We accept

Integrated Organizational Structure In The Engineering Industry

For some, Job Management is still defined as a collection of planning, a number of control methods and different other decisions. However this newspaper argues that the essential elements of Project Management in the construction industry is based on organizational issues, such as just how people are monitored and planned throughout the job process. The distinction is rather important because of the fact that although the use of technical assessment tools and techniques are advanced, these methods are eradicated with an unorganized composition between various parties thriving to attain misguided objectives. Scientific training techniques and tools should enhance the management process after the appropriate objectives and organizational issues are set up.


The aim of the paper is to see various people in the building industry of the value of an integrated organizational structure.


The characteristics of a highly effective project team are examined in this paper, followed by tips concerning how an architect can develop and keep his own management team. Some of the essential elements are a culture of overall flexibility, shared interests, mutual support and a unity in goal (Murray and Langford, 2004: 193). The leader, specifically, has been examined and the requirements to be a good task management leader are stipulated and the main affects are also discussed. The constant sense of urgency is seen as the primary drive behind the realisation of the engineering and management procedures. The general mentality in the management team should be one of any learning nature and it must consist over the capability to have the ability to change and change as requirements and goals change as time passes.


Management and Organization

It is important to understand the word 'Management and Business' previous to any discourse. Various authors provide a dictionary interpretation of the word, but Cleland & King (1983:15) probably offer this in the most readily useful manner. Cleland and King's operational meaning of management recognizes the conditions of planned activities, objectives, romantic relationships among resources, working through others and decisions. Cleland & King (1983:17) further says that 'organization' in essence consists of the various elements used to determine management. It can be said these two terms are interlinked ideas that should drive and support the other person through the job management process.

Walker (2007:4) areas that to be able to maintain an effective development process, organizations should be observed as the style of interrelationships, expert and responsibility that is set up between the professional team, and everything the contributors to accomplish the main aim: client satisfaction. It's important to note that the management aspect is the powerful impact that evolves in successful group.

Defining Project Management in Construction

In the built environment this description is well known throughout the theoretical field which is:

'the planning, coordination and control of a task from conception to completion on behalf of a client demanding the identification of the client's objectives in conditions of electricity, function, quality, time and cost, and the establishment of human relationships between resources, integrating, monitoring and managing the contributors to the job and their productivity, and evaluating and selecting alternatives in pursuit of a client's satisfaction with the job result. ' ibid (2007:5)

It is apparent that the term 'resources' mentioned previously, is a general term used to accentuate on equipment, funds, materials but most importantly the relationship between people. Many modern definitions aren't conclusive on these concepts, where the job management process is referenced without the business of people to attain the final targets.

It is important to execute theory with repetition and to recognize that these disciplines should support one another. Walker (2007:5) mentions that since these interrelationships have been devised there has not been a substantial change within the practice. Creators often formulate new concepts and theoretical stances within the theoretical field, but this is of no use without it being observable or enforceable.

In the framework of the recently stated definition, it's important to comprehend the management process as a cognitive way of various domains and not to be narrow minded in assessing the product in terms of their time, cost and customer care. Although these elements play an important part along the way it is the human relationships built within the construction team that could insure future project employment.

It is interesting that Munns & Bjeirmi (1996:45) argue that there is a difference between project management, on the main one hand, and the job on the other. They say that the success in just a project should be seen over time, where the performance of the building, over a period of time, should determine the success of a task. They blame job professionals for having short-term time and cost targets, alternatively than focussing on the stakeholders' needs. Separating these conditions takes a thin approach towards job management in general, knowing that client satisfaction should form the principal objective for just about any management process, combined with the various aspects mentioned above.

Projects, Companies and Clients

There are two types of management systems within the industry: the way in which a task is supervised and the management of a firm within itself. Walker (2007:8) illustrates in fig. 1 the many parties engaged within the matrix management composition. However this is an idealistic framework because the many projects would hardly ever be dealt with by the same architect, general contractor and the variety of sub-contractors anticipated to competitive tendering. But as an architectural practitioner one should understand the importance of the profession in the management structure. Because of the inconsistency within the management structure it is difficult to establish an efficient growing relationship between the participants. The challenge normally occurs when various firms should form a relationship on an operating and individual level but do not need to waste time or money minus the certainty of working alongside one another in the future. Walker (2007:8) further states that "relational contracting initiatives" have considered these weaknesses and also have removed further to warn clients with multiple tasks, but matching to statistics the bigger portion of assignments are still managed in the original way.

