

This term newspaper was titled Ethics from Islamic Point of view which is including a morale and akhlaq. This paper was conducted because to give awareness about the key of ethics in Islamic point of view. Suitable with the documents aim's whereas to provide some of information and knowledge from an Islamic perspective about the ethics which is moral and akhlaq aspect. The newspaper is sufficient to provide the audience a feel for its potential to encourage further research in the area of resolving ethical issues, specifically for individuals who are contacting for universal moral ideas to avoid moral imperialism. The Islamic perspective of the ethics principle should be refers predicated on the Holy Qur'an from the God and Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad. The ethics concept it must be generally rather than too bias for others. The findings of this paper, it can be as a talk, it is because the Islamic Work Ethics has economic as well as moral and akhlaq dimensions.

Keyword: Islamic point of view, ethics, Islamic Work Ethics, moral and akhlaq

INTRODUCTION

This newspaper was discuss about the ethics notion from the Islamic point of view, so it should be create an axiom system that faithfully reflects the Islamic view of ethics. The axiom system here is means by a proposition that either not proved or proven but considered undeniable, or at the mercy of a choice, so, the truth is assumed and became the starting point for concluded to the reality to another. This is an essential first rung on the ladder in determining the guidelines of economic behaviour in an Islamic world. The Islamic view of life functions is uniquenot limited to its predominant emphasis on honest norms, but also due to its being "complete". However, to carefully turn it into an functional tool of clinical analysis, an ethical idea must be reduced to a set of axioms, which is value to Islamically valid rules of communal and economic behaviour.

1. 1 The idea of Ethics, Moral and Akhlaq

The idea of ethics, moral and akhlaq it can be in various point of view from many sources of our readings. Moral behavior is an order predicated on a value system of a particular society. More ethics associated with science or philosophy, since it is the typical of good and bad it is human intellect. When compared with the morals, the ethics more theoretical while the moral is the useful. Moral more local or special nature and the moral is more to general.

There is many term that use by philosophers in order to give a meaning of akhlaq. But, we can conclude it, akhlaq is a lot related with the moral and ethics so much so have a judgment that stated akhlak is suggest by moral and ethics. Put simply on that, Akhlaq is identifies the nature patterns that had on each individuals. It is includes tendencies or nature had by natural as feeling irritable, quick to laugh, irritability and so on. Also includes in this explanation, a person belonging patterns through training, education, willpower and fitness to be a flesh and bloodstream figure and good familiarity to someone. Furthermore, akhlaq is more identifies our natural practices.

A while before, in the european traditions, morals studies is definitely exists and spread out before the birth of Islam and it known as 'ethics' or 'moral' knowledge. In facet of etymology, the word of 'ethics' and 'moral' have a same interpretation and also refers to the same field of review.

In briefly, 'moral' is derived from the Latin word, meanwhile the term 'ethics' comes from the Greek term. The both of term are related to the sensible activities associated with behavior, customs, standards of living, ways of thinking, independence and the trend of any person in participating in an activity. On the other hand, the word of akhlaq was provided by the Muslim that predicated on the al-Quran and al-Sunah. On Islamic perspective, the ethics and moral was different from the idea of conception, aims and resources, it is called as Akhlaq.

1. 2 Current related issues

Ethics is usually defined by the written code of ethics. In the centre East few organizations and occupations have written rules of ethics (Mudawanat Alsuluk) and violation is the norm alternatively than exception (AMAN, 2006). Behaviors that conform to those written codes of ethics are believed ethical and whatever violates the written standards is known as unethical.

From that situation, it can be simply, people are not too concern about all of this subject, when they speak about ethics, they usually do not remind about the moral and akhlaq. This is because, they are establish their mind, the term of ethics just use available or information technology such as computer convenience. Being a Muslim, they also needs to think about this moral and akhlaq.

In addition, the new code ethics was create, which is the Islamic Work Ethics (IWE). This viewpoint was create to orientation that forms and affects the involvement and involvement of believers at work. It means that work is a virtue in light of someone's needs, and it is a necessity for establishing equilibrium in one's specific and sociable life (Nasr, 1984). IWE views work as a way to further self-interest economically, socially and psychologically, to sustain sociable prestige, to move forward societal welfare and reaffirm beliefs. The concept has its origin in the Quran and the sayings and practice of the Prophet Mohammed.

