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Introduction To Activities Among Women Spectators In India Mass media Essay

Watching sport signifies a predominant form of leisure action in todays society. Large numbers of people attend sporting events and think of themselves as sport enthusiasts. Traditionally, participation in athletics as a spectator has been a male dominated activity.

Women differ from men on various guidelines such as physicality, psychographics, behavioral variables, consumer action and consumption encounters. The distinctions between men and women on these variables make it problematic for marketers to target them alongside one another as a unified portion. But, regardless of the differences between men and women on various variables, activities goods manufacturers and sports situations marketers have pursued traditional male-oriented marketing procedures.

But in recent times credited to a radical change in sociable and financial status of women, there has been an increased contribution in and consumption of activities by women. It has caused marketers to add a feminine- oriented concentration to their strategies.

The recent launch of feminine commentators in cricket to ways of attract women in the latest IPL model with attractive offers shows a definite change in the marketing strategies of marketing and marketing experts. Also more and more women are embracing activities for recreational purpose.

With the sports industry turning more to women consumers, it has become necessary for marketers to analyze women's consumption patterns and consumption experience to create gender specific strategies. Hence, this study is always to understand how the Indian girl consumes sports activities and the level of involvement or determination achieved set in the framework of the Indian society.

Literature Review

Sports as a genre exists in everybody's life, whether it be in conditions of involvement or watching. Sports activities has the capacity to inspire, build areas, to make people weep, laugh. Inside the hands of a nifty little marketer sports has an almost enigmatic draw towards the target consumer.

Traditionally, sports contribution and utilization was viewed to be masculine or a part of male dominion. However, with increasing range of women who've found financial and social independence the area of activities is no longer completely a male bastion. Progressively more women are breaking the stereotypes of passivity and are positively consuming and taking part in sports.

Major strides have been made over the past couple of years in providing involvement opportunities for girls and ladies in sports. Media presence has increased for several women players both internationally and nationally like Venus Williams, Anna Kounikova or Sania Mirza. The intake of sports activities and leisure by men and women is dependent on the great deal of factors such as widespread societal norms, values and attitudes. In the context of activities and leisure, what's associated with men and masculinity is respected over what is associated with women and femininity. Hence, it is important to explore the root societal norms to comprehend the consumption habits.

A post modernistic approach

In a postmodern population, the prevalent ideology is the fact what's considered masculine or female will breakdown as the boundaries between masculinity and femininity continue steadily to blur and the several varieties of gender multiply. Activities that conventionally convey clear meanings, such as combat conveying masculinity and gracefulness conveying femininity, will no longer be evident. A postmodern vision of these categories blurring into one should be liberating since it lessens the probability of gender used in an effort to categorize. Within the context of activities and leisure, this shows that gender is less inclined to influence involvement or ingestion of sports recently "marked" as masculine or feminine.

Analysing literature would help us to comprehend historical tendencies of sports activities and leisure contribution by gender in various scenarios.

Home Vs Workplace

Women have been historically been associated with activities conducted at home such as gardening, sewing and preparing, credited to recent advancements in technology the attempts necessary for the chores have reduced hugely but the modern society still views it as a woman's job. Unskilled duties such as cleaning, eating, food preparation, sleeping, leisure and child rearing were performed at home, Men were linked with activities at work and less connected with those at home. Home for men essentially was a location to recoup from a hard day's work. An identical separation exists in sports activities and leisure today. ( McGinnis, Chun, and McQuillan, 2003)

According to Henderson's review (1990), leisure for ladies tends to contain activities which is next to or at home since it can be infused with household tasks and because few opportunities for leisure are present beyond your home. According to another research by Kane, It was argued that girls tend to define themselves in terms of human relationships, hence, they ingest within the context of home and family.

The complexity increases for a career woman as then the leisure is dependent on family conditions, especially children. Women use home as female place and opportinity for leisure. And in the event a leisure opportunity comes along which has gone out of home, then it is sort of offered so concerning not hamper home responsibilities.

