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Internalization And Friendly Learning Theory Young People Essay

According to analyze, the effects of inter-partner assault witnessed by the child or young person can cause significant internalized behaviours, whereby the emotional and psychological effects of the assault have caused common problems including panic, social drawback and despair for children and teenagers.

It is of our own ignorance that many people choose to presume a child is 'just' being calm rather than experiencing significant stress and psychological problems (Calder 2004:57). It is this ignorance that escalates the child's felt isolation alongside their mental and emotional disruptions. It is arguable that the lack of mature coping strategies a child has, alongside the inability of others to discover when a child needs help, is what places them at greater threat of experiencing such traumatic and indeed clinical behaviours. For example, Davis and Carlson (1987) within their review regarding children of 'battered' women that 68% of preschool children and 53% of school get older children in their sample had unhappiness that was of your clinical matter.

The internalised behaviours of melancholy, anxiety and communal withdrawal are oddly enough typical of the actual abused mother (victim) often goes through (WHO 2000; Hester et al 2007; McCue 2008). According to the OFFICE AT HOME, 75% of local violence cases lead to mental health results to women (OFFICE AT HOME, 2001). These behaviours aren't surprising in relation the physical and psychological harm that local violence may cause. The victim may be fearful of when the person may next hit causing anxiety. Melancholy will come from thoughts and emotions that they can not get themselves and their children out of the abusive home. Furthermore, the stress, anxiety and depression caused by their situation may lead them to avoid social conditions, withdrawing themselves from anything which might cause them to be observed, questioned, humiliated or shamed.

One may question however, just how do these behaviours in the kid occur? When analysing the environment the kid is subjected to, the reason why for why they may have symptoms of major depression, anxiety and communal withdrawal become obvious:


Constant reminders around their home may keep them stressed and fearful of when the assault may next appear; there may be broken furniture, blood stained carpets/surfaces as well as other reminders around the house, even slices and bruises literally apparent on their father or mother, signifying the child's insufficient control.


The child is silent and withdrawn. They will have learnt that silence and not being outspoken is the best way to behave if indeed they don't want to get beaten or they don't want to see or notice their mothers beaten. This is educated verbally and/or visually through associative learning means. (Lieberman 2000:41-55). For example if they see their father consistently violating their mom there are two responses; the mother continues quiet and will not respond-the result maybe that the father does not continue being violent, the atmosphere may relax. The second response may contain a volatile effect from the mom, screams, shouts and/or crying-the effect is that their dad will continue to violate. Which means child learns and associates that being loud, outspoken and overtly emotional will raise the violence, so the child may become noiseless and withdrawn with the hope that the assault will certainly reduce.


The unhappiness may stem using their company insignificance, their silence, their feeling of powerlessness and the emotions of guilt for not protecting their mother. Feelings of powerlessness and guilt may raise the child's mental and psychological injury, particularly if there are no significant external or internal supports.

We can apply these behaviours to social learning theory, which is dependant on the principle that behaviours noticed as a person will become discovered and modelled as if the behaviour they may have observed is typical. For example if the standard social behaviours of your abused mother in the home involve depression, stress, quietness, such behaviours are likely to be modelled by the child, for their attachment (internal, emotional and natural) but also because they haven't experienced the possibility to learn any other behaviours. Community learning can be applied by watching an actual activity and witnessing what it achieves which may also be referred to as associative learning. For example, children and young people who internalise their behaviours may do so because they have got learnt using their company parents relationship that whenever the mom is noiseless and withdrawn the misuse is less inclined to occur.

A research study which demonstrates this type of 'communal learning' behaviour has been highlighted by a circumstance brought forward to the Local Violence Integrated Response Task (DVIRP), a support network based in the East Midlands (UK) which offers supports like the 'Break-Thru' program for children aged 7-16 years who have observed and or experienced domestic violence. An 8 12 months old son was described the 'Break-Thru' program for therapeutic periods after he had witnessed domestic assault. He noticed his father strike his mother over a weekly basis. If he attempted to intervene his dad would strike him too. For this reason the youngster 'discovered' to stay upstairs where he'd hear the mistreatment instead. This learning process is the one that demonstrates the influence in staying noiseless, withdrawing from difficult situations, as arguably this young man learnt these internalized behaviours were the ultimate way to act in order to reduce trouble.