METHODOLOGY

In completing this term newspaper, the secondary literatures are used to enable in depth understanding of ethics from the Islamic perspective with the moral and akhlaq theory. The supplementary resources which is from readings on a book and the web pages, therefore the major instrument that is used is literature review. Based on the reading, this topic has many references in a Malay writing, but there is no problem on that, after read in Malay and understand the content, the term newspaper writing has been persisted.

By critiquing the literature, everything will be paraphrased based on the understanding. The reference to literature review that is used is article journal about the Islamic ethics that can be obtained from the online journal databases gain access to.

Another method requested concluding this term paper is data collection from the net web page and it is just for online backup information if there any lack of data collection. Strategy that were used in concluding this term newspaper is understands from the readings and critiquing from the materials obtained and understand it.

DEFINITIONS AND Ideas OF ETHICS FROM ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE: MORAL AND AKHLAQ

There are various definitions of ethics, moral and akhlaq. The various definitions are created from various reading materials, such as reserve and article journal, so there exists many opinions from the philosophers. Ethich from Islamic perspective tend to be more concern to the faith action, code and ethics.

Islam is supposed to be a complete way of life. A Muslim is bound by Islamic rules and hence is obliged to follow the instructions as prescribed in the Quran and Hadiths. Islam is a faith based after the surrender to God (Allah). The name of the faith, al-Islam in Arabic, means submission and peace, for this is within submitting to God's will that human beings gain peacefulness in their lives in this world and in the hereafter. Islam is known as to be always a comprehensive religion and its own ethical system is known as to be one of the major ethical systems. Realize about the value of establishing an honest system in the all fields, especially at our present time which is witnessing an ever increasing honest problems, several specialist organizations have well prepared rules of ethics to be complied with by associates of those organizations.

By generally, in Islam, ethics have two sizes; first ethics toward Allah, the inventor. A Muslim has to have confidence in Allah and must worship Him. The second is ethics toward others; lady business person has to deal ethically with others by keeping good treatment and good relationship. This newspaper is of essential importance because people have no idea sometimes what is ethical unless they review ethics. Ethics offer an essential basis for business deals (Cherrington and Cherrington, 1995, p. 1). They are essential for organizational success and are necessary for interpersonal relationships.

3. 1 Explanation and Concept of Ethics

Ethics is thought as a branch of school of thought that deals withmoral behavior. Morality identifies whether something is right or wrong, good or bad. Although morality is a intricate concept, it can be defined in conditions of both means and ends. Means is the procedure which occurs, while Ends identifies the results (Cherrington and Cherrington, 1995, p. 2). Ethics may also be thought as:

[. . . ] a organized inquiry into the beliefs we have and the management we make about what is morally right or wrong and morally good or evil. It really is an inquiry that efforts to answer the following questions: What sorts of do are morally right or incorrect? And what things are good and what things are evil?

(Cherrington and Cherrington, 1995, p. 2)

Ethics is also defined as the code of moral principles that sets specifications of good or bad, or right or wrong habit (Schemerhorn, 2008, p. 32). Honest behavior is what's accepted nearly as good and right instead of "bad" or wrong in the context of the governing moral code.

Islamic ethics is thought as the code of moral ideas that are recommended by the Quran and Sunnah (Hadith or sayings of Prophet Mohammad). Islamic ethics is dependant on logical methods as well as revelation. Revelation provides the truth which logical methods lead to understanding and gratitude of fact. Hence, Islamic ethics is based on tawheed, or unity concept, which determines the unique relationship between God and man; man and man; and man and his environment (Alhabshi, 1993, p. 83). Inside the Islamic culture, the word that is mostly associated with ethics is described in the Holy Qur'an as Khouloq (Beekun, 2004, p. 2). Allah in the Quran has referred to Prophet Mohammad as a Prophet of good ethics.

3. 2 Explanation and Idea of Moral

According to Peter Baelz (1977), morals and ethics frequently have the same so this means. However, is very useful if we could distinguish between your both of these, even though we often failed to make such a difference. While the N. Capaldi, E. Kelly and L. E. Navia (1981) stated that. In form of etymology, the British words 'ethical' and 'moral' is exactly same. Because of that, the study of ethics and moral really just one which is a same.

