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Introduction To Trade Union

According to the Central Information Office (CSO) there remain 535, 500 employees on the Mauritian labour market in the first quarter of 2012. These personnel are the human being resource of our own country and they deserved to be cured as valuable advantage. However, in our lucrative oriented era, where the quest for profit triumph over the human rights and freedom of the workers. A huge selection of workers have no say in their working conditions; most are helpless before the managerial level, others are intimidated, or dismissed when their basic purpose is to prone the human rights of freedom of connection, collective bargaining and professional democracy.

On this basis, it has been nothing a coincidence to understand the surge of trade union actions and understood that these movements had been on the perpetual alert and are continuously fighting because of their members to make the human right prevail before profits. The history of Trade Unions is a brief history of challenges for greater public justice and against tyranny, both in societies and at the workplace. The necessity for Trade Union in our country begun with the Industrial Trend, where the surge of factories and the deskilling of labour resulted in staff seeking security through collective bargaining contracts. Trade Unions in Mauritius operate within the construction of the Industrial Relation Act 1973 (IRA).

Of course, these trade unions around the country have the same purpose and goals which is the welfare of the workers. Haniff Peerun the leader of MLC confederation told us that:

"Mauritius Labour Congress being a Confederation always considers to it that labour regulations are reputed and that workers' privileges are respected". On the same basis, Mr X innovator of the National Trade Union Congress informed us that; the role of his organisation is to "help promote and protect the rights of personnel in the country".

Trade unions give employees a number of important privileges that they might not otherwise possess as individuals. This is the reason why trade unions need to guard that their determinations to defend their labours match the efforts of managers looking to destabilise the employees. Furthermore, psychological agreement and employers- employees' romance is also taken into consideration, by assisting in the stream of communication as well as renegotiation through collective bargaining.

1. 2 Goals and objectives

This investigation will concentrate on the role and responsibilities of Trade Union motions in our country and the scope to which they are effective and effective in both the public and private sector.

The four specific objectives of this review are:

Evaluate the understanding of usefulness of trade unions as well as its availability in private sector as well as general public sector.

Assessing the employees' intention to count on Trade Unions and gauge the measure of satisfaction in a Union's member perspective

Investigate the methods employed by the Trade Union movements to discuss better working conditions, for negotiation, control and securing financial benefits.

Finding out the way the Trade Union package with certain crisis that arises at work and the concrete engagement of the Trade Unions because of their members

1. 3 Backdrop of study

Mauritian development assurances to promote benchmarks of living for its population by causing a greater efficiency through the diffusion of know-how as well as modified methods in exploiting equipment and the human resources, superior specialization, improved usage of credit and capital as well as cheaper goods and services.

At once, policies, laws and regulations and functions were amended for the welfare of the citizen, for illustration the Industrial Connection Action 1973 or employment rights work 2008. However with the only real vision of earning the united states a world- wise competitive one, little importance is directed at the concrete implementation of those laws and regulations on a regular basis. On that basis, Trade Union movements were launched in Mauritius, to be able to tone out the individuals' protection under the law.

The chief concentrate on of the task is to identify the potency of the roles and duties of trade unions inside our Mauritian system. It briefly examines the progression of these movements in the country, by heading back on the very start. In addition, a point out of the intervention of the Trade Unions in our various sectors and how their concrete actions donate to their associates. The document will also enlighten the functions and importance of trade union in the Mauritian context as well as providing reasons to enrol as a Trade Union member. Studying the different issues face by the Trade Unions such as the recent PRB issue, Labour laws, respectable work, living condition among others, in the point of view of the trade unions, federation and confederation. Evaluating the old managerial style to the new one, the newspaper will also bring emphasis on why the level of popularity of Trade Union has diminished. An overview into the future role of trade union will be discussed in order to see if these actions will avoid the major changes of globalization as well as financial crisis.

