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Introduction to natural gas

Natural gas is one of the main way to obtain energy for reducing pollution and preserving a clean and healthy environment we can call it as a future energy resource. In addition to being a domestically abundant and secure way to obtain energy, the use of gas also offers a number of environmental benefits over other resources of energy, especially other fossil fuels. This section will discuss the environmental effects of gas, interms of emission as well as environmentally friendly impact of the gas industry itself.

Natural gas is employed over 60 million homes. Furthermore natural gas is employed in 78 percent of restaurants, 73 percent of lodging facilities, 51 percent of hospitals, 598 percent of offices, and 58 percent of retail complexes. Gas is vital to world manufacturers, not only to power their functions, but also as an essential feedstock for most of the products we use daily- clothing, floor coverings, athletics equipment, pharmaceuticals and medical equipment, computers, and car parts. Additionally it is a primary feedstock for chemicals, plastics and fertilizers. Gas fuels our economy. It is a clean using up domestic power source that powers our overall economy. It cools and warms our homes and businesses, is used to create electricity, and helps maintain our standard of living.

Natural gas is a gas consisting mostly of methane. It is found associated with fossil fuels, in coal mattresses, as methane clathrates, and is created by methogenic microorganisms in marshes, bogs, and landfills. It really is an important fuel source and a effective greenhouse gas.

Before gas can be used as a fuel, it must experience extensive processing to remove almost all materials other than methane. The by products of this processing include ethane, propane, butanes, pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, elemental sulphur and sometimes helium and nitrogen.

Overview of natural gas:

Natural gas is a fossil gasoline way to obtain energy, which presents more than one fifth of total energy intake on the planet. It's been the most effective growing energy souce gasoline since the seventies.

Due to economical and ecological advantages so it presents as well as its safety quqlities, gas is an progressively attractive source oof energy in many countries. At present, natural gas is the next power source after oil. Matching to energy information supervision, natural gas accounted for 31% of world energy production in 2006. It has excellent perspectives for future demand. Gas is considered the energy source of this century, as petroleum was previous century and coal two centuries ago.

Natural gas presents a competitive edge over other energy options. It is seen as economically more efficient because only about 10% of the gas produced is thrown away before it reaches final consumption. Furthermore, technological advances are constantly increasing efficiencies in removal, transportation and safe-keeping techniques as well as in equipment that uses gas.

Natural gas is recognized as an environmentally friendly clean petrol, offering important environmental benefits when compared to other fossil fuels. The superior environmental attributes over coal or essential oil are that emissions of sulphur dioxide are negligible or that the amount of nitrous oxide and skin tightening and emissions is lower. This helps to reduce problems of acid rainfall, ozone coating depletion orgreenhouse gases.

Although resources of natural are finite and gas is a non-renewable way to obtain energy, these resorces are abundant all around the globe. Natural gas reserves are constantly increasing as new exploration and removal techniques allow for wider and deeper drilling.

The growing importance of gas as a major power source is shown by the amount of investment devoted to the natural gas industry. The sector shows a great dynamism at the start of the new milleniuum. Increasing demand and prices in tje recent recently have resulted in new enlargement and exploration tasks in the natural gas industry. New pipeline structure assignments are developed and planned all over the world. Furthermore, most governments are gradually including natural gas in their energy insurance plan agenda, by following liberalization policies(specifically following the energy shortages of 1970s), to be able to open up the markets to competition. More and more, energy last users are also displaying a desire for using natural gas a clean, safe, reliable and cost-effective way to obtain energy. Natural gas can be used for heating, air conditioning and several other industry uses, although it is increasingly becoming the favoured gasoline for power generation.

Natural gas is future of energy and fuel requirements as it is one of the very most clean fuel the evidences for this is illustrated by third, data:

Chemistry of natural gas:

Natural gas, like all fossil fuels, is the remain of prehistoric living matter that been around million of years back. In the sea environment, dead organisms came to relax on the sea floor, where they were covered by level after layer of dirt or silt which over time became layers of rock. Buried beneath the sea foundation, the hydroicarbons stored inside the once living matter were conserved, but their composition was improved by the heat and pressure from the stones above. Millions of years later, deposits of these hydrocarbons are available either in liquid form as petroleum, or as natural gas.

Natural gas varieties in porous tiers of rock, with bubbles of gas captured inside the rock and roll. Gas fields arise when a coating of impervious rock, such as limestone, has formed above the layer of porous rock and roll, preventing the gas from escaping. Debris of natural gas are often found alongside petroleum debris. Natural gas is colourless and odourless. It consists mostlyof methane, but mixed in with the methane are likely to be other hydrocarbon chemical substances and some impurities.

Natural gas is colourless odourless, tasteless, shapeless and lighter than air. It really is gaseous at any heat range over -161 c. When it is at its natural state, it is not possible to see or smell gas. For protection reasons, a substance odorant that smells similar to rotten eggs, mercaptan, is added to natural gas so that it can be smelled if there is a gas leak.

Natural gas is an assortment of light hydrocarbons including methane, ethane, propane, butanes and pentanes. Other chemical substance found in natural gas includes co2, helium hydrogen sulphide and nitrogen. The structure of gas is never constant, however, the primary component of natural gas is methane(typically, atleast 90%), which has a simple hydrocarbon structure made up of one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms(ch4). methane is highly inflammable, burns easily and almost completely, although it emits hardly any air pollution. Natural gas is neither corrosive nor dangerous, its ignition temp is high, and its own has a thin flammability range, making it an inherently safe fossil petrol compared to other fuel sources. In addition, because of its specific gravity of 0. 60, less than that of air(1. 00), natural gas increases if escaping, thus dissipating from the website of any drip.