In this circumstance, leisure itself is seen as constraining, as it reinforces gender appropriateness (Shaw 1994). Although it looks that leisure opportunities certainly are present for women beyond your home, the literature suggests that leisure for ladies is still generally perceived as a second concern. Opportunities for leisure exist, but only once other responsibilities and other concerns have been resolved first. Expectations of a women and her role in society may actually transcend the opportunities beyond your home. Men face the same constraint, but can specify what is expected of these way more than women.

Spectatorship and Leisure time

It is a common point of contention that women and men both enjoy enjoying sports on television set, but their choices fluctuate, as men tend to favor more competitive and ambitious sports as compared to women. We find evidences of mass media support of the gendered utilization patterns, for example NBC placed the Olympics with storylines resembling soap operas.

Men have generally dominated the intake of organised sports. But the 'Spectator Gender Difference' is lowering with an increase of women seeing conventionally male athletics such as Golf, basketball. However, research suggests that makes an attempt by women to increase their athletics consumption in a way threatens the male dominion as sports can be regarded as a masculine domain name where men are allowed to bond with each other. Women joining this domain are seen as upsetting this setting up (McGinnis, Chun, and McQuillan, 2003).

Leisure is another area where in fact the gender gap exists, women in general experience a lesser amount of free time as compared to men as their part of these free time is normally spent doing housework or taking care of children. Men can experience larger blocks of leisure time without fretting about other commitments.

Role of the Indian Media

Women are usually not inspired to indulge in sports. Sports activities are men oriented, where men play and women watch. It is clearly obvious in the Indian mass media too, be it films or adverts. For instance, in an advertisement of Medical clinic Plus hair shampoo, a coach of an boys' cricket team in university discourages a woman to learn with the team by fearing, when he says, " Baal kharab ho jayege" (hair will get destroyed if you will play cricket in sun). Another advertisement of Tata sky offering Gul Panag and Aamir Khan, she has been portrayed as a female for whom activities is a nuisance. During the cricket matches and sports world cups, over and over, many news stations show how women have to sacrifice watching their saas-bahu dramas and magazines also write about falling TRP's of Television set serial and how these complements are a jeremiad for females. Because in the family, their husbands, brothers and father are glued tothe sports activities channel and the power of legal professional for the handy remote control is transferred to men for those few days when the matches are presented.

In addition, A number of the commonly held values associated with feminine followers and women activities are explored below-

Women aren't interested in athletics - simple fact or fiction

In conditions of viewership, over 2. 2 crore women observed the 2003 World Glass in India exclusively. Feminine viewership comprised a fantastic 46% of the total World Cup taking a look at populace and TRPS for feminine viewership for India fits climbed to a phenomenal 9. 8, significantly higher than the 3. 9 authorized during the Nat Western world Trophy final performed at Lords in June 2002(ESPNSTAR, "Interesting background of women's cricket in India"). The 2020 World Cup had a solid, growing feminine audience for the activity and it's not restricted to cricket exclusively. There can be an overall 54 per cent increase in rankings for the three playing golf grand slams-especially with regard to women's viewership where in fact the development has been significant. To attain out to the diverse market, most stations are developing a strong encoding line-up that is clearly a healthy mixture of attained and original content. (The financial express, 'Cashing in on activities').

For the first time, a non-cricketing glamorous female variety - Mandira Bedi - was earned as a studio anchor. The experience was something stunned cricket purists. But with a mix of elements for the purist as well as the novice and the fence sitters, 'Extraaa Innings' merged academic cricket with mainstream entertainment like never before.

This led to an impressive 50% upsurge in average ranking of Indian fits and 37% increase in the rating of non-India fits, reached out to a record 78% of the Indian audiences in C&S homes. More oddly enough the female gross reach grew by an unprecedented 261%. Mandira Bedi became a superstar and was soon an integral part of life even for women in conservative Indian households. Purists like Wisden, which condemned the test out women anchors during the ICC Champions Trophy in Colombo in September 2002, were required to retreat. Women joined betting circles and housewives in Delhi and Ahmedabad shaped clubs to enjoy the sport (ESPNSTAR, "Interesting record of women's cricket in India").