As several students, we applied a top-down, quantitative approach to our research, which allowed us to analyse the many roles of trade unions in Mauritius, as this was considered the most likely method for studying the topic; we examined the hierarchy of trade union; Confederation, federation and lastly Trade Unions. We discovered the Mauritius Labour Congress as the main Confederation, the National Trade Union Congress and the Mauritius trade Union labour as federation and different other trade unions that are associated to the federation. Sticking with the idea of interviews and surveys, our observations were pooled to provide a broader plus more exact representation than that provided by the sole investigation technique.

Chapter 2: Jobs and Obligations of Trade Union

2. 1 Meaning of Trade Union

Trade Union is identified in the Employment Relations Action 2008 as

"a link of individuals, whether documented or not, having as one of its items the regulation of employment relations between staff and employers"

The Trade Union or Labour Union activity is a continuing and voluntary relationship whose membership comprises of salary earners, employees and union leaders. Those members have bonded jointly motivated by a straightforward motto "Unity makes strength". Employees will therefore utilise trade unions as their representative tone when dealing with employers or on the table of directions.

Independently, the workers do not carry the energy to defy the very best management. Therefore they grouped and seek to institute their conditions and conditions of employments. If they realised that negotiating as an individual, the manager would be more powerful, due to the fact that an individual would not subject as much a group in regard of working an organisation.

According to Cunnison, "Operate Union is a monopolistic combination of income earners who stand to the employers in a relationship of dependence for the deal of the labour and even for the development, and that the general reason for the association because of this dependence is to enhance their capacity to discount with the employers"

The main role of trade union is to guarantee the welfare of its customers such as safeguarding the interests of its users, protecting the dependability of its trade, reaching higher salary by securing monetary benefits. In addition, it optimises the working conditions at the work area and guarantees a job security while safeguarding users against unfair dismissal at work place.

Through its authority, trade union engages in collective bargaining, whereby labour contracts are negotiated with the employers. And yes it serves as a recruiting director, the Union leaders interfere with the recruitment and selection of the company, its purpose is to maximise the amount of employees an company can employ the service of.

2. 2 Hierarchy of Trade Unions

There is a hierarchy in Unions, we had determined; the confederation, the federations and the trade unions. About the confederation, there are one main which is Mauritius Labour Congress and it is associated to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU). Inside the category of federation there are; National Trade Union Confederation (NTUC) which is affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) and the Mauritius Trade Union Congress (MTUC). Finally, the trade unions that happen to be associated to the NTUC; The Federation of Civil Service Unions, Federation of Progressive Unions, Federation des Travailleurs Unis, Confederation Mauriciennes des Travailleurs, Standard Individuals Federation and Federation of Free Staff.

Confederation: The Mauritius Labour Congress

The MLC is the largest registered and regarded central firm of workers in the country. It had been created in 1963 from a merger of the Mauritius Trade Union Congress and the Mauritius Confederation of Free Trade Unions. It represents over 45, 000 members through its 56 affiliates, which immediately and indirectly protects 125 specific trade unions. The MLC was the initial national confederation associated with the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) representing staff from practically all areas such as Glucose Industry, Civil/Public Service, Para-statal Bodies, Aviation, Docks, Banking, Insurance, Tea, Transport, Hotel and Tourism, EPZ, Local Regulators and the private sector.

We acquired an interview with Mr Haniff Peerun, the president of the confederation who advised us that the perspective of the organisation was to guard the privileges of personnel on the labour market. Regarding to him, the aim and goals of his trade union were:

Adequate salary reimbursement to be paid to workers

Make proposal to the government on budget

To train the trade union customers and affiliates

To raise their voice whenever the protection under the law of employees and consumers are on the line.

Federation: The National Trade Union Confederation

The Country wide Trade Unions Confederation (NTUC) is a nationwide trade union middle in Mauritius and is affiliated with the Confederation. Which have two primary affiliate marketers in the name of Federation of Civil Service Unions, and the business of Artisans' Unity. It is made up of 20 associates who symbolize all types of workers within the public sector and its members are organised in branches, each branches having an professional committee, consisting of a chief executive, secretary and a treasurer.

