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Introduction And History To Alexander The Great History Essay


Those events happened long time back are difficult to separate myth from the fact. So, there continually be some concerns about the truthfulness of old history, and the storyline of Alexander the fantastic, the ruler of Macedonia, is no different. Historians, writers, strategists and philosophers present people different variations of Alexander, Some deem him as a saint, a hero or ever before a god, although some other consider him as a tyrant, a alcoholic and a thief. But, what is no doubt that Alexander the fantastic is one of the biggest leaders in human history and the inventor of one of the greatest empires in historical record, although admittedly relatively shorter resided.


Alexander's reputation

"The glory and the storage of men will usually participate in the ones who implemented their great visions"

-------- J. G. Droysen(German historian)

Alexander is the most dramatic figure ever sold, and his experience and personality has always been the foundation of durability. What made--and still makes--him so remarkable is the sheer precocity of his venture: the conquest of the majority of the known world in a strong 12-time whirlwind. At his 20, Alexander succeeded his dad to the throne and become the ruler of Hellene world at the east of Adriatic Sea. At his 26, Alexander experienced conquered and become the new ruler of the entirety of the Persian Empire which ever was incomparably formidable. At his 30, his invincible military reached the finish of oecumene. At his 33, the globe sighed for his young fatality. Therefore, he previously been a legend while he was alive. And after his loss of life in 323 BC, his legend was eulogized all around the world.

World conquerors don't come much grander than Alexander the fantastic. As well as Genghis Khan and Tamerlane, the King of Macedon sits at the top desk of history's ideal empire-builders. (Cartledge, 2004) Alexander the fantastic remains the best exemplory case of management, unmatched after more than 2000 years. He was not only a military services genius, but also he was in the positioning that involved political, religious and even business. I write this paper for analyzing the authority of Alexander the Great. The structure of the paper is the next: The short introduction of Alexander the fantastic and his achievements followed by the analysis of the leadership attributes of Alexander the Great, the evaluation of the command action of Alexander the fantastic, and the assumption of Alexander's control in the hospitality industry.

The glory of his short life


Alexandros III Philippou Macedon, Ruler of Macedonia was created in the administrative centre of Macedon, Pella, in 356BC, as a prince. His father, Philip II of Macedon, was the ruler of Macedonia and his mom was Olympias, daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus (Albania). Olympia was passionate, headstrong, mystical but immodest and unpopular among Philip's Macedonian courtiers. She was superstitious and participated in orgiastic rites of the cult of Dionysus. And she always firmly thought that Zeus, the Greek god, sired Alexander.

Education and early on life

His first tutor is the harsh Leonidas, a member of family of Olympias. It made Alexander's diligency and continency. When he was 13 yeas old his daddy invited the great Hellenic philosopher Aristotle as his teacher for his advanced schooling. The training made him a great ruler. Besides, he learned about the art of challenge, this made him a heroic warrior. And Alexander revealed the talent in music and horsemanship in his years as a child.

It was said that Alexander's figure in highly influenced and inspired by way of a God (Dionysus), a demigod (Hercules), a hero (Achilles), and a sovereign (Cyrus the Great, the Persian emperor). He was created by his mom to the cult mysteries of the Dionysius as a young man. Through Dionysius, Alexander got extreme flexibility and acquired a center of excitement. He wanted to be the ones like Hercules and Achilles in Iliad, and he always said himself as Achilles. And he respected Cyrus about personality and he showed the actions like the Cyrus in his conquest later.

When he was 16 yrs. old, 340 B. C. , Philip II commenced to overcome Byzantium, and he left his Macedon to young Alexander for taking charge of. On this position, he exhibited himself a armed forces genius and smashed many insurgences. But Alexander and his daddy didn't have a good marriage until Philip's fatality of assassination.

Philip's heir, King of Macedon

Because Philip got brought most of city-states in mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony before being assassinated, Alexander inherited a large kingdom. He acquired the support of Macedonian people and army by reducing the tax, properly completing Philip's last honours, and executing many individuals who imperiled his throne. Than he started some wars to deal with the abruption and rebelled power. And in 2 yrs, Alexander acquired consolidated his position in Hellene.


In Alexander 12-years' conquest, his footprint covered from Macedonia, Hellene in the western world to the Indus in the east; from Egypt in the south to the north of Adriatic Sea. He and his Macedonian military defeated armies 4 or 5 times his size from Persia and India and other tribes and kingdoms. They emerged through near 100 promotions and didn't lose any of them. This newspaper will not present the aspect information about those promotions.