Construction management, whether relational or traditional, are thus accomplished by a number of firms that adjust from one job to the other. It is important to understand that these companies are independent firms which should manage their associations within the company. A healthy job necessitates a well balances firm before the well managed romance between companies. Each company (company) has certain objectives to consider retaining a well maintained practice such as:

  • Enhancing productiveness
  • Improving services
  • Keeping existing clients and
  • Attracting future clients

Walker (2007:9) areas that professional routines promise to be less powered by income than the contracting and sub-contracting companies. But none the less, conflicts between the needs of individual companies and the needs of projects will still happen. i. e. exactly what does an architectural practice do when the resources are limited and they should chose between your urgent conclusion of an existing project or undertaking a new job, understanding that the other task would be affected?

The goals of the client are directly related to those of the job management objectives and the several firms involved. These are directly from the project and will be:

  • Functional satisfaction
  • Aesthetically pleasing
  • Completion within the allocated time
  • Completion within budget and
  • Approved quality

The question occurs: Who is responsible to insure that these objectives are found? In traditional engineering projects architects would be obliged to meet these requirements. But who should solve these turmoil situations within the project management period? In case the architects must solve these issues, would it not be settled to profit the job to the extent to meet up with the client's initial requirements?

It is ideal with an individual liable to overcome these various issues at an early on stage, preventing poor romantic relationships between companies. These individuals or project professionals should preferably be trained by the client's organization itself, and this subsequently establishes a detailed relationship between your client and the task team, where in fact the project manager should be seen as the 'middle-man'. Financial firms not always achievable and clients do not have the skills or time to control their jobs or educate a project director.

The Selection of Clients

Clients differ in a variety of ways. It is important to note that we now have a variety of objectives the client aim to gratify. Contrast, in general, can be attracted between clients, the public and private sector, and multi-national and overseas clients whose objectives differ from home market objectives. The building industry and the occupations involved have to be adaptable and skilled at these indifferences to maintain customer care as an result. Walker (2007:11) clarifies how these techniques should conform their objectives in line with the client's perspective and deal straight with the client to understand the way the client's organizations operate.

Contribution of Company Structure

Hinings (2003) recalls the organizational composition as the center of organizational theory. He claims that structure is essential, because according to history, it has always developed the centre of the introduction of organizational theory and is still important to new and existing structural forms and contributes as an initial aspect to the thinking about managers. However, the organizational structure can only are present if several other factors are in place to allow a practice to perform adequately.

According to Walker (2007:12), for the successful implementation of construction task management, there are many factors and elements to be considered:

  • Behaviour
  • Techniques and Technology
  • Decision making
  • Organizational Structure

Walker (2007:13) illustrates these factors in Fig 2. It really is noticeable how directly these factors are related to one another but although these factors form the heart of the effectiveness of the organization process, you need to keep in mind that external practice could impact the process. And when so, the task manager should compromise to keep the process in equilibrium. Walker does not offer with the external factors, but in many scenarios these are unforeseen affects i. e. political or inexpensive changes.


Loosemore (1994) confirms that the variety of skills required within the people involved to execute a project leads to a subjective perspective of the final product. These individual visions of an company, affect the effectiveness of the product and the necessity for a target stance must envision the ultimate product in a conclusive way. (Fig 3 - Dave Taylor)

Techniques and Technology

These are tools utilized by individuals to perform the product throughout the structure process. Scott (1992) shows that there are three different proportions of systems: "Difficulty, doubt and interdependence". Technological intricacy leads to uncertainty, especially structural uncertainty, and therefore affecting interdependency where more skills and a highly effective co-ordination system are required.

Decision Making

There are numerous specialists involved throughout your choice making process of a building. This illustrates the dynamics and difficulty included throughout the management process within the built environment. By saying this, maybe it's said that your choice processes are securely connected within the business structure that underpin the way people relate to each other and the effective craftsmanship between these people.

Organization Structure

The organization framework should advice your choice making process and the utilization of technology and techniques as talked about above. It really is something that combines these various factors to accomplish a balanced marriage between different companies included. Walker (2007:15) mentions that this organizational composition is the duty of the managing exec and in turn achieving his/her final objective: client satisfaction.

The Learning Spirits of the Task Team

Architects choose the initial stage of the development process, where the design and the idea development occurs, technical engineers on the other hands prefers the hands-on development of the job, during development, the actual execution of the ideas (Murray & Langford, 2004: 201). The main part of the learning process, however, is the representation part, where analysis takes place and all involved can learn from mistakes and incorrect doings through the process. The architect, as task supervisor, can promote the representation process and thus improve the learning activities of the professional team. Constructive conversations, between the associates, of job development should be inspired by the job supervisor; this often leads to innovative answers to solve problems, adding to the training experience. Feed back to all users of the team can only benefit the job as well as prospected future projects.