The Eye-sight of the confederation which includes been determined after an interview with the leader of the organisation came out to be:

To be considered a respected partner and a reference in trade unionism

To be at the forefront of change, leadership and sound professional relations.

Moreover, relating to him the aim and targets of the Union are:

"Our main aim is to maintain mobilisation in our participants and also organise those whom we symbolize. We also aim to help to make the public service more attentive to the needs of individuals"

: Mauritius Trade Union Congress (MTUC)

The Mauritius Trade Union Congress (MTUC) is a nationwide trade union centre in Mauritius affiliated with the International Trade Union Confederation. It was founded by Emmanuel Anquetil in 1946.

It comprises of 29, 000 users and is also have Mr Dewan Quedou as president.

2. 3 Framework of Trade Union

The trade unions structure is split into several parts, namely:

The Total annual Delegates Congress

It is the power which governs the federation.

The Executive Council

It consists of one representative of each affiliates which is usually the secretary or the president and the Bureau members and two observers per affiliate marketers. Once every 8 weeks they conduct conference regarding applications for affiliates from trade unions and affiliation of the Federation to any local, regional or international organisation promoting the interest of the personnel also to discuss disagreements between different affiliate marketers. Interacting with can be scheduled on the demand of the President or the Bureau or of the participants of the Professional Council too.

The Bureau

It consists of the President, the General Secretary and the eight elected users. Among them, is the very first Vice leader and another is the 2nd vice leader, a 3rd as Helper Treasurer and a fourth one who is the organising secretary.

President

He signifies the Federation and he is the spokesman of the federation.

General secretary

The Standard Secretary arranges conferences and draw up the minutes of the conference. Along with the Basic Secretary, Deputy General Secretary and the Associate General constitute the Secretariat of Federation.

Treasurer

He is in charge of the accounts of the federation.

Organising Secretary

He is in charge of organising incidents like training sessions, seminars, workshop among others.

Public Connection Officer

He deals with the press for conferences, coverage, reports and other information that will be shared by the mass media.

2. 4 Mother nature and Range of Trade Union

The existence of any influential and recognised trade union is a pre-requisite to the professional development pace of the country. With modernization in various sectors and the forming of new one such as the technical one as well as the tourism sector, human resources were required.

However, mistreatment of the Mauritian labour make appears. That's where the trade union surfaced; they ensured that the human being rights of their associates are respect as per the laws and regulations and the constitution.

Trade Unions are currently regarded as a sub-system which attends a precise sub-groups interest. When defending a specific sector they consider themselves as a fundamental element of the organisation in respect to the feasibility, expansion and development of the community which they created part of.

The affect of Trade Unions is of key importance for their members in the next ways:

First, they can be far better and useful when the necessity of negotiation is necessary between employers and employees by attempting to make a win-win situation.

They help in the flow of communication between personnel and the management, by providing the guidance and support to both of them.

The Union leaders will seek a health insurance and safeness in the working environment.

In addition, they also act as an educational institution; they provide different kinds of courses with their members.

They also speed up the tempo of economical development for case; they act as a recruiting and selecting agent for the unemployed workers, managing conflicts in the company, inculcating corporate communal responsibilities to the people among others.

2. 5 Targets of trade unions.

The main body of your trade union usually includes individual staff, sometimes specialists and past employees. Their primary purpose is to ensure that the employment conditions of employees are well known and that fair working conditions are offered. However, trade unions also take part in issues like:

Negotiation

One of the main goals of trade unions is to discuss with employers about the matters affecting their users and other employees at work. In case a union is formally accepted by an workplace, it can discuss with the company over terms and conditions. These discussions are commonly known as 'collective bargaining'.