But how about those children who model and socially learn from the perpetrator's behavior? There's been significant research completed encircling the 'routine of violence' thesis and the cultural learning theory of aggressive behavior (Walker 1979; Straus 1990; Grusec 1992; Bandura 1997) since there is concern that children may study from their parent, who's the perpetrator, that using such settings of behavior is the sole means of achieving what they need (Calder 2004:23).

Effects on behaviour: Externalization and communal learning theory

A significant impact on children and young people who have witnessed domestic assault considers how the child's experience affects their externalized behaviours. focus on how all except one study examining impacts of domestic violence discovered that children who had been exposed to local violence frequently externalised significant behavioural problems, most commonly: extreme, hostile, disruptive and anti- public behaviours in comparison to children from non-violent homes, similar to that of the perpetrator (in this case the daddy). However one must consider that the importance of such externalised behavioural problems exhibited in these cases will vary corresponding to aid mechanisms set up during and post home assault and other situational circumstances at the time of the study. For instance some children and moms were positioned in refuges during the studies where a abrupt change of home, university, friendships and adjustment to refuge living were most possible and likely to impact their behaviours differently to those who still live with the perpetrator.

Historically researchers have questioned the desire behind aggressive behavior. Albert Bandura (1997), specifically, proposed a social learning theory that targets externalised aggressive behaviour and how it can be implanted by origins of observational learning. This theory considers that when children witness people committing violent functions this will impact children to imitate or model this violent behaviour too. Similar outcomes of observational learning have been found in other studies and research encircling the effects of domestic assault upon behavior.

The case study regarding the 8year old youngster helped bring forward by DVIRP, as discussed previously, outlined that the young man shown externalised behaviours including anger that he had no wall plug; this resulted in him copying his father's behavior and being extreme by hitting his mum and breaking home possessions (Appendix 1). This case, and also other such cases that happen to be shown through research by the likes of McGee (2000) and Abrahams (1994), spotlight that children's role models (parents) do seriously impact behaviours; if the kid had not witnessed his father's violent behaviour he may not have externalised aggression, he might have had the opportunity to diffuse his anger through alternate methods.

Not only do such 'learnt' externalised behaviours affect familial relationships, it's been advised that children surviving in homes with heightened hostility are likely to handle their own social complications, for example with peers, by imitating and using the modes of aggression and hostility they have found from the house (Straus 1990), thus possibly leading them into 'medicine and alcohol abuse, jogging away and juvenile delinquency'. Delinquency was shown in its extreme form by the advertising attention that ornamented the Sheffield Crown Courtroom case on the Edlington assault where grievous bodily harm with objective was dedicated by two brothers aged 10 and 11. The barrister on the situation implied that the two boys may have learnt such extreme violence and legal behaviour

from their parents. The barrister outlined that the two boys had been at the mercy of a 'toxic' home life as they witnessed extreme domestic assault in the house; for example they found their dad threaten to 'slice their mothers face to parts with a knife' (BBC Reports 21/1/2010).

On the contrary one must recognise that case can be an extreme form of externalization behavior that has inspired a criminogenic life avenue, but there is absolutely no clear proof to suggest the criminal acts carried out by the two boys were the sole effects of learnt behaviour and such behaviours are not representative of most children who have been affected by witnessing domestic violence. However those who do display hostile behaviours, whether it be on a minimal scale level or an extreme level will probably affect important levels with their life, including the institution learning process and participation in peer socialisation; probably two key areas of developing 'the self applied' during childhood.

Alongside the consequences of externalised behaviours as a young person, researchers also have paid close attention to the impact of domestic violence on children and young people as they make transitions into adulthood. Many studies have found evidence for the intergenerational 'circuit of violence' theory which argues that adults who externalize violent and abusive behavior have probably witnessed violent and abusive behaviour as children 23

Physical Symptoms Although children within homes where home violence occurs are likely to suffer physical maltreatment as well, the physical ramifications of being the see to domestic violence are quite unique of symptoms of abuse, itself.

