Posted at 10.31.2018
Psychologists have always wanted to quantify the complex notion of cleverness. Therefore, IQ lab tests have been used to measure human intelligence. However, whether these lab tests really measure complicated notion of real human intelligence or whether it is all about performing well over a standardized test is debatable. This paper aims to have a position that IQ tests are not correct to measure a person's intelligence by exploring the concept of "intelligence" and studying IQ test alone.
IQ assessments were produced by Alfred Binet, the France Psychologist, to distinguish amidst children with high and low intellect, where the later could discover additional educational pursuits. Predicated on a report of education for special students, commissioned by the French government, Binet was quick to acknowledge that children with low intellect will probably disrupt classes with regular questionings and plea to replicate the lectures aggravating children with normal aptitudes. Binet, therefore, with a groundbreaking approach in evaluating the mental potential created Binet test, which later continued to be called as the IQ test. It had been based on the data accumulated from the chosen test, he generated a standardized test which is usually to be "the percentage of the 'mental years' to 'chronological age', with 100 being the common"(Binet 1903).
Since then, these standardized checks based on numerical, logical and vocabulary skills have been considered valid to measure a person's intellect. But what is intelligence? Is numerical, logical & language skills sufficient to quantify it? Do these standardized exams produce standardized results? Are these checks valid? For the eye of quality, each question shall be dealt individually.
The notion of Intelligence
The proponents of IQ testing only take literacy and numeracy to be brains. Therefore, to them it is focused on cognitive capabilities. Hereby, we increase two questions. First, cleverness is an ambiguous word which is not defined then, paradoxically speaking, how can we say that IQ testing assess someone's intelligence when it is unclear as to what constitutes as brains? The 1920s journalist, Walter Lippmann said:
"We can not measure intelligence whenever we have not identified it (cited in N. J Stop & G Dworkin). "
Second, even if we specify intelligence, would it only encompass cognitive capabilities? To this why don't we briefly check out the several ways it has been described. Regarding to Webster's dictionary, "Intelligence is a capacity to understand and comprehend interpretation, media and information. " In lay down man's term it identifies skills necessary to face lifestyle challenges. This means intelligence is a wide term which is more than literal or numerical logic and reasoning. With such an understanding, creativeness, personal traits & characteristics, encounters, emotions, capability to adapt to the surroundings, style of socializations etc become a fundamental element of intelligence which continue to be untested. Answering a set of questions involving numerical, logical and vocabulary understanding within an IQ test only gauge the academic facet of intelligence.
Dr Howard Gardner (1983) developed the idea of multiple intelligences. This theory identifies 8 different types of intelligences namely, linguistic intelligence, reasonable mathematical brains, spatial intelligence, bodily kinesthetic brains, music intelligence, social intelligence, intrapersonal cleverness and naturalist intellect (Gardner, 1983). If Gardner's theory is usually to be taken then your IQ test simply falls brief to quantify this spectral range of brains. Therefore, IQ lab tests are limited in their scope as they can rarely measure traits that are integral to the classification as cleverness.
If we consider the purpose of the IQ test, desire to was entirely to gain low aptitude children with extra academics help. Hence, IQ results are reliable in figuring out children with good mental reasoning & terminology and not calculating brains. Alfred Binet (1903) himself said:
"The size, properly speaking, does not permit the way of measuring cleverness, because intellectual attributes are not superposable and for that reason cannot be assessed as linear surfaces are assessed. "
Standardized test & Standardized result
IQ lab tests being standardized in characteristics believe that everyone commencing the test will perform on identical basis irrelevant of the environment. But critics say that if is certainly is the case, then let's they produce regular results? It is because these lab tests don't look at the environment where these are being undertaken. It ignores the comfort level such as resting posture, lightening in the area etc. It also ignores the stress which beat students when taking the test for they are uncertain about the procedure of the test. In addition, it does not track record the biasing aftereffect of the instructors on the test takers. These factors are likely to have an impact on performance hence the IQ rating, then how can these exams be a precise measure of brains?
False Impression of Intelligence
Proponents of IQ exams put such weight in it thinking it to be valid. But this validity is usually to be really questioned in two ways. First, how can it be valid when we don't agree after the type of the intelligence?
Second, even if we agree on the type, are they reliable enough to verify validity? However, the test lack evidence to demonstrate its validity. Also, it fails to look at the factor of training; the more you practice the test more the probabilities to score higher. Improved skills and better schooling lead to good IQ results that are not taken into account by the test. These lab tests, therefore neglect to consider such factors supplying a false impression about the reliability of brains.
As the IQ is "the ratio of the 'mental get older' to 'chronological years' they may be comparative academic estimate of intellect of an individual using its peers. Therefore, the test is about the ability to succeed within an organization. Aswell, IQ testing are time barred. It is all about the amount of questions answered within a placed time. Therefore, it establishes mental attentiveness than intelligence, for latter is about thinking not quickness of thinking.
Considering, IQ testing to be an accurate measure of definite intelligence is really flawed. These exams are limited in scope as they do not measure all areas of intelligence. Neither these are valid nor including the environment. Totally speaking, they test only cognitive abilities for predicting how one will perform academically. Therefore, if someone struggles to succeed in the test should not be considered as unintelligent.