In 323 B. C. Alexander returned to Babylon and planed a invasion of Arabiaa, But before he could put his plan into to action, he got a fever and turned into a significant disease which finally got his life at his 32. Also, there is another expressing that he was poisoned by his generals. After his loss of life, his empire was separated by his generals. But, Alexander experienced founded over 70 new locations. The effect of Hellene was also strong and the colonization process was prolonged by his successors.

Alexander's beliefs and values

He believed that when a man has the greatest exploit (like Achilles) that no one else can reach, he can become a God. In history, there was a man who was simply esteemed as a god by people after his loss of life; this man was Julius Caesar, the emperor of Rome Empire. Actually, Alexander was worshipped as a god even though he was alive. It felt that he deserved to be a god by all performances. As a warrior and a general, he proved extremely brave and incomparable intellect. In the 11 years of conquest, he didn't lose any of the campaigns. Besides, he was tutored by the great Hellenic philosopher Aristotle , and he was one of Aristotle's most favorite students. He liked Homer, and his activities were guided by the sprit of Homer. He understood that non-Hellenes are not barbarians; in this aspect, he was much wiser than most Hellene ideologist at that time. However in other aspects, he was extremely short-vision. Although he always exposed himself often to the extreme danger during struggle, he didn't organise his inheritor, this may be the key reason that the Macedonia Empire collapsed in that small amount of time after he was useless. But his ambition propagate Hellene culture much into central Asia, which continued to be present during the Hellenistic era for years after his loss of life.

Outstanding leadership attributes of Alexander the Great

Well educated and intelligence

In order to train the future ruler into an educated monarch, his daddy, Ruler Philip III, invite the great Hellenic philosopher Aristotle to tutor Alexander specially. In the following 3 years, Alexander studied with his tutor day and night, like peas and carrots. They were discussing beliefs, politics, ethics, and a great many other areas of knowledge. Aristotle also put together a particular version of the Iliad (a part of Homer) which always inspired Alexander. Alexander liked this literature; he place it under his pillow with a dagger. As well as the Iliad became Alexander's manual of battle. Alexander highly revered his teacher for educating him how to be a noble man. Under the Aristotle's work, Alexander became a unusual experienced monarch at that time. Later in his conquest across the Eurasia, he didn't ignore to read and learn from Hellenic catalogs and records. Profound knowledge offers Alexander extraordinary allure and unique control. " Once, the Persian envoys came up to Macedon, while the Persia is the strong empire that Alexander wanted to overcome most; he hided his ambitions rationally and make these envoys adored by his genial frame of mind and abstemious questions. Finally, one of the Persian envoys sigh that: this child is a superb king, while our king is just wealthy. In his following conquest, his brains not only exhibited in his invincibility, but also the increasing of many towns by him while his conquest, and he made these cities be the centers of armed service, politics and market. For example the Alexandria in Egypt was one of them. Those cities performed important roles in the history of individuals civilization. Also, Alexander could easily get gone the parochialism in that era, and produce the ethnic equality. His serious knowledge made his greatness and made his immortal fame eulogized by people as Alexander the fantastic.

Always have a Eye-sight and Concentrate the big picture.

Great leaders always have a big perspective that can be shared, valued and resonated along with his fans' hearts and feelings; and can inspire them to think big, generate the feelings of owned by something higher than self. Alexander possessed great visions. Within the Anabasis which wrote by the Hellenic historian called Arrian there was a description about Alexander's eyesight: I couldn't know just what kind of visions and ideas have there been in Alexander's mind. But there is no hesitation that, they aren't some little or small ideas. Even after the Europe is an integral part of Asia, the United kingdom Isles were parts of European countries; he still wouldn't normally stop his pace of conquest. Actually, conquest was the superficial one; Alexander's eyesight was much more than that. His inspiring goal was to unite European countries and Asia under "The Brotherhood of Man" which would bring different cultures into one collaborating product governed by the pass on of Hellenism, able to produce synergy through trade, laws and regulations, inclusion and politics union. Implemented his great eye-sight, Alexander conquered most the known world in those days and built an empire that had not been exceeded by posterity. Besides creating a great perspective, Alexander always looked at the picture as a whole as the most important item. He previously never lost perception of his eye-sight and the situational characteristics during his short reign. For instance, Alexander crushed many revolts (like the destruction of Thebes) after his accession to the throne from his dad. It was a step in his eye-sight where he hoped to drive all Greek opposition into distribution before aiming to invade Persia. Another example is that during his conquest, in order to make colonies steady, he accepted their culture, used their manner and even married using their princess, and he inspired his men to check out his steps.

