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Introduction To Air Conditioning

Air conditioners and refrigerators work the same manner. Instead of cooling just the tiny, insulated space within a refrigerator, an air conditioner cools a room, a complete house, or a whole business.

Air conditioners use chemicals that easily convert from a gas to a water and back again. This chemical is employed to transfer heat from the air within a home to the outside air.

The machine has three main parts. They can be a compressor, a condenser and an evaporator. The compressor and condenser are usually located on the outside air part of the air conditioner. The evaporator is located inside the home, sometimes as part of a furnace. That is the part that heats our house.

The working substance finds the compressor as a cool, low-pressure gas. The compressor squeezes the substance. This packs the molecule of the liquid closer jointly. The better the substances are together, the bigger its energy and its temperature.

The working liquid leaves the compressor as a hot, ruthless gas and moves in to the condenser. If we viewed the air conditioner part outside a house, look for the part that has metallic fins all around. The fins react as being a radiator in a car and helps the heat go away, or dissipate, quicker.

When the working fluid leaves the condenser, its temperature is much much cooler and it includes transformed from a gas to a liquid under high pressure. The liquid goes into the evaporator through a very tiny, narrow opening. On the other side, the liquid's pressure drops. When it does it starts to evaporate into a gas.

As the liquid changes to gas and evaporates, it extracts temperature from the environment around it. Heat in the air is required to separate the substances of the smooth from a liquid to a gas.

The evaporator also offers metallic fins to assist in exchange the thermal energy with the encompassing air.

By enough time the working smooth leaves the evaporator, it is just a cool, low pressure gas. After that it comes back to the compressor to commence its trip all over again.

Connected to the evaporator is a supporter that circulates mid-air inside to blow across the evaporator fins. Hot air is lighter than frigid air, so the hot air in the area rises to the most notable of a room.

There is a vent there where air is sucked in to the air conditioner and goes down ducts. The hot air can be used to cool the gas in the evaporator. As heat is removed from the air, the environment is cooled. It really is then blown in to the house through other ducts usually at the ground level.

This continues again and again and over before room extends to the temperature we wish the area cooled to. The thermostat senses that the temperature has reached the right setting up and turns off the air conditioning equipment. As the area warms up, the thermostat turns the air conditioner back on until the room gets to the temperatures. Any system that loours temperature operates in similar fashion. First we have a gas, like Freon, and place it in a covered system. This freon is then pressurized using a compressor. As it's pressurized, it gets hot by absorbing the heat around it. This hot gas is then circulated through some tubes that dissipate heat. Clinically, the gas gets rid of heat somewhat than adds cold, but that's a lesson in physics it doesn't really subject to us right now. The gas can lose a lot of its temperature, in other words it gets really frosty, when we reduce the pressure. Since it cools it becomes a liquid. This is whenever we get frosty air blowing on damp sweaty forehead.

To use this system in an automobile, it needed hardly any version from its early applications as a refrigeration device. since it was learned that Freon (R-12) was bad for the earth's Ozone level, it's been eliminated for automotive use, and substituted with the somewhat less effective, but harmless R-134a refrigerant. This is actually good news because for a long time it was illegal to service our very own air-con system without a license. Given that the refrigerant is safer, we can all work on our very own A/C systems again! Some cars havent been changed from the old R12 to R-134a, but this conversion can be carried out easily.

2. 1 WORKING OF AIR CONDITIONER

2. 1. 1 COMPRESSOR

The air-con compressor is the refrigerant pump of the air conditioning system. The compressor compresses refrigerant inside the machine and circulates it to the condenser and then to the evaporator. The evaporator is where the pressurized refrigerant is released, triggering a drop in pressure producing a cold evaporator, the low pressure refrigerant is then went back to the compressor to be re-pressurized. The air-con compressor is motivated by the drive belt that is pooured by the engine unit and can be involved and disengaged by an electromagnetic coil on the front of the compressor (Fig. 2. 1).