The physical ramifications of domestic violence on children can begin as the fetus is present in the mother's womb. Studies have shown that low newborn delivery weights are associated with both direct physical stress inflicted on the fetus' mom, as well as the mental stress that is put on the victim of the home abuse. Direct physical maltreatment on the feminine victim can lead to multiple physical traumas associated with the infant child, ranging from premature birth, unnecessary bleeding, and even fetal fatality. Increased maternal stress through the times of abuse, especially when combined with smoking and substance abuse, can also lead to premature deliveries and low weight babies. [3] Child children who are present in the house where domestic assault occurs often fall season victim to being "caught in the crossfire. " They may suffer physical accidental injuries from unintentional injury as their parent is battered. Newborns may be inconsolable and irritable, have a lack of responsiveness secondary to missing the emotional and physical attachment to their mother, suffer from developmental delays, and also have unnecessary diarrhea from both trauma and stress.

Physical effects of witnessing domestic violence in teenagers are less evident than behavioral and mental effects. The trauma that children experience when they see domestic violence in the house, plays a significant role in their development and physical wellbeing. The children, however, will display physical symptoms associated with the behavioral or mental problems, such as being withdrawn from those around them, becoming non-verbal, and exhibiting regressed actions such to be clingy and whiney. Anxiety - like action is also a common physical sign in children who see domestic violence in the home. These children harbor thoughts of guilt, blame, and are constantly o

n edge. They could startle at the tiniest things, such as a car door slamming or a wine glass cup accidentally dropping to the ground. If their stress and anxiety advances to more physical symptoms, they could show indicators of tiredness from lack of sleep and weight and nutritional changes from poor eating habits. [4]

Children who witness domestic violence in the house can suffer a tremendous amount of physical symptoms along with their emotional and behavioral express of despair. These children may complain of general aches and pain, such as problems and stomach aches. They may also have irritable and abnormal bowel habits, frigid sores, plus they may have problems with bedwetting. These issues have been associated with depressive disorders in children, a standard emotional effect of domestic violence. Along with these basic issues of not sensing well, children who see domestic violence could also appear nervous, as previously mentioned, and have brief attention spans. These children screen a few of the same symptoms as children who have been identified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In the opposite, these children may show symptoms of exhaustion and constant tiredness. They may drift off in school due to the lack of sleep at home. A lot of their nights may be put in hearing or witnessing assault within the home. Children of domestic violence victims are frequently ill, and have problems with poor personal cleanliness. Children who witness domestic violence likewise have a trend to partake in risky play activities, personal abuse, and loss of life by suicide. [5] Children who see domestic may show many physical symptoms of stress, emotional stress, and possibly, physical misuse.

Children who witness domestic violence in the house should be assessed for the physical ramifications of the assault by everyone around them. It is simple to see the physical traumas if the domestic violence turns into child maltreatment, however, the other physical findings may be difficult to judge. Any child that has changes in their eating habits, sleep patterns, or bowel patterns should be further reviewed or questioned by someone whom they trust.

Behavioral Symptoms Domestic violence in the home affects children in various ways and the children exposed to this type of violence will probably develop behavioral problems. Home assault can cause children to acquire regression devoid of of control behavior. [6] Whenever a child is a witness of domestic assault, they often imitate behaviors. Children feel that violence can be an acceptable habit of intimate connections. They may develop a sense of public acceptance to this behavior and become the abused or the abuser.

Some warning signs of domestic assault in children may be bed-wetting or having nightmares. Some children could become distrusting of adults. The child may try to act tough and have problems letting other folks into their life and there are some children that could even isolate themselves of their close friends and family. Another behavioral response to domestic violence may be that the child may lie to avoid confrontation and abnormal attention getting.

