The issue of ethnic and ethnic conflict will always be an intriguing issue to dwell on since both these issues have compelling impact in the wonderful world of security, more so they have increased steadily following the end of the frigid war. Ethnic issue remains an issue that should be handled the right perspective in order for us to find the solutions to defeat any misconceptions that include it. More often than not, in discussing the paramount issue of ethnic conflict, we have a tendency to be misguided with what can be constituted as ethnic issue or whether it could be associated with racial issue collectively. On the same note, we can not run from the fact that the debate of ethnic/ethnicity correlates with conflict, thus the essential concern comes up: is cultural conflict inevitable? In this particular relation, this essay of mine would be concentrating on the standpoint that ethnic conflict is not unavoidable, and the next pages would hopefully show the relationship of certain aspects and perspectives that could build the grounds to support my debate.
What is ethnic conflict?
To help us understand more on what is supposed by the word ethnic conflict, first of all it is essential for all of us to have the ability to understand this is of cultural first. As for this, let us look into the definition distributed by Horowitz (1985:17-18): "ethnic communities are defined by ascriptive variations, if the indicium is coloring, appearance, language, religious beliefs, some other sign of origins, or some blend thereof. " Over a different angle, ethnic can also be defined as an organization of people who show the same inherited cultures and the way of life and are not inspired by biology factor (Macionis 1998:215), in which folks from the same ethnic group would thus have similarities with respect to language, religious beliefs and ancestry. Out of this point of view, case in point would have to be the previous Yugoslavia, using its three ethnic communities namely the Serbians, Croatians and the Bosnians. From physical types of appearance (in conditions of contest), all are similar but, in a true sense they may have distinctive attributes from the areas of language, culture and faith. Having said that, it might be a bit challenging to try to define this is of ethnic discord. There are of course different university of thoughts and theories related to the connotation of 'ethnic conflict'. Some say that the word ethnic turmoil or ethnic warfare should not be coined by any means on the pretext that it's being instigated by certain quarters of combatants or communities that intended to fight and wipe out with respect to a particular entity or specific (Mueller 2000). To some extent this essay partly stocks the same sentiment with Mueller's argument. However on an identical note, this article feels highly that ethnic conflict carries with it the notion of prejudicial attitudes and activities by the designed states, constituents and political stars, whereby the long embedded series of injustice and feelings of oppressions and dissatisfactions escalades into functions of resentments and rebellions. Therefore, it will probably be worth mentioning that this essay at the same time opposed strongly to the theory that ethnic turmoil is derived from more than 100 years of hatred between religions and tribal unconformities.
In conferring the essential part of the term ethnic conflict, this essay shall establish the common grounds between cultural conflict that occurred in the ex - Yugoslavia and also in Rwanda. This is somewhat crucial in aligning to the theory that ethnic conflict is nonetheless not inevitable, whereby eventually it can be avoided if certain policies or strategies were to be integrated or being put in place. If we go through the Balkan areas, the scenario is different with a complex background and shrouded with interwoven factors of record, ethnic buildings and prejudice. One of the chief explanations why conflict (alternatively ethnic conflict) occurred in the past Yugoslavia is due to their indisputable cultural diversity and also the take action of upholding one's position quo amongst the ethnics. The circumstance is mind-boggling, whereby in a comparatively small country, there are four types of indigenous dialects and three religions, which connect mutually with cultures from seven bordering countries, but however, having five different citizenships in the autonomy of Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Croatia. Nov the communist routine in 1980 acquired witnessed the Serbs, Croats and the Muslims to be entangled in cultural discord in the 1990s. Within this relation, this essay firmly stood to the idea that the turning point that escalades and geared the Balkan claims to be entrenched in a horrific conflict is none other than the act of political actors who chose electricity over humanity. Following the show up of Socialism, the introduction of the extra radical Slobodan Milosevic possessed worsened the circumstance. Milosevic always echoes the agenda of 'national question'. The expected plan contemplates the suggestions to unite all the Serbs in a single particular country, to be free and segregated from the non-serbians (Reidlmayer 1993). The domino result that employs from that dreadful agenda led to the Albanian minority being outcaste from Serbia. Chains of incidents also witnessed the 'ethnic cleansing plan' in which the Bosnians were killed and chased away from their homes, women being raped and men were sent to detention camps. On top of that, we can easily see the ultimate purpose of Milosevic whereby he persistently make an effort to broaden and augment the effect and superiority of the Serbs in specific strong areas of education, economy, armed forces and politics throughout Yugoslavia. By the end of your day, it boils right down to the creation of unjust allocation of prosperity and socio-economy disparity. To create matters most severe, the economy and arms embargo by the west led by the united states and the European Community had ended up being in favour to the Serbs leading to the deterioration of ethnic issue in the past Yugoslavia (Fogelquist, 1995).