To keep up with the efficiency of the air-con system the compressor drive belt should be checked regularly. If it's worn out or degenerated it ought to be replaced. The system's tubes should be checked out for deterioration, bubbles, breaks and hardening or oily residue, all could be indicators of leakage. The correct refrigerant charge should be maintained, low system refrigerant demand is a common reason behind a fragile AC system.

Odors can developed in the air-con system when a fungus is continuing to grow on the evaporator key. Warm damp area provided the perfect mating ground for fungi, which grows up with dampness. Aerosol disinfectants can be used to remedy this problem. While the air conditioner system is operating on the entire high environment with recirculation feature triggered, apply a disinfectant (Lysol, Ozium) in to the inlet of the ac system (under the dash on the passenger's part), take note whatever we aerosol will come out of the higher vents, so we might not want our face before any vents when doing this process. Odors can be prevented from returning by repeating this process periodically throughout the summer months. This is actually the heart of our a/c system. The compressor is what calls for the refrigerant (the gas) and pressurizes it so it will cool air. It's run by an engine belt. The compressor also offers an electrically managed clutch that changes the compressor on / off even as we demand more cool air.

2. 1. 2 CONDENSERS

This is the region in which temperature dissipation occurs. The condenser, in many cases, will have much the same appearance as the radiator in we car as both have very similar functions. The condenser was created to radiate temperature. Its location is usually in front of the radiator, but in some cases, credited to aerodynamic improvements to your body of a vehicle, its location may differ. Condensers must have good air flow anytime the system is in operation. On rear wheel drive vehicles, this is usually accomplished by taking advantage of our existing engine's air conditioning fan. On entry steering wheel drive vehicles, condenser ventilation is supplemented with one or more electric cooling fan(s) (Fig. 2. 2).

As hot compressed gasses are released into the top of the condenser, they may be cooled off. As the gas cools, it condenses and exits the bottom of the condenser as a high pressure liquid. The condenser is like a small radiator, usually installed at the front end of the car right next to our big radiator. Sometimes the condenser will have its own electric cooling fan, too. The hot, compressed air moves through the condenser and gets lots cooler. As it cools, it becomes a liquid

2. 1. 3 EVAPORATOR

Located inside the automobile, the evaporator will serve as heat absorption aspect. The evaporator provides several functions. Its principal duty is to remove heat from the within of your vehicle. A second benefit is dehumidification. As warmer air trips through the aluminium fins of the chiller evaporator coil, the dampness contained in the air condenses on its surface. Particles and pollen passing through adhere to its wet floors and drain off to the outside. On humid days we may have observed this as water dripping from the bottom of the vehicle. Be confident this is correctly normal (Fig. 2. 3).

The ideal temp of the evaporator is 32 Fahrenheit or 0 Celsius. Refrigerant enters the bottom of the evaporator as a minimal pressure liquid. The heated air passing through the evaporator fins triggers the refrigerant to boil (refrigerants have suprisingly low boiling tips). As the refrigerant begins to boil, it can absorb huge amounts of temperature. This warmth is then transported off with the refrigerant to the outside of the automobile. Other components work in conjunction with the evaporator. As mentioned above, the ideal temp for an evaporator coil is 32 F. Temperature and pressure regulating devices can be used to control its temperature. While there are many variations of devices used, their main functions are the same; keeping pressure in the evaporator low and keeping the evaporator from freezing; A iced evaporator coil won't absorb the maximum amount of high temperature. The evaporator is another little radiator that does just the opposite activity as the condenser. As the super-cool liquid is handed through its tubes, air is obligated through and gets really wintry, before it hits our face. As it warms up again, the refrigerant begins turning back to a gas.