Adolescents are in jeopardy of academic inability, school drop-out, and substance abuse. Their behavior is guarded and they're secretive about their family. They get embarrassed ajbout the home situation. Adolescents can't stand to ask friends over plus they spend their free time away from home. Denial and aggression are their major kinds of problem solving. Teenagers cope with domestic violence by blaming others, encountering violence in a romantic relationship, or by operating away from home. [7] An estimated 1/5 to 1/3 of young adults who are involved in dating associations are regularly abusing or being abused by their companions verbally, mentally, psychologically, sexually and/or literally. 30 to 50 percent of dating relationships can display the same circuit of escalating violence in marital human relationships. [8]

Emotional Symptoms About 3. 3 million children are exposed to domestic assault in their homes each year. [9] Not only are these children vulnerable for expanding physical, behavioral, and sociable problems, nevertheless they are inclined to develop mental problems as well.

These children often have conflicting emotions towards their parents. Feelings of distrust and devotion often coexist for the abuser. The child becomes overprotective of the sufferer and seems sorry to them. [10] Children subjected to domestic violence often develop anxiety. They dread that they may be wounded during an altercation between their parents, or even fear that their parents will abandon them. Children also get worried about the safeness of the mother or father that has been abused. Often children fear they are to blame for the violence that is occurring in their homes. Grief, shame, and low self esteem are common feelings that children exposed to domestic violence experience. Melancholy is a common problem in these children. The kid often seems helpless and powerless. More young girls internalize their feelings and show signs of despair than boys. Kids are more apt to respond out with aggression and hostility. [11] Witnessing violence in the home can give the child the theory that nothing is safe on the globe and that they are not worth being placed safe which contributes to their thoughts of low self worth and depression. [12] Some children action out through anger and are more extreme than other children. Even in situations that not call for it, children will answer with anger. [13] Post Traumatic Stress Disorder can bring about children from contact with domestic assault. Symptoms of the are nightmares, insomnia, panic, increased alertness to the surroundings, having problems focusing, and can lead to physical symptoms. [14] These children are not allowed a standard childhood. There's a role reversal between your child and the father or mother and the responsibilities of the sufferer who is psychologically and psychologically dysfunctional are used in the child. (see parentification. ua. edu)This is also called parentification. 20, 21 In this example, the parents treat the youngster as a therapist or confidant, rather than as the youngster. They are compelled to mature faster than the common child. They take on household obligations such as food preparation, cleaning, and caring for younger children. [15] The duties that they undertake are beyond normal assigned chores, and aren't age appropriate. The kid becomes socially isolated and is not able to participate in activities that are normal for a kid their age. The parentified child reaches risk for becoming involved with rocky relationships because they are isolated and are not experienced at creating successful connections. Also they tend to become perfectionists because they're forced to live up to such high anticipations because of their parents. [16]

Social Symptoms Children subjected to domestic assault frequently do not have the building blocks of safety and security which are provided by the family. The children experience a desensitization to aggressive action, poor anger management and problem dealing with skills, and learn to engage in exploitative connections. [17] The symptoms of children living with violence present differently at various age range of development.

School age children exposed to domestic assault present with an extreme be concerned of possible danger and thoughts of resentment towards the perpetrating get together. [10] Symptoms include isolation from friends and family in an effort to stay near to siblings and victimized parent. [17] Adolescent children present with a difficulty in trusting parents and take part in excessive social participation to avoid volatile situations at home. The adolescent may screen these symptoms by becoming a member of a gang or becoming involved in dating associations that mimic the learned patterns. [17]

Children subjected to domestic violence need a safe nurturing environment and the space and respect to progress at their own tempo. The caretaker should provide reassurance and an increase sense of security by providing explanations and comfort for the things that worry the kids, i. e. loud noises. [10] The kids should develop and keep maintaining positive contact with significant others such as distant family. [10] All members of the family should become involved in community organization's designed to assist people in domestic assault situations.