Moving to strengthen the essay's argument, why don't we shift the concentrate to the ethnic conflict that occurred in Rwanda which acquired catapulted the awful genocide in 1994. It really is a favorite simple fact that the ethnic discord in Rwanda was between the Tutsis and the Hutus, through which the Hutus were the prominent side. If we go through the history part than it, the clash between them correlates with the facet of colonialism. During that time, when the Belgians and the Germans colonised their land, the minority Tutsis had received the chance to obtain education and opportunity to be absorbed in to the express administrative. However, this plan or action had been deemed as unjust by almost all Hutus. Hence, led to socio-economic inequality and kept a profound scar based on the relationship among the ethnics. Moreover, the Hutus had been left out in terms of development and being less favoured. The defining point in time came in 1961, when the Tutsis received the nationwide election which had triggered uproar from the Hutus. Eventually it experienced culminated into an awful ethnic conflict between the two ethnics and nearly a million life perished (Neil Weiner 1994).
Based upon the conclusions and information given in the above mentioned just to illustrate, this essay shall furnish several key factors that become a catalyst for cultural turmoil to transpire. Nonetheless the following factors might are different between different countries. To begin with, this essay is convinced that the root principle for any ethnic conflicts to manifest itself different views or treatment being given to a people or individual with a different group of people/individual. After that, a possible cultural conflict could happen if certain quarters of individuals have the idea that the color of your skin, differences in civilizations, religions and interpersonal class can be put as a benchmark to differentiate interpersonal class or position in a contemporary society. Relatively speaking, discrimination is also a harmful medium that would escalate into ethnic conflict.
This essay also opines to the actual fact that the establishment of ethnic/race based organisations would cause more injury than good in a way that they only open their door to individuals from their own ethnicity and generally they only struggle for the rights and importance of the people/cultural they are representing. The results for having these types of organisations would certainly be a negative one indeed, demonstrating how great an impact of ethnicity that can happen within a modern culture. At the end of your day, ethnic-based organisations/societies can be exploited to diverge themselves and also to be polarised in a negative course of echoing one's ethnic superiority.
Another fundamental factor is the visible cultural diversity which contributes to the improvement of 'position quo' aspiration among ethnics. By having this kind of aspirations, the key part of countrywide integrity is often being neglected; hence stress among ethnics would be growing gradually. As continuity to the previous point, it will probably be worth talking about that the elites often manipulate ethnic or racial sentiments to gain political mileage or personal agenda by deceiving or spinning hypersensitive issues. As reported in this article Leave None to share with the storyline; Genocide in Rwanda, Man Protection under the law Watch (March 1993): "This genocide resulted from the deliberate selection of modern elite to foster hatred and dread to keep itself in vitality. This small privileged group first placed the majority contrary to the minority to counter an evergrowing politics opposition within Rwandathese few power holders altered the strategy of cultural section into genocide".