Any trade union works to protect and boost the interests of its customers. One of the ways it achieves this is by collectively bargaining with employers about the pay and conditions under which its customers work. The negotiation process normally handles issues such as working rules and regulations, complaint procedures, hiring theory, dismissing or promoting employees, work place safety and guidelines etc. Some trade unions have even the energy to work out rates of pay, bonus deals for target achievement, work conditions and job descriptions with respect to the employees. For collective bargaining to work, unions and employers need to concur on how the agreement is to operate. The aim of that collective bargaining or negotiation process is to settle with a common agreement also called 'collective agreement' between the management and the trade union.

Representing Body

Employees and other employees have the to be accompanied at a disciplinary or grievance reading. They are able to either choose a co-worker or a union agent. Often, the union agent, will be a workplace representative who is also a co-worker and will support the staff on the board meeting.

Information and Advice

If someone forms part of the union he/she can also inquire further for advice. Unions are experts at dealing with problems at the job. Trade unions provide personnel with information, advice and instruction about any work related problems.

Member Service

Trade unions provide its people with a variety of services such as training, insurance, financial assistance and legal tips, sickness benefits, education facilities in some instances, guarantee of reasonable work conditions in areas such as health and safe practices as well as identical opportunities.

Voice in decision affecting Workers

Trade unions act as a "spokesperson" for the staff. When matters concerning an individual employee or several workers arise, the trade unions job is to words out the condition to be able to work out for a remedy. In case no arrangement is resolved or respected, the trade union associates may enforce hits or resistance to lockouts. They can also intervene to be able to resist techniques of the management which reduce employment, e. g. restructuring and automation

2. 6 Types of Trade Union

Craft or Job Union.

This type of union was the earliest type developed, it made up of employees of a particular art or skill irrespective of workplace. The advantage of craft unionism is the sense of solidarity, as there is a sense of common interest between the members. In addition, as this union bears skilled staff, they have a good economical position for collective bargaining. On the other hand, more and more new mechanical devices were being developed, the need for large numbers of skilled workers decreased.

One- Shop Union or House Union

The one-shop union organizes all personnel in the same establishment or manufacturing plant. This sort of union gets the advantage of being relatively easy to organize because all personnel share a common goal in protecting a good collective arrangement for their particular manufacturer. However, as it is small, they have little bargaining power and it is easily dominated by management.

Common Company Union.

The common company union is actually the same except that it organizes across institutions owned or operated by the same workplace. It is suffering from simply the same disadvantages as a one-shop union.

2. 7 Characteristic of Trade Union

Trade unions show remarkable improvement since their inception in Mauritius and since the union can be an essential and active aspect of the society it bears special characteristics such as:

Trade Union come together for common goals and interest

The members involve some materials of collective interest such as improving working conditions, better income, benefits, job security amongst others. The trade unions have to contest a managerial decision, if they considered that their customers are at risk with the results.

Trade Union can be an association of employees and salary earners:

Unions are essentially a cooperative labour marketing association whose target is to safeguard human rights on one or more labour market. Furthermore, they also carry a hand in the improvement of the population, ethnical interest and politics views of its participants.

Trade unions have been put in place in order each sector of the working class bear a specific union. Mauritius therefore bears different Union connection such as:

Agricultural Research & Extension Unit (AREU)

Mauritius Labour Congress (MLC)

Mauritius Trade Union Congress (MTUC)

National Trade Union Confederation (NTUC)

Trade Unions are essentially voluntary organizations:

Members of any trade union are voluntary in characteristics. They are completely free to become person in a Trade Union or not; nothing is constrained to subscribe to a Trade Union. If anybody is forced to join a Union, the very fact of trade of trade unionism is defeated.

Unions are egalitarian physiques:

The Unions are self-governed; this is why why they can effectively take action in our culture. The union market leaders are voted by the people and perform according to the Trade Union Work.

The Trade Union is a continuing association

Union is not a daily affair. To be able to work effectively because of their adherents they ask a permanent membership

Constant development in the characteristic of Trade Union

With this energetic era, the union continuously update their techniques and amend their work. With new difficulties at work, the unions need to find infinite approaches in order to serve the union users.