Communication and collaboration that brings about continuous tests and the improvement and increase of the users' problem handling skills, identifies a learning company. The bought knowledge obtained through this process is not only noted and stored for future use, but those involved will also benefit in the long run, as the new acquired skills and knowledge can be applied on other projects, leading to more included and well developed management systems. Lots of the solutions found during this learning process may still need modification; this implies that ongoing control and monitoring must take place. Revans (1971:264) advocates 'action research' as an excellent method by which team members can form their complex and personal skills.

Even though the aesthetics of the building and the designer's personal design image provides building its id, some modern properties nowadays acts merely as a shell to the practical dynamic implemented by a process engineer. Efficient design in conditions of structure and cost is crucial. Close teamwork is vital in these complexes, additionally it is important to fundamentally understand the discipline of all functions involved, this allows for better communication.

Assembling a new team each time a new task begins is inefficient and wastes big money. Old knowledge, gathered over a long period of time, can save time and money if the associations between the associates are set up and small indifferences or misunderstandings have been dealt with before. The reoccurrence of similar design problems aren't common and this leads to standardized, tried and tested alternatives for problems already been handled before. The conflict in interest is also significantly less, should a team already be set up, as nobody has something to confirm. Often when a new team is working collectively a power have difficulty prevails between some participants of the team, who wants to enforce their vitality and affect on other associates of the team.

It is thus beneficial to all involved to create a learning organization out of the project team. Exhilaration and creativity is much more likely to happen if the associates trust each other's competence and integrity. The most important link in this process is the team innovator who should continually encourage creative thinking and constructive criticism as well as stimulate effective learning through problem resolving encounters throughout the job.

Implementing Best Value

Thomas & Thomas (2005:170) describe the importance of the 'designed team' and the knowledge of the value criteria the complete team will be judged after final analysis. By accomplishing a team they ought to "align their aims" insuring they are really pulling in the same path rather than working against each other. (Fig4)

In order to deliver a task at the lowest cost (tender price) contractors often perform the work to maintain maximum income, thus leading to the evaluation conditions to be stricter. Therefore affects team work, and the human relationships of various parties are in stake. It is vital to accomplish value and quality of work from the initial stage reducing certain factors that would have an impact on the building task i. e. rework that contributes to the lack of crucial time. The guidelines of best value serves as a,

"the optimum mixture of very existence costs and benefits to meet the customer's requirements. This process allows sustainability and quality to be studied into account whole life costs allows factors such as fuel efficiency and substitute cycles to be studied into account, as well as cultural example benefits to local people, good work force, management, community safeness, variety and fairness. Successful procurement strategies are likely to be based on whole life cost considerations including subsequent revenue implications and not the lowest sensitive price. " (ODPM, 2003).

Thomas & Thomas (2005:173) further discuss the advantages and drawbacks of a and non-integrated team. If a team is established, would they disintegrate for the purpose of being more successful on a individual level?

Fig. 5 (173) illustrates a diagram of the communication strategies; both these illustrations offer their own benefits in conditions of the time, cost and quality. However the disintegration of the team often triggers:

  • Rework
  • Constant Evaluation
  • Lack of Trust
  • Overlapping Projects
  • No drive for Quality Improvement
  • Organizations becomes selfish focussed on their own goals and objectives

Multiple Systems of Communication as Illustrated in Fig. 4

Eagan (1998) creates that you need to rethink construction, due to the fact that the clients are usually dissatisfied with the outcome of the final product. To obtain the client's initial aims it is necessary to are a built-in team, where various team members work together without eliminating each other's attempts.

The Integrated Team

Due to organizations that contract to their own ethnic and technical silos, a team can't be established. It really is required that the various routines and companies need to build up a combined intellect, skills and synergy of the project to deliver the correct quality of craftsmanship to benefit the procedure and the partner involved in the project.

In Egan's booklet, Accelerating Change, Eagan (2002:85) advises a toolkit to achieve a built-in team. These guidelines should be referred to throughout the management process. He defines these conditions as:

A singular team, that is focussed over a common group of goals and goals, delivering benefit for many concerned

A team so seamless, that it appears to use is if it were a firm in its own right

A team without apparent boundaries, where all the users have the same opportunity to contribute and everything the skills and capabilities available can be employed to maximum impact.