In conditions of playing the activity, there's been significant increase in the number of professional sportswomen in variety of athletics including Badminton, playing golf, hockey, golf and athletics. The increase in the amount of tournaments is a testament to that fact, recently an international basketball competition - the FIBA Asia Women's Championship was managed by Chennai, Having the best players and top groups from over the continent, the competition was successful. (Deccan Chronicle, India Wakes up to different sports)

Female sports lovers will vary from male activities fans -fact or fiction?

According to a study by Sargent, Zillmann, and Weaver, men and women enjoy distinctly different types of sports activities. Their findings unveiled that males preferred seeing combative sports on television set whereas females were incomplete to stylistic sports. Sport socialization research examines the impact that environmental forces have on children and individuals from two different perspectives: socialization into sport and socialization through sport.

This type of inquiry indicates that individuals are drawn to sport anticipated to formal stations (i. e. , parents, peers, instructors, mass media, professors) and casual programs (i. e. , university, chapel, and community-based programs), as investigated by Kenyon & McPherson.

Media plays female role for adding new clubs and sport leagues to men and women. According to a report by Bruce, Institutional, sociable, and familial contexts also shape visitors' interpretations of athletics broadcasts. He also discovered that women didn't screen strong loyalties to specific women's athletics teams that are common with men and a common men's teams. This is related to the extensive activities information and multimedia attention given to men's sports.

In a study on cognitive development and socialization by Adam, in the initial development of team loyalty, it was discovered that children form choices for sports clubs early on in life. Results of this study discovered and that the gender stereotype associating activities with males was prevalent among children which fathers were the most important socializing agent in introducing children to sports activities teams.

In a study on experiences and effects of viewing televised sports, Gantz and Wenner found dissimilarities based on gender for 9 of the 15 desire items reviewed; however, these dissimilarities were not dramatic. Most notable among their results, women were much more likely to watch televised sports activities for companionship and sharing the experience with family and friends whereas men observed to unwind and become covered up in the excitement and dilemma of the overall game.

Men invested more time in reading, hearing, watching, and discussing sports and they were more likely to experience psychological fluctuations from viewing sports.

Men also have a tendency to display a fan behavior and identify more highly as a admirer matching to Dietz-Uhler.

However, the same volume of male and feminine college students considered themselves to be sport enthusiasts. Females reported being lovers because they went to and watched sporting events with family and friends while guys were much more likely to consider themselves enthusiasts because they played sports and wished to acquire sports activities information.

Measuring Spectator Motives

Various methods to research on sport spectators have been developed which utilizes a number of scales to evaluate the mental health motives related to attendance, multimedia use and interest at live sports.

1) One of the first methods was developed by Wann. He designed a comprehensive scale to assess eight factors noticed to influence behavior; eustress, self-esteem, break free, entertainment, economical (gambling), cosmetic, group affiliation, and family.

2) Second method developed by Trail and James was the Determination Range for Sport Ingestion (MSSC) to examine ten aspects of spectator habit: accomplishment, acquisition of knowledge, appearance, drama, escape, family, physical interest, physical skills of players, and communal interaction.

3) Finally, McDonald, Milne and Hong (2002) utilised a range to measure spectator and sport participant motives related to: risk-taking, stress reduction, aggression, affiliation, cultural facilitation, self-esteem, competition, achievement, skill mastery, appearance, value development, and self-actualization.

Research Methodology

Conceptual Construction or Problem Definition

Till now via an extensive analysis of literature we have seen that men and women both consume sports activities in their own way and one cannot generalize the use routine of women. The motivations and the level of involvement for ladies rely upon a great deal of factors.

Research Difference : There is absolutely no review done in the Indian context to understand the women sports activities consumers, their phases of participation and motivations to take part. Hence, this analysis is a step towards attaining a knowledge of the same.

Research Objective:

The objective of the research is to understand the Woman athletics consumer in terms of her engagement level and inspiration to consume a specific sport.

The analysis of determination for predicting consumer habit is very difficult as to understand the interrelation between motives and specific tendencies. Also, to develop a set of consumer motives comprehensive enough to fully capture the wide variety of motivating causes that stimulate and condition habit is challenging.