Rapport with the Management:

The unions have the duty to improve the employers and employees marriage. They go through the procedure of negotiation and collective bargaining with the route of the people' organisation regarding their problems. By doing this, the employer and employee romance is enriched and improve the quality and welfare of the employees.

2. 8 Functions of Trade Unions

Broadly speaking, trade unions perform two types of functions:

Militant Function

Amongst the many activities performed by trade unions is the betterment of the position of their associates in relation to their employment. The aim of such activities is to ensure that the clauses of the hiring and psychological agreement are respected. If the union does not accomplish these goals through collective bargaining and negotiation, in extreme conditions they adopt drastic measures by means of go-slow, punch, boycott, work sabotage etc. to make the management react and reconsider their demands. Hence, these functions of the trade unions are known as militant or fighting with each other functions.

Fraternal Function

Another actions performed by trade unions are to provide help to its associates in needy times, and enhancing their efficiency. Trade unions try to nurture a nature of cooperation, common aid and promote friendly romantic relationships and showing of knowledge and culture among their colleagues. In some cases, they also request legal assistance. Besides, these, they carry out many welfare options for their members, e. g. , university for the training of children, collection, reading-rooms, in-door and out-door game titles, and other recreational facilities. These activities, which might be called fraternal functions, clearly rely upon the option of funds, that your unions increase by subscription from associates and donations from outsiders, and also on their skilled and enlightened authority. Another wide-ranging classification of the functions of unions may be as follows:

Intra-mural activities: These handles whatever happens on the webpage of work and has direct impact on employees e. g. salary, strikes

Extra-mural activities: These activities help the employees to keep up and improve their efficiency or productivity e. g. , methods designed to foster a soul of cooperation, promote friendly relations

Political activities: Modern trade unions also take up political activities to attain their aims. Such activities may be related to the formation of a political get together or those reflecting an effort to seek influence on public insurance plan relating to matters connected with the pursuits of working class

Other Functions

Trade unions have a number of functions, one more important than the other with regards to the situations; nevertheless the five main basic key points developed have been:

The service function

The agent function

The regulatory function

The federal government function

The public supervision function

The service function

This will involve the delivery of services and assist with the union members.

The consultant function

This implies that the trade union will act like a delegate for the associates at the work area.

The regulatory function

This allows trade unions to actively participate in rule-making above the workplace. This is done either:

directly - multi-employer collective bargaining e. g. through the Joint Industrial Council

Or

indirectly - through regulatory legislation

The authorities and public administration function

Trade unions build relationships the government to assure that they can accomplish their respective function within regulations.

Trade unions also play an important role in:

improving bottom-up communication to be able to increase dedication of employees in reaching the organization's objectives

negotiating advancements to pay and working conditions to wthhold the people

encouraging companies to invest in training and development for better performance and personal as well as professional development of employees

acting as a positive change agent thus attaining employees' support for the smooth working of the organization

Protecting the hobbies of employees by firmly taking active contribution in the management.

safeguarding organizational stability, expansion, and leadership

Chapter 3: Trade Union at Work

3. 1 Dependence on trade Union

Trade Unions contribute much in the industrial peace; they are really necessary for different goal such as effective communication between employees and employers because they are the mediator between them. They also ensure that the divergence of viewpoints is taken into consideration and of course do not come out into conflicts. They also carry a great responsibility in safeguarding the pursuits of their users. They are the protector, the counselling, the mediator, coach, and keep an eye on the environment in which their associates evolves every day seeking a wholesome and safe working place.

Reasons why Trade Union pays to at work:

Trade unions aid to improve the pace of economic development in lots of ways;

through the recruitment and collection of workers

instructing discipline among the workforce

Trying to inculcate the organisation culture of the organisation to the new employee

settling industrial clashes in a rational manner

helping in cultural alterations: new working conditions, abiding to new rules and policies

Trade unions are some of population and are nervous about the nationwide integration:

Encouraging and preserving national integration through the minimization of commercial conflicts.