The carbon and hydrogen occurs from the remains of crops and animals (composition in natural gas)

Which were inside the lakes and seas an incredible number of years back. The organic material then confusing with huge layers of sediments and then switched back to gas and crude essential oil as high temperature from the earth's inside and pressure from the tiers evolved it.

Natural gas is found around the world in resorviors profound inside the earth and in oceans. It is caught in porous rock and roll formations. Gas are available in oil deposits, as associated gas.

Natural gas when cooled ton a temp of approx -260 f, it changes to a liquid naming liquefied gas(LNG). LNG has weight half as that of normal water, or you can say 45% less weight then water to be exact. It is non corrosive, non toxic, odourless and colourless. For convenience in transport and storing natural gas is liquefied to create LNG.

Natural gas is almost free from sulphur and therefore will not produces so2 so considered as clean and environment friendly source of energy it also emits lower values operating-system nitrogen oxides in comparison to coal or olive oil.

Power generation:

Natural gas is now used extensively in the generation of electricity by using gas turbines and vapor turbines. By merging gas turbines with steam turbines we can increase efficiency of electric generation and this mode is called blended cycle mode. Natural gas produces less greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide for an equivalent amount of heating in comparison with petroleum(30% less) and coal(45 % less) therefore blended cycle era of electricity using natural gas is the cleanest way to obtain electricity available using fossil fuels. Natural gas is employed in power era wherever we can buy it at an acceptable price further energy cells(discussed in detail below) can be used for power generation using gas but it isn't economically much.

Fuel cells using gas:

Fuel skin cells using gas for power era are under development. Energy cells are devices that uses hydrogen to produce electricity their working is about identical to of batteries. It really is one of the cleanest way of producing electricity as their is not any emissions what so ever before and as we know that natural gases are a rich source of hydrogen so it can be used in fuel skin cells. Fuel cells remain under development process as the procedure of using gas in fuel cells is very costly but if they are used common around the globe then we can assure an extremely clean environment and can reduce emissions from the generation of electricity.

Electricity generation and industrial request uses fossil fuels for making electricity and heating. we may use natural gas for such kind of operations as it can help to reduce the emissions from the era of electricity.

In travelling:

Natural gas can be utilized as a petrol for vehicles, trains and air transport also it can be a very clean fuel as in the case of CNG (compressed gas) used in four and three wheeler vehicles. by 2008 9. 6 million vehicles uses natural gas as their source of fuel source.

Its efficiency is slightly less then diesel engine unit but comparable to gasoline machines but if we make it compulsory for any public transport vehicles to utilize natural gas as their power source resource we can led to an extremely clean world as the major source of air pollution is from the travel sector.

In aerospace:

Development techniques are running to develop aircrafts that uses gas the source of the fuel resource Russian company Tupololev is trying to build up an aeroplanes that uses LNG and HYDROGEN as the foundation of its power supply it will also cost lower then normal airplane and also with decrease in nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emission reduction.

The advantage of using gas as a gasoline for aircrafts is the fact that its specific energyis more than normal plane fuel(kerosene mixes) and one benefit is the fact that it can can be used as a much cooler for cooling air upgrading a intercooler in engine unit.

Natural gas may also be use for make of plastics, paints, glass steel, materials and other useful products.

Advantages and Negatives of natural gas:

The main advantage of using gas over other fossil gas as a source of energy is that it is a clean gas and contributes very less effect on air and environment all around us as there is no emissions, no residue, no smoke no smell. Its progress of use as domestic fuel, for power generation, in industries is increasing rapidly day by day. From a study it's been found that use of gas as a source for power generation nearly accounts for around 20% of the total energy source(world energy prospect 2000).

But as every coin has two stages using gas is also not clear of this comment, it is known as that natural gas is clean source of energy but this is not a true reality, it does have an impact on the environment somewhat. Natural gas also produces carbon dioxide while burning up like all other fossil fuels although it is very less as compared to coal and petroleum and also natural gas that is used as a energy source is usually not free from impurities and this business lead to emissions of unwanted particulates. Therefore it could be noted that it's not a complete clean fuel as it is not carbon natural and also produces small emissions so from an environmental viewpoint it is not an complete ideal way to obtain energy.

Another downside is that which is common to all fossil fuels is the fact that their extraction causes an activity called mining and drilling which might lead to an ecological inbalance and also triggers pollution which is often visualised.

Future:

Natural gas has many advantages over other energy options but we can't depend on natural gas as another way to obtain energy the facts that ensures this facts are

  1. after an interval of regular extraction one day all materials will be worn out or will be depleted compared to that scope that cost of extracting will overweigh the value of the value of the fuel we obtain this is a common reality to all or any fossil fuels.
  2. natural gas is considered to be always a clean gas but above we've discussed that it's no complete ideal way to obtain energy, so research work is certainly going on to find that future way to obtain energy. Solar and hydel energy can also be the future way to obtain energy.

Natural gas will employ a bright future when compared with other fossil fuels as globally all administration are encouraging use of gas in power stations in preference to other fossil petrol.

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