2. 1. 4 Heat EXPANSION VALVE

Another common refrigerant regulator is the thermal extension valve, or TXV. Commonly used on import and aftermarket systems. This type of valve can sense both heat range and pressure, which is very successful at regulating refrigerant stream to the evaporator. Several variants of this valve are commonly found. Another example of a thermal enlargement valve is Chrysler's "H stop" type. This sort of valve is usually located at the firewall, between the evaporator inlet and wall plug tubes and the liquid and suction lines. These types of valves, although efficient, have some cons over orifice pipe systems. Like orifice pipes these valves can become clogged with rubble, but also have small moving parts that may stick and malfunction scheduled to corrosion. (Fig. 2. 4)

Flow control, or metering, of the refrigerant is achieved by use of the temperature sensing light filled with a similar gas as in the system that causes the valve to close from the springtime pressure in the valve body as the temperatures on the bulb increases. As conditions in the evaporator lower, so does indeed the pressure in the bulb and for that reason on the springtime leading to the valve to open up. An air-con system with a TX valve is often more efficient than other designs that do not use one. A thermal enlargement valve is a key aspect to a refrigeration pattern; the cycle which makes air conditioning, or air cooling down, possible. A simple refrigeration cycle includes four major elements, a compressor, a condenser, a metering device and an evaporator. Like a refrigerant passes by using a circuit including these four elements, air-con occurs. The routine starts when refrigerant gets into the compressor in a minimal pressure, low temperature, gaseous form. The refrigerant is compressed by the compressor to a high pressure and heat gaseous point out.

2. 1. 5 RECIEVER-DRIER

The receiver-drier is used on the high side of systems that use a thermal development valve. This sort of metering valve requires liquid refrigerant. To make sure that the valve gets liquid refrigerant, a device is used. The principal function of the receiver-drier is to separate gas and liquid. The secondary purpose is to eliminate moisture and filter out mud. The receiver-drier usually has a look glass in the most notable. This sight a glass is often used to ask for the machine. Under normal operating conditions, vapor bubbles should not be noticeable in the perception glass. The use of the sight wine glass to charge the machine is not recommended in R-134a systems as cloudiness and petrol that has segregated from the refrigerant can be mistaken for bubbles. This sort of mistake can lead to a dangerous overcharged condition. You will discover variants of receiver-driers and many different desiccant materials are used. Some of the moisture eliminating desiccants found within are not appropriate for R-134a. The desiccant type is usually identified over a sticker that is affixed to the receiver-drier. Neour receiver-driers use desiccant type XH-7 and are appropriate for both R-12 and R-134a refrigerants. The ac device drier is used to take every one of the water from the ac system, and take out any contaminants that may plug the ac system. The ac recipient drier should be improved whenever we remove any ac part that exposes the sealed ac system to the atmosphere. (Fig. 2. 5)

The ac receiver drier is typically positioned in the engine compartment and has 2 hoses connected to it. There also may be a low-pressure switch mounted on the receiver drier as well. For convenience some ac receiver driers have a small window on the machine to permit we to see if the air conditioning system is completely charged. Simply flip the ac system on high, hold out a few momemts and look at the tiny window. We have to not see any bubbles transferring thru the receiver drier.

2. 1. 6 ACCUMULATORS

Accumulators are being used on systems that accommodate an orifice pipe to meter refrigerants in to the evaporator. It is connected directly to the evaporator outlet and stores unwanted liquid refrigerant. Benefits of liquid refrigerant into a compressor can do serious harm. Compressors are designed to compress gas not liquid. The principle role of the accumulator is to isolate the compressor from any damaging water refrigerant. Accumulators, like receiver-driers, also remove rubble and water from a system. It is smart to replace the accumulator every time the machine is opened up for major repair and anytime moisture and/or dirt is of concern. Moisture is enemy number one for our A/C system. Water in a system mixes with refrigerant and varieties a corrosive acid. When in question, it could be to our advantage to improve the Accumulator or receiver in our system. While this may be a temporary distress for our wallet, it is of permanent benefit to your air conditioning system. An accumulator can maintain the pressure in a system for periods whenever there are slight leaks without the pump being cycled on / off constantly. When temps changes cause pressure excursions the accumulator helps absorb them. Its size helps absorb smooth that might normally be locked in a tiny fixed system without room for development due to valve design. (Fig. 2. 6)

The gas precharge in an accumulator is defined so the separating bladder, diaphragm or piston does not reach or reach either end of the operating cylinder. The look precharge normally means that the moving parts do not foul the ends or block smooth passages. Poor maintenance of precharge can kill an working accumulator. A properly designed and managed accumulator should operate trouble-free.