The moral issues are sensible issues, however, not all participate in the practical issues in neuro-scientific ethics. It is because, moral more specifically examine the good and bad, right wrong and how individual should react in a specific situation. Therefore, moral was refers to disciplines knowledge that investigate the various about the individual behavioral. Like the opinion that written by J. L. Mackie (1971):

moral and ethics can examine the once action whether that is right or wrong; it is provides a clear line of distinction about serves and of an internal disposition, whether good or bad; or at least, have the ability to develop a understanding of ethics guidelines that can be adopted to make various moral of judgments.

3. 2 Description and Idea of Akhlaq

According to Mohd. Nasir Omar, (2010) on his publication, Akhlaq is refers to the nature, practices, customs, familiarity, values №№and lifestyle of the individual or band of individuals. Actually, idea system or religion by the person also often included under the definition of akhlaq by many researchers. It is because of faith greatly affected the thinking and lifestyle of the average person (Ibn Manzur t. t II: 1244-1248 and Jamil Saliba 1971, I: 49).

While relating to Ibn Miskawayh (1966), akhlaq is identifies the situation that sorts in a human being which is function as a executive ability that was directed that folks by doing all his habits. Many philosopher was agreed with that assertion that akhlaq related with the disposition that induce in a person (al-nafs/heart) of a human. Spiritual dimension of the problem is very important because it is the cause of all serves done by humans.

Therefore, akhlaq is will not make reference to the function of good or bad done by a person, but to someone religious dimension pressing to do an take action, whether good or bad. Akhlaq is located in the inside of human's spirit and in the at the same time, the action are refers to the exterior is manufactured №№from morality. Hence, a good moral will of course realize that good deeds and vice versa.

PRINCIPLES OF ISLAMIC BUSINESS ETHICS

According to Hanafy and Salam (1995), categorised ethical guidelines of Islam into six categories, which is: truthfulness, trust, sincerity, brotherhood, science and knowledge and justice.

Principles of Islamic Business Ethics

  • Justice
  • Science and knowledge
  • Brotherhood
  • Sincerity
  • Trust
  • Truthfulness

In order to obtain a pleasure from the Almighty, as a Muslim, it is should be followed this six principle of Islamic ethics by doing all the business or activities in their daily life.

TRUTHFULNESS: Truthfulness is a simple ethical value of Islam and this is of Islam itself is, in a way, the other name of real truth. There is no scope for cheating, revealing lays, swearing too much, and providing phony advertising in the Islamic framework of business.

TRUST: Trust is another important ethical theory of Islam and the substance of the trust is the sense of acountability, which is the sense of experiencing to appear before Allah S. W. T and also to account for one's action. All of the activities were conducted well in no case harm or affect the society or the environment.

SINCERITY: Islam attaches great importance to the sincerity of intentions and actions atlanta divorce attorneys walk of life. For example such as ethical code brings about more efficiency and a higher rate of output. Sincerity also discourages manipulation or exploitation of others for personal reasons.

BROTHERHOOD: Islam declares all human beings are brothers to one another wihout the distinctions of race, colour, tribe, caste and vocabulary of a person or group. Everyone is eligible for an ethically right habit regardless of distinctions of caste, creed, race, or territory.

SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE: Islam makes it obligatory for Muslims to seek knowledge and acquire quality in performance. Research and development is highly prompted in Islam. It such matter about research and knowledge in the Islamic code of ethics has been highly productive for Islamic civilisation in the past.

JUSTICE: Justice is undoubtedly a prerequisite of business and trade as it encompasses the entire whole series of real human life. The whole universe is dependant on the idea of justice and balance. justice here means that each you need to be cured as he or she deserves, with no undue pressure or discrimination.

CHALLENGES IN ENCOURAGING ISLAMIC ETHICAL Conducts AMONG INFORMATION / IT PERSONNEL

Muslims' unethical action is affected by several factors, such as stage of formal development, personal ideals and personality, family impact, peer influenceand etc.

The challenges in Encouraging Islamic Ethical Manners Among Information / IT Personnel

CHALLENGES

EXPLANATION

Stage of moral development

The lunatic, the sleeper and the child before puberty not responsible for their behavior.