The behavioural effects of domestic violence on education and the school response

4. 1 Overview

Education is widely accepted concerning boost financial and public capital as directly into maintain one's life. It is widely comprehended accepted by the world that compulsory education is a must for children and teenagers. This is due to the system which emphasises on social skills (interacting with peers, tutors, involving in conversations), moral and ethnic knowledge (through learning Background, Music), company skills (cues in accordance, deadlines and college uniforms) and academics skills (through Maths and Science) which will be a leading route to them for an effective life path. The children who are not able to cope up with the education norms by truanting and excluding themselves is a great matter for parents and educators.

Domestic violence does not impose direct impact on children according to researches done, although impacts are somewhat limited yet of great value. Nonetheless it has been turned out relevantly that domestic violence does give negative influences on children and teenagers in social settings which include school.

Pro - interpersonal behaviour sometimes appears in children and young people when the family setting is of positive and negative consequence sometimes appears in those of poor family attachment and negative family relationship between child and parents.

It is agreed that children and young people of domestic assault background will be involved in negative behaviours outside home which boost the probability of school difficulties.

It is simple to state that the home violence impact influences the kids and young people diversely when they do not conform with the training system and unable to achieve proper educational qualification. Those influences include increased risk of later job issues, participation in criminal offenses and mental health issues. It is not to discuss the existing impact's of local violence

After analysing the possible effects of witnessing domestic violence on the child's behaviour

in the previous chapter, this section shall concentrate on analysing the consequences that these negative

internalised and externalised behaviours have on the child's education

Internalised and externalised behaviours: Impact on schooling


As seen earlier those children who have been affected psychologically and emotionally by domestic assault have internalised behaviours of panic, social withdrawal and major depression, and externalised behaviours of any disruptive and extreme nature compared to normal life leading teams.

Mostly these type of affected children and teenagers are not able to control their behaviour from social configurations outside their home where they have problems in adult marriage, hostile or poor communication with peers, low rate of attention in college and overall poor achievements in institution.

The aggressiveness which shown by these group of folks is the outcome of the process of domestic violence at home. Ones these children are positioned outside of their home frame, they can be restless of what might b happening with their abused parent or guardian while they are not present at home. This situation increases the seriousness where they'll ill treat those individuals around them in institutions.

'And if [Dad] overcome Mum up I'd be at university thinking. . . . What if I go home and Mum isn't

there? Imagine if something's happened?' (Hannah aged 15 in McGee 2000:80).

Internalised behaviours of anxiety and stress brought on by home circumstances have been found

to affect rate of awareness and participation in school procedures (Abrahams 1994).

Children who have been traumatised and have problems with internalised behaviours are definitely more likely

to become totally withdrawn off their class; their mind-set becomes 'dissociated'

whereby they become completely disconnected from the environment these are in (the

classroom), which results in them missing out on huge amounts of information (Cole et al

2005:37). This drawback may significantly impede their academic development and success,

particularly because there is potential that educational support by some parents within an abusive

relationship is likely to be weaker than in similar relationships affecting home study.

Externalised behaviours could also damage the child or young person's learning

process. According to Cole et al (2005:34) a traumatised child may exert ambitious or

disruptive behaviours in the classroom to their educators and peers. While other children in the

class (and some educators) may understand this behaviour as problematic and irrational, these

externalised, aggressive behaviours perhaps a result of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Hester

et al 2007) which can often be triggered by the activities, comments or tone of peers and

teachers themselves.

'. . . whenever I hear the teacher shouting, I simply used to hide my ears' cause I don't want to

hear no person shouting. . . it was like bells buzzing in my head' (Karina aged 16 in McGee


Some children who illicit aggressive behaviour towards a peer or educator maybe doing so in

frustration or defence because a particular tone, comment or action was indicated by them in

the manner that the perpetrator does in the process of misuse they witnessed in the home. This

illustrates how home violence can be harmful to the communicative skills of children

and teenagers because they gain 'distorted perceptions of the intentions, feelings, and

behaviours of others. . . ' (Rogosch and Cicchetti 1994 in Cole et al 2005:34) within the school


Social Exclusion and Impact on Attendance

Not only are children more likely to suffer academically for their behavioural symptoms,

their connections with peers and other adults are also likely to be affected. Internalised

behaviours such as melancholy, anxiety and withdrawal are symptoms which can exclude the