Incorporating a feeling of corporate cultural responsibility in workers

Attaining professional peace

To ensure job security and right purchase the associates:

One of the main reasons why the employee makes a decision to join a union is principally for security, especially in the private sector where people are unsure of their job position.

Employees' prefer to get paid corresponding to their requirements and skills.

To share the grievances of employees to the managerial level:

Though some employees do have grievance again the employers, they do not convey their thoughts as they fear of getting dismissed

Employees do not like to go through arbitrary and capricious actions by management.

When difficult situation happens, employees may observe that they have little if any affect in job-related matters, thus becoming best focuses on for unionization

Facilitate the movement of communication between employers and employees

Enhance the workplace and employee relations

Facilitate decisions making through the procedure of collective bargaining and negotiations

3. 2 Reason for subscribing to a Trade Union

Individuals in a variety of areas of Mauritius choose to become listed on a union in order to protect by the regulations which abide the union. They could have different reasons joining and these reasons will have a tendency to change as time passes. At the start of one's job, the key reason is designed for job security and working conditions, and when having experience it is perfect for a better salary or benefits. Understand that independently, the staff do not tolerate the energy to defy the very best management. Therefore they grouped to make Unity stand still in front of professionals. Other reasons can involve dissatisfaction with management, dependence on a social wall plug, opportunity for leadership, required unionization and peer pressure.

Other important known reasons for becoming a member of trade union:

Greater Bargaining Electricity: As stated before, when endeavoring to bargain by themselves, the employee will not make the difference but if the whole organisation voices out it will me more tangible; a Attack by the union is a powerful tool that often causes the employer to accept the needs of the employees for better conditions of career.

Minimize Discrimination in decisions related to wages, working conditions, promotion among others. There might be favouritisms if the administrator appreciates more one worker than another. Discrimination can happen in term of racism, culture, faith, gender, origins and titles.

Sense of Security: employees join unions so as to have sufficient security in term of mishaps, injury, illness, unemployment, but also obtaining; retirement living benefits and compelling the management to invest in welfare services for the benefit for the workers.

Sense of Participation: so as to be involved in the decision- making of the company and affect the results through collective bargaining.

Sense of Belongingness: some be a part of because their co-mates are users others under group pressure. This may be an element of respect for those who are not participants.

Platform for self-expression: the personnel desire to be taken into consideration by the managerial level. Thus Trade unions provide such a discussion board to convey feelings, ideas, problems and opinions.

Betterment of romantic relationships; workers think that unions can fulfill the main need for appropriate equipment for proper maintenance of employer-employee relationships. Unions help in betterment of industrial relationships among management and workers by solving the issues peacefully.

3. 3 Pros and Cons of Trade Union

Advantages of Trade Union

Trade Union can raise the salary of its members as well as advantage through negotiation.

Represent the personnel before the employers and society

Protect against exploitation

Uphold health insurance and safety legislation

Trades unions can provide representation to personnel facing legal action.

Can tone of voice out for better working conditions

Ask for training, learning and development of knowledge, skills and abilities

Build the staff and workplace relationship

it organize social, recreational and culture activities among the list of members

Trade Unions provide associates with the possibility to access the great things about collective bargaining

Trade Unions shield personnel from exploitation and victimization by management

Disadvantages of Trade Union

Might create Unemployment if requesting too high expectation for his or her members.

Ignore the plight of those excluded from the labour markets, e. g. the unemployed.

On a hit, the productivity of your company might reduce or they can also lose their clients which lead to a irreversible situation and the business enterprise might close down.

Collective bargaining by Trade Unions can sometimes lump all personnel, both successful and unproductive, in the same space in doing so inhibiting hard-working individuals from being rewarded appropriately.

By character of Trade Union participation or participation employees tend to are more critical and conscious of management methods and activities.