Personal value and personality

One who strains honesty will respond in a different way from those who do not respect others' protection under the law. The locus of control also influences individual ethical action (Robbins and Coulter, 2005, p. 112).

Family influence

The home is the destination to start being truly a good Muslim. Children are likely to be ethical if indeed they see their parents and other members of the family consistently stick to high specifications. In Islam, it is easier for a parent or guardian to teach his kids what's right (halal ) and what's incorrect (haram) than to instruct them guidelines and key points of good carry out and action.

Peer influence

Children are affected by actions of their peers with whom they have interaction. Islam urges people to be very selective of peers as they have very big effect on companions. This coincides with the Arabic proverb "Birds of the feather flock along" or "One is known by the company he keeps".

Life influence

Key incidents like taking part in Alhajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) for example has a positive impact on Specific tendencies. As the Qur'an areas: "Whoever would go to Hajj comes home from his voyage innocent and real and white by your day of birth".

Situational challenges

It is the situation that sometimes makes one behave unethically, as the only path out. For instance, a secretary may rest when responding to a telephone as the only path to carefully turn away a customer. She may simply rest by expressing that the administrator is not in the office while he is in reality in. On many situations, the researcher has discovered many Muslim secretaries give up their jobs only to avoid being compelled to notify such lays. However, lying is suitable in Islam under three conditions: first, in wars; second, to resolve conflicts between people; third, partner resting to his partner or vice versa for the sake of getting closer to each other and conserving the marriage, e. g. declaring "I love you" although it is the contrary (Hadith), or "you will be the most beautiful female on the planet". All of this is intended to strengthen the ties between couples.

Societal challenges

People try to conceal unethical behavior and always justify their activities as being honest to be able to please associates of population. In Muslim cultures, society places much pressure on individuals to practice wasta, so a supervisor may have to deviate from the guidelines and restrictions of the business enterprise to be able to please a cousin, a friend or a neighbor. Similarly, wasta is considered as moral and legal, e. g. in handling issues, while on the other side, it can be viewed as illegal and unacceptable when it can be used to override founded laws and traditions, e. g. in obtaining mementos like jobs.

In Muslim ethnicities, a entrepreneur is more concerned about what others might think of his decision than what he thinks himself.

Table 1: The problems in Encouraging Islamic Ethical Behaviors Among Information / Information Technology Personnel

(Source: Abuznaid, 1990)

GUIDELINES TO ADDRESS THE Issues IN ENCOURAGING ISLAMIC ETHICAL Actions AMONG INFORMATION / IT PERSONNEL

In Islam, Allah stresses the following ethical guidelines as being discussed in the Holy Qur'an. These suggestions govern the Islamic code of ethics associated with a person's lifestyle and business dealings. Muslims are needed at all times to respond islamically because Allah himself is enjoying their techniques. In response to these issues, several recommendations are proposed as follows:

Be patient. Islamic people shouldn't get angry and really should not be annoyed (Holy Quran, XXV:63) and (Holy Qur'an, III:134).

Be fair and just. A Muslim business person needs to be fair and just in all his dealings. He needs to be fair along with his employees; he has to give good wages and must be good and kind with animals when slaughtering them (Holy Quran, II:278-279).

Be humble. Being humble is the contrary of being arrogant. Being humble is a superb attribute of Muslims. Business people should be humble and down to earth (Holy Qur'an, XXVI:215).

Be complacent. Being complacent is another attribute of an Muslim. Muslim business people should be satisfied with what Allah has allocated them. To Muslims complacency is not the foe of progress as the Western views it.

Be good. Being ample is the opposite to be stingy. Alkareem is actually one of Allah's impressive names indicating being nice. Alkaram (generosity) is another feature of the Muslim people. They must be generous in providing money and goods to the needy. Islam urges people to give legal alms or obligatory charity (Az-Zakat). Az-Zakat is an ordinance prescribed by Islamic rules. Community responsibility is another important theory in management practices. Sadaqat (donations), not obligatory, are very much urged in the Holy Qur'an (Holy Qur'an, LVI:77) and (Holy Qur'an, XLIV:17, 26).