The electric power of the media is also one of the intrinsic elements that are worthwhile outlined in scrutinising the issue of ethnic conflict. In Rwanda for example, the radicals, political celebrities and the set up mass Medias utilized the vulnerability of ethnicity as equipment to gain and assess popular support so as to exclude political competitors (Aapengnuo 2010). The mass media takes on a pivotal role in escalating the tension of ethnics, due to the fact people tend to believe from what they listen to or to what they are reading from, without seeking for the reality beyond it. This is the nasty simple fact of the media.
In any cultural conflicts or clashes, noted across the world, from the previous Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Sudan, Sri Lanka, just to name a few, they all talk about the same outcome; deaths, devastation of properties and sociable instability. Many innocent lives perished and the bitterness of the ram would always linger to prospects subjects of the traumatic experience. The next details are views of this essay, to insinuate that ethnic conflict in a specific country can be prevented by putting into action several strategies, new plans and corrective steps. One of the potent actions is by eradicating poverty holistically, with no favours towards any race and ethnics. In line with this, restructuring of the world must be achieved to reform the economical imbalances among ethnics. Therefore, ethnics shouldn't be labelled or restricted to specific settlements and market activities. Quite simply, in any societies on the planet, common interest with just treatment between ethnics/contest should be placed above the interest of certain group.
The second solution that should be addressed in a significant manner is undoubtedly the flexibility and rights of individuals. In this relationship, human rights or the individual rights should be assured by the constitution. Through this noble way, the creation of the just society would take place and every specific would be given equal rights, treatment and chance to savour the riches of their land. Consequently, the syndication of riches should be achieved accordingly with no oppression against any other ethnics. To materialise this, any Politics Organisations or Societies founded on the grounds of ethnicity should be abolished. Instead, a coalition of multi ethnic's politics company should be embraced and fostered to set-up an company with common grounds and mutual understanding between associates.
The education systems also play a role in upholding calmness and unity in a multi cultural country. With knowledge comes electric power, thus a holistic education system which includes good worth should work a catalyst to bind the younger generation with the same nationwide agenda to create a sense of belonging towards their country. Through education, unity and understanding can be nurtured; so that it would eventually eliminate the egocentric of one's ethnic. Early recognition is also the main element to enough time spreading of cultural stress from becoming uncontrollable and difficult to address with. Clamping down the original stage of cultural tensions is a more viable and useful way, more over it is less expensive (Aapengnuo 2010). To make this as a possible method, the diligences of federal government officials / workforce is very critical in carrying out their duties responding to the claims, grievances and resentments out of every ethnic group. If the people at large is content with how the authorities deals with their claims or unhappiness, any risk of strain and flame of ethnic stress would consequently be covered.
This essay thinks firmly to the theory that ethnic turmoil is not unavoidable, in a way that it can be prevented from happening or the growing of it can be avoided. This essay also conveys two cases in point, namely the issue in Yugoslavia and in Rwanda to be able to give a clear perspective on what is meant by cultural conflict and its own causal effects. This article also intend to conclude that in any recorded ethnic issues, a majority of them, if not all, have similarities on the contributing factors that led to the clashes. It really is doubtlessly true that cultural discord is a intricate matter to deal with. The problem lays within the myriads of historical aspects of politics, economy, cultural class and background. From the politics point of view, the question or alternatively the condition of ethnics can't be separated from the idea of distinguishing between the majorities and the minorities. In conditions of market, unequal portion of the current economic climate cake will instigate or ignite the flame of ethnic turmoil. The same would go to the dissimilarities in civilizations, spoken languages, religions and accepted norms; each one of these are also adding factors, which would get worse the situation if they are not to be dealt appropriately.
Amidst all the arguments and perceptions, cultural conflict can be prevented if certain pro-active methods and constructive policies are being put in place. In looking for an idealistic country, of course there will be different point of views in achieving the planned goal. The dissimilarities of opinion amongst ethnics might be influenced by the truth of politics and the modern culture itself. But again, it is up to the folks of any multi-ethnic country to make a mature decision whether to let their country to be engulfed in issues or whether to reside in unity with similar rights to every citizen. So, is ethnic conflict inevitable? The answer is no