3. 4 Obstacles confronted by Trade Unions

A serious problem that trade unions have had to take on with just lately was the case whereby a worker was tragically killed by an ox at the Mauritius Meat Authority. This issue raised many concerns about the conditions in which the employees were working and the involvement of trade unions prior to the incident happened.

Another challenge experienced by trade unions is approximately the current Pay Research Bureau statement which raised many critiques about the decisions that were taken regarding the compensations directed at personnel. Many Trade unionists claimed that some of their propositions were declined and that the space between the different existing sociable classes was getting ultimately more significant. The various trade unions were to discuss about it with respect to the low-wages employees.

Uneven expansion:

According to our studies, it has additionally been found that there exists a relatively large space between unionisation in public areas and private sectors. And more importantly, this degree of unionisation is proportional to how big is the industry, and it seems to vary from industries to market sectors.

Limited national membership

Although the amount of trade unions in Mauritius has increased consequently, the number of membership have not risen much, mainly in the private sector. Only 12% of staff have been found to be unionised. A way to increase this rate would be to get one of these labour market penetration in sectors like textile, ICT

Multiplicity of unions - affiliated and non-affiliated unions

Since there is absolutely no specific limitation that regulates the number of trade unions and as a result, employees tend to form separate unions in the same establishment. This automatically leads to union rivalry that slashes at main base of the movement. The energy of collective bargaining and negotiation is weakened, and may result in lack of trustworthiness in fort of the management.

Autocratic management

Many federation presidents have argued that the effectiveness of trade union is manufactured difficult by the retrograde and imperious management style that prevails in Mauritius. This may also be figured out as grounds for the low unionisation rate.

Financial problems

Finance is a somewhat important problem in many organisations as the average every year income of Trade Unions is low and insufficient. Because of this, very little can be committed to creating welfare programs for the employees.

Indifferent frame of mind of workers

Although our company is in 2012, it has been discovered that many employees remain unconcerned about why to join a Trade at the work area. Moreover, if they're already unionised, the adherents do not show great fascination with their unions and as a result, the amount of participants present at meetings remains low. Hence, under such conditions, the trade union cannot expect immense progress.

3. 5 Methods used to overcome these difficulties

One way to avoid such situations from taking place would be to establish a regular monitoring of the environment where the workers are innovating as well as pressurise the management to provide security equipment and adequate training to allow workers protection and awareness of the threat of their work.

Concerning the PRB report 2012, negotiation and collective bargaining should have been the center strategy in negotiating for better employee settlement. Furthermore, it was found that this record was giving increased compensations to functionaries while operational employees were getting the minimal. A solution would be to strike the total amount and give a satisfactory enhancement to low school workers as well.

Encouraging private sector personnel to become listed on in unions would be a good initiative. This may be done by briefing them about their privileges as an employee as well as advantages associated with being unionised.

A suggestion is always to put into practice a one-industry-one-union insurance plan, whereby only one union in the company will stand for the staff and fight for their rights.

A way of dealing with the autocratic management is always to play the watchdog and ensure that regulations, steps and institutional mechanisms that protect the employees' privileges are in line with International Labour Company (ILO), and regularly being prepared to face any sort of personnel' exploitation from the management.

3. 6 People Sector versus Private Sector

3. 7 Employee Satisfaction with trade Union

During the course of our research, staff review satisfaction questionnaires were circulated to be able to permit for the collection and analysis of data concerning the employees point of view about how they recognized trade unions, if they were unionised or much less well as their personal opinion. The survey was strictly anonymous and was carried out on [number of employees] employees at [place where in fact the survey was transported out].

After a careful analysis of the primary data accumulated, and the summing up of the various responses, we could actually deduce that:

80% of the employees in the general public sector and significantly less than 20% from the private sector were unionised.