Be dignified. A entrepreneur in Islam shouldn't indulge in purchases that are not Halal. Halal is the contrary of Haram. Halal is honest while haram is unethical. Types of haram earnings for woman include trading in liquor,

Be trustful (Al Amaneh). Being trustful means supplying privileges to others. For instance, if you borrow some cash from someone, you are likely to come back it at the arranged time at no interest. An excellent loan with no interest is an example of Islamic financial dealings (Alkird Al hasan) (Holy Qur'an, XL32) and (Holy Qur'an, IV:58).

Be friendly. Muslims should be friendly and united at all times. No discrimination is out there among Muslims, irrespective of nationality, gender or color. The only difference between Muslims should be on the basis of piety (Holy Qur'an, XLIX: 10, 13).

Be equitable. Collateral is the opposite of injustice. A Muslim manager should be equitable. In Islam people should be cared for rather and with equity.

Do not be involved in fraud. A Muslim business person should treat others the same manner he himself wish to be cared for (Holy Qur'an, XVI: 90, IV: 58).

Do not bribe. The practice of a myriad of bribes is forbidden in Islam (Holy Qur'an, II: 188). However, there must be differentiation between sadakat (donations), gift items, and bribes. Presents are encouraged in Islam because they help gain a friendly relationship. The prophet motivates the use of gifts stating "Give more gift items which means you be better liked" (Hadith). Bribes on the other hands are unethical. Bribes are being used to affect decisions. You can find two types of bribes: the "lubrication" bribe and the "white mail" bribe. The white email bribe generally consists of a more elaborate system for concealing the utilization of large amounts of corporate cash. This sort of bribe can be used to buy effect in high places (Abuznaid, 1990, p. 319).

From these key guidelines rules of ethics, we can conclude that Islam is a faith of high-moral requirements. Muslim people are urged in Al Qur'an and Al Sunnah to follow certain concepts and suggestions.

(Source: Abuznaid, 2009)

CONCLUSION

As stated above, the main reason for this term paper is to go over the meaning of ethics from an Islamic perspective. The research has described Islamic management ethics as those guidelines and principles that are recommended by the Holy Qur'an and sunnah (hadith). The paper has give description on the major determinants of specific ethical action in Islam and pinpointed based on the moral and akhlaq. Besides that, the newspaper has outlined a few of the ethical key points which is the principles of Islamic business ethics. This paper has also discussed the issues in pushing Islamic ethical behaviors among information / it staff. It further helps non-Muslim people become more aware of management ethics within an Islamic environment giving them an improved understanding of the subject, thus rendering it easier for them to carry out all the activities within an Islamic culture. However, it must be mentioned that there is not one united form of applied Islamic teachings among different Muslim countries. It really is well known that Middle Eastern countries have become more active in the global market by applied their ethics. Additionally, this newspaper has layed out major commonalities between Islam and other religions about ethics from the Islamic point of view. Although this paper has presented the idea of ethics from Islamic point of view, hope all the Muslim are along applied all the ethics that derive from the al-Quran and al-Sunah to be a great humans. Therefore, it is the duty of most researchers enthusiastic about this issue to build up this knowledge. May Allah offers information in this new endeavour.

REFERENCES

8. 1 Book

Dr Muhammad Sharif Chaundry. (2006). Social and Moral Code of Islam. Batu Caves, Selangor: Masterpiece Publication Sdn. Bhd.

Khaliq Ahmad. (2007). Management from Islamic Perspective: Rules and Routines. Kuala Lumpur: International Islamic College or university Malaysia Press.

Mohd Nasir Omar. (2010). Falsafah Akhlak. Bangi, Selangor: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Syed Nawab Haider Naqvi. (1990). Etika dan Ekonomi: Satu Sintesis Islam. Kuala Lumpur: Berita Posting Sdn. Bhd.

8. 2 Article Journal

Muhammad Arham. (2010). Islamic Perspective on Marketing. The Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 1 Iss: 2 pp, 149-164.

Salam Abdallah. (2010). Islamic Ethics: An Exposotion for Resolving ICT Ethical Dilemmas. The Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in Society, Vol. 8 Iss: 3 pp, 289-301.

Samir Ahmad Abuznaid. (2009). Business Ethics in Islam: The Glaring Space in Practice. The International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Funding and Management, Vol. 2 Iss: 4 pp, 278-288.

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