Do not focus on negative things

A Great leader should avoid focusing on negative areas of things and try to find the positive or good aspects in the bad or negative things, and take good thing about it. For Alexander, because of his optimism or his assurance about his good tactical sense or even his arrogance of invincibility, he always thought things in positive way. As a result, he didn't lose any battles against Persian Empire and later in India. For instance, before Alexander began to invade Persian Empire, almost all of Macedonian thought it was impossible to overcome Persian because the king of Persia had a strong military and countless prosperity. In 331B. C. Macedonian and Persian experienced a decisive battle in Gaugamela. Persian army was five times size of Macedonian, most generals of Alexander suggested him to retreat to the seaside to put together more army. But Alexander said that, in Persian army, the majority of the troops are slaves of Darius's, they didn't want to struggle for Darius who was a tyrant and a coward; as the Macedonian army included the elites of footmen and knights; the Macedonian can beat the Persian army with his command word. The result proved that Alexander triumphed in the decisive challenge in Gaugamela and the Darius III was totally defeated by the plan. In Alexander's life no matter how bad the problem was, he always turned it into advantages.

Sharp Insight

Great leaders always have penetrating insight; they always can find the tiniest things that affect the overall situation. Alexander experienced very sharp perception, he always can find the weakness of his adversary, and also he can regard the tiniest need of his supporters. When Alexander was a decade old, a horses trader from Thessaly send Philip a horse called Bucephalus. But no-one can attach the bold black stallion even Philip himself, so Philip purchased to take it away and every chosen the horse was too wild to ride. While Alexander, astute in his observations and insights, detected that the horse was just fear of its shadow. So he asked a challenge to tame the horse and he successfully mounted the horse when it was facing sunlight, steering clear of its shadow. Relating to Plutarch, Philip, overjoyed as of this screen of courage and ambition, kissed him tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you", and bought the horses for him. In 331 B. C. , Alexander encountered 300 thousand Persian soldiers in Gaugamela, while he only experienced fifty thousand Macedonian. It's a hard battle. It is the summertime; Alexander used his sharpened insights to learn that the quick motion of large audience of army could cause big dust in the desert. So he led his knights to go to right fast and bring a strong dust; Included in the particles, the knights does a coup de main to the trunk of Persian military and Macedonian acquired a big victory.

Leadership action of Alexander the Great

Directive leadership

As most armed forces and political market leaders, Alexander the Great showed an average directive command. And in a few situation, it was even way beyond the direct authority. He was well informed and had a splendid military talent. He had a strong assurance of his decision-making. Actually, he never discovered to pay attention and agree to his inferior officers' views although almost all of them had a lot more experience than him. Many historical materials proved that Alexander's poor generals always possessed divarications with him, specially when Alexander brought out some extremely dangerous programs what may bring Macedonian military into bad situation to them. But, Alexander never listened to them; he insisted his decisions and the results proved his decisions were right. Some people assumed that it was only because his always got good luck. But, it was more sensible that he previously abilities alternatively than lucks. Before every battle, Alexander possessed a particular intend to reach his goals: victory. Alexander knew accurately what the duties were and assigned responsibility to the followers. He always recognized the strength and weakness of his army and also his foes. According the durability and weakness he assigned every part of his army into specific jobs. He previously strict enforcement of orders and bans, and he expected the quick response from his fans, it looked especially important when he use coup de main in battles. It was the directive command made him and his military win all conquers in his conquest. But this type management style partly considered be egomania later. Inside a bender, he wiped out one of his best inferiors, friend and his saviour: Cleitus as a result of divarication. Also, it might cause the loss of life of Alexander (there is a expressing that Alexander was poisoned to dead by his substandard).