2. 1. 7 ORIFICE TUBE

The orifice tube, essentially the most commonly used, are available in most GM and Ford models. It really is found in the inlet tube of the evaporator, or in the liquid series, somewhere between the wall socket of the condenser and the inlet of the evaporator. This aspect are available in a properly functioning system by locating the area between your electric outlet of the condenser and the inlet of the evaporator that abruptly makes the change from hot to chilly. We should then see small dimples located in the collection that keep the orifice pipe from moving. A lot of the orifice tubes used today measure about three inches long and consist of a tiny brass tube, surrounded by plastic, and covered with a filter screen at each end. It is not uncommon for these tubes to become clogged with small particles. While inexpensive, usually between three to five us dollars, the labor to replace one involves recovering the refrigerant, opening the machine up, changing the orifice pipe, evacuating and then recharging. With this thought, it might make sense to install a more substantial pre filter in front of the orifice pipe to minimize the risk of of the problem reoccurring. Some Ford models have a permanently affixed orifice pipe in the liquid brand. These can be minimize out and replaced with. (Fig. 2. 7)

2. 2 CAUSES OF AIR-CON PROBLEMS

2. 2. 1 INTRODUCTION

Most of us take the AC in our automobiles for granted. We don't give it much thought during our daily commute. Really the only time we consider it is whenever we it starts supplying us problems. But exactly like the rest of the important part of a vehicle, its AC should also be retained properly. Especially in the cities where we get a lot of sunshine, a car without a proper AC is nothing less than a solar water heater. It can be quite a consequence to travel in such a car.

There can be various reasons for a car's air-con problem. There are many components in it and anyone of the AC parts can create trouble. For example, if there is absolutely no frosty air from the AC, then it could have one of these problems:

The fuse might be blown.

Driver belt may be damaged.

There may be a blockage in the enlargement valve, receiver driver or refrigerant series.

Mistake or leakage in extension valve.

If we are experiencing the challenge of decreased cooling down in the automobile, then there might be a slow leak or blockage in the system that should be check at the earliest opportunity. A low refrigerant charge, or a sliding AC compressor clutch can also decrease the performance of the AC.

Here we must remember that modest leaks of refrigerant in some ac units are normal, but if the leakage increases over time, then visit a mechanic immediately. Lots of the neour models have external filters to keep the dust debris from attaining inside the car. But with time, these filters can also get clogged and reduce the air flow. Ensure that we clean these filter systems at regular intervals, especially if we stay in a dusty place.

If we experience a musty smell in the automobile than it's very much possible that mould is preventing the filter and evaporator of the Air conditioner. In such instances, mid-air might be chilly but not cool enough and there will be a peculiar moisty smell inside the car. Many people might even experience allergic disorders as soon as they enter the car. Take the automobile to the auto mechanic immediately, if we believe any mould or fungal infestation inside our car AC.

As most of us have experienced at some point of your life, getting the AC of a car is tedious job because we must send our cars to the auto technician for at least one or two days. This is not only very expensive, but very frustrating too. So, ensure that we keep our car in the best condition possible. Get it serviced promptly and don't dismiss any warning signs that our AC might be supplying.

Whenever we take our car on a tough and long trip, ensure that we get it serviced from a qualified mechanic afterwards. Ask the mechanic to put emphasis on the A/C compressor and its other parts

2. 2. 2 MAIN PROBLEMS AND CAUSES

Air conditioning, which was once a great luxury, is currently a feature of all motor vehicles. While the servicing of modern car air conditioning systems is best left to specialists, we can get the most satisfaction from our ac system if we realize a bit about how it works and what malfunctions we should look for.