To do the above, a platform could be built by means of a public continuum which broadens the sport consumer motivation idea by using involvement as a motivational build to distinguish between various levels. Factors like woman's role in the modern culture would also become a part of this construct. Hence, a report of the immediate environment becomes essential for learning the consumption routine.

The degree of engagement of women consumer of sports activities should form the foundation of the framework of cultural continuum where in fact the stages change from viewership to acceptance to group of fans to engaging or actively playing to motivating others to learn or advocacy. As shown below,

Identification of critical factors which identifies each of the stages could be regarded and the motives of each stage should also be considered. Relating to each level a corresponding set of habit would be associated.

Understanding different spectator motivations and participation levels can be of significant profit to the sport marketer seeking to boost team revenues and gate receipts. Of particular interest are both the marketing administrator understanding the specific motivations that drive a spectator or fan to take a sport and the next development of marketing communications predicated on these motivations. These effective marketing communication programs can often help build sets of "diehard" admirers, thus expanding the client base for a team. Spectator and lover motivation can also be used as an effective psychographic segmentation method that can result in far better marketing promotions.

Sub Research Objective:


Involvement could be thought as a state appealing, stimulation or inspiration towards an object, a product or even a task. As put by a report done by Mitchell, Engagement represents an internal state changing that reflects the quantity of arousal, interest, or drive evoked by a particular stimuli or situation that mediates consumer action. Software of the involvement construct to look at sport spectators and

sport fans would provide a fuller knowledge of motives and what stimuli and situations direct patterns (e. g. , attendance, purchase of team merchandise, media utilization) and attitudinal creation (e. g. , tastes, commitment, devotion). Some guidelines of review for participation would be

Importance of product as perceived by the consumer

Pleasure or excitement provided by the product

Risk of earning the wrong purchase or participating in the non gratifying activity

Self expression it signifies the recognition of the individual with the purchase or participation

Centrality to lifestyle, includes socializing and interactions


Theories and studies have been done by researchers on how to determine the motives for consuming sports. These motives can be generally categorised into the wide categories of research as -


Stress and stimulation seeking

Social Interaction

Achievement seeking

Approach to Analysis

According to the sample defined above, the research would be conducted two phases:

Phase 1: This would be in the proper execution of exploratory research which would be utilized to develop a conceptual model for evaluating involvement levels and their matching motives. The goal of this is to identify any potential guidelines related to spectator motives or participation framework that have been missed. In-depth interview of 5 respondents roughly would be taken in each market section.

Phase 2: This is actually the validation phase where in fact the qualitative review would be validated by quantitative so that the result of the first stage could be extrapolated to a more substantial human population if required.

Sampling Universe: The sampling universe could be thought as young women who are mainly college or university goers or in to the first 2-3 many years of job, who follow at least one sport, belonging to SEC A or SEC B.

Details of Stage I

Sample Size: 15-20 (Qualitative review)

The sample size setting is performed with a non-statistical strategy where in fact the selection is performed anticipating subgroup examination. The anticipation is that 4 meaningful clusters (market segments) would emerge and each cluster will contain approximately 5 respondents in average.



College Goers


Semi Urban

Working Women

Semi Urban


This is made for the qualitative part of the research.

Sampling Procedure: Convenience Sampling (Non- probability sampling)

Care would be taken to ensure that heterogeneity of the complete society can be effectively covered in the sample.

Details of Stage II

The phase II technique would be based upon the data gathered in the first stage.


The study would help marketers understand the girl spectator motivations and levels of engagement in consuming sports in India, subsequently, assist in predicting behavior

This would help marketers utilize the growing female spectator foundation.

Expected Contribution

There has been no study on understanding women spectators in the Indian context done till day. This research would help both the academia and industry to comprehend an upcoming section.

Understanding different spectator motivations and participation levels is important for a sport marketing expert to tap the ladies consumer segment which is becoming increasingly independent economically and socially.

Understanding the participation and motivations that drive a woman spectator to take a sport in India would help marketers aim for this section with crisp and relevant marketing and sales communications.

The involvement levels and motivations can be used as a powerful psychographic segmentation way for forming effective campaigns.

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