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child or young person from their peers; their 'post-traumatic symptoms or behavior. . . may

acutely disturb a producing close marriage with a best friend, create a sense of isolation

from peers, or business lead to sociable ostracism' (Pynoos et al 1996:134). This 'social ostracism' is

further increased when children have to move schools because they have to be re-housed or

take shelter in a women's refuge away from their violent home. This disconnection from both

the academics and sociable life at institution may lead children and teenagers who've been

traumatised at home (in cases like this by domestic assault) to become socially excluded from the

norms of college life.

Social exclusion may effect attendance rates as some children (varying between age range)

who become socially excluded off their peers and institution techniques may truant by remaining at

home or even wander the streets. According to analyze on the consequences of home violence

(McGee 2000; Jaffe et al 1990), children would often favor to remain at home because they are

too frightened to leave their mothers area, so will won't go to school or feign disease so

they can stay at home. McGee's (2000) analysis, comprising of fifty-four interviews with

children and forty-eight interviews with mothers across England and Wales to gain insight

into their experience and ramifications of domestic violence, discovered that children were often

resistant to participating in school;

'I didn't like the thought of her being on her behalf own with him, therefore i remained at home all the time'

(Marilyn aged 15 in McGee 2000:81).

During interviews conducted with experts from Women's Aid for this thesis, it was

noted that professionals often observed and heard of many children becoming anti-social by

'bunking off' college because they cannot socially adapt to the school routine (Appendix

4:10). Numerous studies alongside data gathered from interviews that were conducted with

the Law enforcement officials and the YOS in the East Midlands have highlighted that anti-social behaviours

such as truancy are early on risk factors for facilitating a drift into delinquent and criminogenic

behaviours (Farrington 1986; Bowles et al 2006; Robins and Robertson 1996), particularly as

children who've been affected by home violence are vulnerable to being groomed by

older more professional criminals (Appendix 2:12, Appendix 3).

Conversely some children and young people feel it's important to truant so they can become

their mother's carer. Data accumulated from Women's Help highlighted that lots of children grow

up quickly because they need to carry out home duties such as preparing, cleaning,

washing and even bathroom duties if the mother is foundation ridden with physical pain and/or damage.

Such a marriage they highlighted has a detrimental effect on the child or young

person's education, especially if they have spent a time period out of college. Children

may think college is unnecessary and indeed not a priority in those days in their life. Many lose

the determination and the strength needed to get back to university for facing questions, the catching

up of school work, trying to fit back with friends or the exclusion that was obvious to

them before, and then face going home with their home or to a refuge where these are reminded

of their violent background (Appendix 4:10).

School as a 'Safe Haven'

On the other side it must be recognized that some children who have witnessed domestic

violence in the home are not damaged in their attendance and academics achievements. Some

children will build resilience and get on with school practices as the school environment can

become their 'respite from the violence' (McGee 2000:81). It's been found (McGee 2000;

Appendix 1a, 2, 3 and 4) that some children who have been put through the strains of

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domestic assault actually perform much better than a lot of their peers. Some children would

prefer to be at university before it even opened up and would stay for as long as they could in order

to complete their academic work.

'And I used to make myself have detention so I could stay later, so I would miss the last bus'

(Jackie aged 19 in McGee 2000:81).

While some children and teenagers may seem to be resilient, this will not mean to say they are

unaffected by their house circumstances; school can provide children and teenagers the

opportunity to avoid and deny the reality of these circumstances. The institution often becomes a

child's 'safe haven' (Appendix 2:9) where they are able to escape truth. However avoidance

and denial with their circumstances as a coping strategy (Dempsey et al 2000) can be further

damaging to the child or young person's mental health insurance and behavioural difficulties.

Psychodynamic theorists (as outlined in chapter one) stress the importance of interacting with

intra-psychic issues and cognitions (thought functions), such as interacting with the consequences of

domestic violence, early on to enable healthy development (Cooper 1999:50)

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