1. Odd smells coming from the air conditioning may be brought on by bacterial buildups

As our car becomes more aged, or when the air-con system is utilized infrequently, bacterias, micro-organisms, mold and fungi may start growing, just behind the dash panel on the evaporator causing some very unpleasant odors. Some even lay claim this can lead to headaches and flu like warning sign sometimes referred to as "sick car syndrome. "

This problem can be solved by using an anti-bacterial treatment that destroys the bacteria expansion and leaves our car smelling fresh again.

2. If we car does not feel wintry enough, then we may need to recharge our system

If we believe that our car doesn't feel as chilly as our friend's car, then our system may need servicing. The air-con system in our vehicle is not usually included in most manufacturers servicing schedules and the refrigerant gas that is used to operate the system depletes over time. On average most vehicles lose up to 15% per annum. This leakage can be caused when then system is not used during the winter months. Thus allowing the tiny "O" diamond ring seals to dry producing a gradual deterioration in system performance. If this goes on, eventually the machine will never be in a position to operate at all.

Most problems of the type can be placed right fairly easily with a leak check of our bodies followed by an entire refill of our air-con refrigerant, this is sometimes known as a re-gas.

3. Running our air conditioning year round will help maintain the system

If we run the air-con in the winter it will help to keep the system well lubricated and leak small. This is because the refrigerant actually provides the oil that lubricates the system and most notably the compressor. In addition, it retains the seals and hoses moist, thus preventing them from drying out and breaking which can lead to leaks.

4. Strange sounds coming from the air-con should be taken care of immediately. If our air-con system suddenly starts making noises we have not heard before it's very advisable to have a qualified vehicle air conditioning specialist to truly have a look at it.

Some sounds could be early on symptoms of a compressor failing (the compressor is the air-con pump). The compressor is usually the most expensive part on the machine ranging from around 230 to 600+ and when the bearings in our compressor break down or if the compressor seizes up it also means that other components can become contaminated with metal contaminants A flush of the system would then be needed as well as substitute of the compressor, the recipient/drier and the growth valve - quite a hefty costs!

5. Don't be anxious about a pool of normal water developing under our car after using the A/C

If we visit a puddle of drinking water on the floor, usually under the traveler area avoid being alarmed. This is a normal feature of the system as it is merely drinking water dripping from the air-con evaporator. The evaporator has a drain pipe fitted to allow the condensation from the evaporator to drain away from the vehicle.

6. Excessive water inside the car can be fixed easily

Sometimes the drain pipe from the evaporator could become obstructed or detached allowing the condensation to build up inside evaporator. If this occurs normal water will just build up inside oure car to a point where there are damp carpets or misting / high humidness type problems. These problems can be resolved with low-cost servicing.

7. Have our air-con serviced regularly, even if there are no noticeable problems. As the other systems of the car need servicing on a regular basis, the same holds true for the air conditioning system. The compressor needs oil, or else it'll seize up. The filter collects dust and moisture. In the event the filter becomes clogged, then the performance of the machine will deteriorate and it can even quit working totally (probably when we require it most!)

Normally the refrigerant gas in an automobile air-con system should be recharged completely within four years from the manufacture time frame and thereafter every two to three years.

An twelve-monthly servicing of the car's air conditioning system will protect from malfunctions in the compressor and other vital parts of the system. Regular maintenance will save we profit the long run and assurance we comfort in the latest weeks. Vehicle manufacturers recommend servicing air-conditioning systems every two years. A fully useful system brings we several major benefits:

Ensures that accurate conditions are being come to.

Reduces pollen and air pollution getting into our car.

Saves we money.

Reduces the quantity of chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere.

Increases the life of our vehicle's air conditioning system.

A useful suggestion in winter is to run the air conditioning to prevent our windscreen misting

3. 1. METHODOLOGY

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

FAILURE ANALYSIS

4. 1. CONCLUSIONS

The project article mainly deals with how an air conditioner works and clarifies the many working top features of the air conditioner such as the working parts and then handles the issues associated with air-con and the primary causes of it. The project also offers an understanding to the air conditioning world and exactly how important it is to your present day world.

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