Almost all the employees were towards their trade union whereby they claimed that their working conditions were better off; that the unions does fight because of their benefits and this it has proved to be effective. For example, the majority of the worker of the NTUC decided to the actual fact that the trade union can be an organisation that strengthen the workers and help them to safeguard and represent their rights at work. Moreover interior democracy prevails in the trade unions. That inside democracy and higher regular membership control make unions better and better in a position to combat for the rights and hobbies of employees.

They also show solidarity with the staff as they may represent their cases irrespective of their member affiliation. Through our review we found out that all employees agreed on the statement that the customers elected at the head of the NTUC is performed via a vote in a most objectively possible manner and through transparency as a hidden knowledge ballot is included.

The competency of the union members somehow revealed some discrepancy in the way the employees responded because so many preferred to have a "neutral" position concerning this. We arrive at the conclusion that the divergence of views might have arisen from the voting process or politics issues.

Through our research we also observe that some personnel were reticent to answer some questions like if interacting with between trade union people and management of company was effective enough to resolve problems related to employees at the work place the indeed. They preferred to adopt a neutral stance. Their answers were similar when they were asked if employees regardless of their trade union affiliation get identical opportunities at the work place. As the NTUC is a trade union that works for the general public sector we might argue that there could be much political disturbance and thus employees that have fill in our questionnaire preferred to give a natural answer.

Chapter 4: Strategy and Findings

In our Trade Union analysis, both principal and secondary resources of information was utilised. For the primary source of data we picked the qualitative methods, it's been chosen for both the relevance of the method to the research questions and the theoretical rules that underlie this process. We collected main data through different methods, both test survey and interview with market leaders and employees of trade union as well as associates of trade unions which work both in private and general public sector. A complete of fifteen individuals were engaged, with the dual purpose of examining their views and interpretations on the union movement and to be aided in identifying a thorough and pertinent platform for the look of the data collection strategy.

Qualitative Methods used as major source of primary data:

The employee sample study (APPENDIX 1) completed with two employees of the Country wide trade Union congress

A face-to-face interview (APPENDIX 2) with the market leaders of the Mauritius Labour congress (confederation), the Country wide Labour Trade Union (federation) as well as the Nursery Trade Union head (Trade Union)

Employee Test questionnaire (APPENDIX 3) that was completed with 5 person from the private sector and 5 of the public sector

Findings

We conducted the employee sample study (APPENDIX 1) with employees of the Country wide trade Union congress and we found out that all of them are participants of the trade union and form part of the staff association. Among the major role of any trade union is to make a deal and ensure that worker are being cured fairly and deal with for their protection under the law.

In addition, we learned that there were a gathering twice annually, gathering leaders and people of different affiliated trade unions in order to discuss issues they might have and to help them find solutions. Decisions considered through the process of collective bargaining and negotiations between employer and unions are usually more important. The trade union plays an important role in making communication between workers and management more easily and fluid. They provide advice and support to ensure that divergence of judgment does not become a reason behind major issues. The NTUC fights for the benefits associated with employees and symbolize them at the job.

Most of the staff of the NTUC decided to the fact that the trade union can be an organisation that fortify the employees and help them to protect and stand for their rights at the job. Moreover inside democracy prevails in the trade unions. That interior democracy and better membership control make unions more powerful and better able to fight for the rights and passions of employees. They also show solidarity with the workers as they could represent their circumstances irrespective of their member affiliation. Through our review we discovered that the associates elected at the head of the NTUC is done through a vote which is done as objectively and through transparency as it is done through a top secret ballot. Most elected associates are experienced enough to organise the union activities.

Through our research we also notice that some staff are reticent to answer some questions like if meeting between trade union users and management of organisation was effective enough to solve problems related to employees at the work environment the indeed. They preferred to look at a neutral position. Their answers were similar when they were asked if workers regardless of their trade union affiliation get equal opportunities at the work environment. As the NTUC is a trade union that works for the public sector we might argue that there might be much political disturbance and so employees that contain fill in our questionnaire preferred to provide a neutral answer.

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