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Introduction to Systems in the Body


The function of the digestive system is to absorb and absorb. The digestive system reduces food into smaller molecules, which are utilized as nutrients into the blood to be utilized for progress, repair and energy.

The digestive system contains several organs. The mouth area, pharynx, oesophagus, liver organ, belly, rectum, gallbladder, large intestines, small intestines and the pancreas.

Mouth: Breaks down food through chewing to make bits that may be easily digested. Saliva mixes with the meals to begin the break down.

Pharynx: The pharynx (also called the neck) muscular surfaces helps the procedure of swallowing and functions as a pathway for the movements of food from the mouth to the oesophagus.

Oesophagus: Carries liquids, food and saliva to the tummy.

Stomach: The belly includes strong muscular wall space which actually churn and break down the meals further. The abdomen lining produces enzymes which is constantly on the chemically breakdown the food. The enzyme Pepsin is found in the stomach and is also in charge of the break down of protein. The abdomen also includes hydrochloric acid that assist eliminate bacteria that is available on food.

Small intestines: The small intestines is around 5 metres long and contains two parts - the duodenum and the ileum. The duodenum is the first 25cm of the small intestines and the ileum sorts the others. The duodenum is the primary site of digestion & most absorption needs places in the ileum.

The small intestines reduces the food using enzymes that are released by the pancreas and bile released by the liver organ. The small intestines are also in charge of absorbing nutrition.

The wall surfaces of the tiny intestines contain small folds called villi, there are about four to five million in the ileum. The villi has three adaptions which ensures that the absorption of digestive function products is very useful. The first adaption is the large surface area, this enables absorption to happen quicker and efficiently. The next adaption is the countless blood capillaries the villi contain, they are in charge of absorbing nutrients, sugar and amino acids. The last adaption is the villi walls are only one cell thick, this will allow dissolved molecules to feed the wall surfaces quickly.

Large intestines: The function of the large intestine is to absorb water and essential vitamin supplements from the rest of the indigestible food substances.

Integumentary System

The major organ in the human body is the integumentary system which involves the skin, scalp and fingernails which form the body's outer covering. They help protect organs, provide a barrier to prevent against infectious organisms and regulate heat range of body.

There are three levels of skin. THE SKIN is the slender, top coating of the skin and is made up of four cell types: keratinocytes which produces keratin (waterproofing fibrous health proteins), melanocytes which produces melanin that provides skin its colour, langerhan cells that assist the disease fighting capability combat antigens, and merkel cells that assist with touch reception.

The Dermis is the thicker, middle layer of skin consisting of connective structure which is situated in the papillary part of the dermis, nerves, blood vessels glands and hair follicles.

The hypodermis is the deepest layer of epidermis. This layer helps insulate your body and protect internal organs. The hypodermis involves a type of connective structure called adipose tissue which stores unnecessary energy as excessive fat.

The skin contains engine oil glands which secrete essential oils to keep epidermis soft and damp, which can help protect your skin. Sweating glands in your skin cool down your body by secreting watery perspiration which evaporates in the air. Thermoreceptors are located in the dermis layer of your skin and they discover a change in heat.

Circulatory System

The circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system, includes the center, the lungs and a network of vessels which hold blood. The pulmonary circulatory system directs oxygen-deprived blood away from the heart to the pulmonary artery also to the lungs, and then profits to the with oxygenated bloodstream through the pulmonary veins.

Oxygen-deprived blood gets into center through the right atrium and moves through the tricuspid valve and into the right ventricle. It is then pumped through the pulmonic valve into the pulmonary artery and moves to the lungs. When in to the lungs, skin tightening and is released from the blood and oxygen is soaked up. The pulmonary vein sends the oxygenated bloodstream back again to the center.


The heart and soul has many components to help with blood circulation. These components are:

AORTA = this is actually the most significant artery in the blood vessels. It bears oxygenated bloodstream.

VENA CAVA = this is the largest vein in the torso. It holds deoxygenated bloodstream.

RIGHT ATRIUM = gets blood from the body via the vena cava.

LEFT ATRIUM = gets bloodstream from the lungs via the pulmonary vein

RIGHT VENTRICLE = obtains blood vessels from the right atrium and delivers the bloodstream to the lungs.

LEFT VENTRICLE = receives blood vessels from the remaining atrium and sends the bloodstream to the body.

Nervous System

The nervous system involves two components: the central anxious system (CNS) and the peripheral stressed system. The central stressed system consists of the brain, spinal-cord and nerves. The peripheral anxious system includes sensory neurons, ganglion (clusters of neurons) and nerves that hook up to each other and also to the central stressed system.

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