Charismatic leadership tendencies:

Undoubtedly, Alexander was a great charismatic head. The basis of Alexander's success as a head was his capability to inspire his men to believe great things and then complete them with interest, enthusiasm, and commitment. (Trek, 2005) During his conquest, he always taken notice of the morale of Macedonian army and he was good at inspiring and influencing his troops. Before every battle, he always did a speech before his military to inspire his soldiers to have a high morale and become ready to combat by using his oratory. And Alexander had empathy, which is the foundational behavior that under girds great management and enables the first choice to sense how others feel also to understand their perspective. There is a example, in the summer of 327 B C the Iran and perimeter was firmly in charge by Alexander. Most of his inferiors thought that it had not been necessary to overcome new areas including beyond Hindu Kush where had been abandoned by Persian Empire. The Macedonian military was tired and in low morale, they wanted to go back home instead of going farther. In this example, Alexander announced that of his soldiers' arrears would be paid by royal treasury; this step of Alexander influenced his military greatly. By this way and oratory, he actually motivated, hoodwinked and compelled his military to find yourself in Pakistan and India. Alexander possessed some kind of charisma that made him be treasured by his people. He always offered mercy to the opponents that had been conquered by him. Because of this type of control, Alexander was adored by people as a godlike man.

If Alexander the fantastic was in hospitality industry

Theoretically˜Alexander's leadership is mainly suited to hospitality industry.

He was a guy who got a divine charisma, so his great vision and strong ambitions can easily influence his enthusiasts. He always viewed the big picture and he never centered the negative things. Also, he had a sharp insight and always be proficient at inspire his enthusiasts. He wanted to overcome, if he was in today's hospitality industry, he is able to perfectly be competent for the high director position in a hotel company, and the Merger and Acquisitions Director may be the most appropriate position for him. As the very best director of company, M&A director is needed to have a sharpened insight to discover the advantages and weaknesses of his company; the opportunities, dangers and competition situation on the market. Also he must be clear about the strategy of his venture, do research and evaluation about the major products in hospitality industry, the major suppliers and the administrative centre market. If the business acquired enough capital and a favorable prospect, the administrative centre market can offer capital moreover; the M&A director can make his company a rise by mergers and acquisitions, and significantly boost its competitiveness in the hospitality industry. Speaking from the military, if a army which is made up with footmen and archers conquers another strength-comparable army while which consists of knights crossbowmen and warship, the union of new forearms and original infantries and archers would greatly improve the army's overall struggle effectiveness. Alexander got two traits which were essential to a M&A director: the power of exceeding and conquering other enterprises, and the smooth ability of promoting the uniting acquirer and acquiree.

But on the other hand, Alexander's ambition seem to be too large so that he didn't realize and offer with Functional problems well. If he was a innovator in hospitality industry, his company might grow fast but blind. There are several examples that the majority of business decision-makers become take great pride in and arrogant after success. They realize the maximum of the marketplace share as the only real goal, merge and acquire continually. But, they don't really do the effective manage in integrating the subsidiary companies after the mergers and acquisitions. Because of this, these companies commence to be in a loss, even go bankrupt or be merged. Steve Ross, who ran a funeral business at early years, bought Warner Brothers and Time Inc. old age and create a empire of media and communication. After he left his position as health reasons, Gerald Levis extended to have the Alexander-type expansion. His company purchased AOL with large amount of personal debt in 1999. But there is no assistance among subsidiary companies, on the other hand, there were filled with competition with enmity. Later, Levin was dismissed, his successor Richard Patons got to pick up the items, sold the belongings to cover your debt. In the current hospitality industry, big hotels, management companies and restaurants broaden extremely fast by using franchise, expansion of physical facilities, management deal and also mergers and acquisitions. These businesses also face the issues that Alexander and a lot of business market leaders has faced. How exactly to deal with the "huge empire" after "conquest"? Certainly, Alexander didn't operate well in this part.


Walt Whitman had a explanation about Alexander the Great in his original poems: he represented "the highest achievements of the world", "the future of all lives", he "ranges possesses everything". We are able to also use the same words to evaluate the great life of Alexander the Great. Colin Farrell, the actor who functions as Alexander in director Oliver Stone's film, acquired a wonderful declaring once: "Everything is in it. Greed, jealousy, love, pain, wish, despair, arrogance, companionship, betrays. It's an extremely brilliant story. It includes too many things, as many as allowing people think it a shoddy book. " There is absolutely no uncertainty that Alexander achieved a great exploit in his short but marvelous life. His exceptional leadership style was studied by afterworld. In the end, it is improper to criticize and pictured Alexander the Great because he only resided 33 years without harvesting the seeds of his vision.

The Alexandria continues to be position at the South of the Mediterranean Sea; the great tales are still apotheosized by people, but its coordinator Alexander the Great has truly gone. His honorable spirit, great visions and amazing exploit left as a shape, this framework has been burning up quietly before, maybe it is merely burning quietly now, but it hasn't went out and could not go out.

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