Any team is only as strong as its weakest link, and in the development industry, a fragile link can also have a negative influence on the other promoting systems. With a well organized program, these links lower supplying a more steady system all together. This cognitive procedure enhances the interactions built through the process and a relationship of trust is obtained. The management of these jobs are a learning process on a big scale, but organizational skills purchased between your various organizations could be re-implemented on a smaller scale i. e. the individuals within these smaller companies. Thomas & Thomas (2005:63) demonstrate the basic structure of a team and a traditional chain. It's important to notice, from these illustrations, that an integrated team will require understanding and determination from the many practices and organizations to function as a system. (Fig 11)


Trust is elusive and could not be rated or quantified on a hierarchical basis, but it is of cardinal importance between team members to insure a healthy romance. Because trust is dependant on a personal, mental position, it is difficult to evaluate these feelings, but Thomas & Thomas (2005:66) identifies it as,


According to this way of measuring, as trust raises team members would work more truthfully and the upcoming problems could be dealt with as a team and subsequently the risks would be been able in a highly effective manner. Trust is a fragile emotion that could be lost in a brief period of time, but that's where communication within the team is of the substance. Where one party seems that they experience dishonesty or pain, it's important to confront each other before the romantic relationships is ruined.

Maintaining the Team

The innovator of the building project's most important role is building and preserving an effective task organization. The 'teamthink' way must be activated and a balance between convergent and divergent thinking (and the communication thereof) should be handled by the project innovator. 'Teamthink' is where all the average person members hang out on locating the best possible solutions to various problems through the brightness of other solutions. In this process all views and views are granted a fair chance, but is then examined to determine the best answer (Murray & Langford, 2004: 205).

The team usually produces in four stages: building, storming, 'norming' and undertaking. Forming is when the team is first proven and many people are being introduced to each other. Storming has to do with early on disagreement, which is inevitable when differing people need to interact for the first time. 'Norming' identifies the point where the team has established effective ways of working together to attain the greatest results. Executing is the point where the team starts off producing effective and successful solutions to the proposed problems and has developed into an adult, well functioning group. Most teams, unfortunately doesn't have the blissful luxury of naturally considering this process, however the variations of performance of any team will follow a design as advised by Moore (2002):

A ready task may have the capacity to cope with or require different task management market leaders at the several stages of the project. This, however, is not so often the circumstance, because tasks often relay on the communication and human relationships between the associates. By starting over, both in conditions of new people and new positions, in term of hierarchy, the procedure is delayed and this may cause discord in the management process.

When managing a job, or even only a assembly, the management happens in two levels: a) the first choice must manage this content, in terms of decisions made and the detailing of where, when, how and why and b) the leader is accountable for the interpersonal aspects, including the individual's ego's and transforming arguments into solutions. It is thus the leader's role to control all the included individuals in order to benefit the entire project.


If partners have worked together before it is better to form successful partnerships. The primary goal of partnering is to optimise project performance, this includes completing on time and within budget, with a reasonable profit margin to all involved and definitely the aim is to produce in a acceptable, agreed quality with zero incidents (Murray & Langford, 2004: 199). It's important that the lovers, as market leaders of the task remain loyal and on one side of the table, as conflict between partners, on top level, will cause the entire project to deminish.

When the team members have been revealed, it's important to assemble the team in a natural venue where the main outcomes and objectives of the project can be discussed. This increases team soul and open up communication. This workshop installation usually fosters determination to the success of the job. The architect should understand that there is absolutely no such thing as a optimum design and therefore the design process should continue and everything ideas accepted and tried out. The main purpose of such a workshop is to encourage assistance between the associates.

A conclusion of best practice methods:

  • High performance teams must be determined and chosen, it isn't something that happens by chance.
  • A good team innovator leads decisively yet carefully with a company focus on the clients requirements
  • Effective clubs are self-motivated, people orientated, supportive and adaptable environments are created
  • Roles, obligations, strategies and communication channels should be evidently defined
  • The value of adding small groupings should be accepted and the leader should not induce his electric power onto every situation
  • All people of the team should be cured as identical partners
  • The job should be seen as a learning chance to all, with responses and representation sessions
  • The team must be developed and managed by the task leader, this must continue throughout the whole project.


This theoretical newspaper has tried to demonstrate what should be done in order to make a successful job team. It should be noted that all the pointed out methods and techniques have made sense in the past and could only be appropriate to some situations. The task leader gets the responsibility to read every situation and then behave properly to every specific event. It should, however, be observed that generally, online teams (as a result of the technological explosion) are not as successful as teams that meet face-to-face frequently. Most people favor personal interaction within an encouraging and constructive environment.

Case study: Cape Town International Convention Centre project (CTICC)


In 1999 the American Cape Provincial Administration, the Cape Metropolitan Council, the town of Cape Town and Business Cape joined forces to build up a truly world-class convention centre on the 6. 1-hectare site on Cape Town's north foreshore. To this end, they developed the Cape Town International Convention Centre Company (Pty) Ltd (CONVENCO). CONVENCO was thus tasked to develop a global standard, multi-purpose convention, convention and exhibition centre ) which, hitherto, was a missing piece of travel and leisure and business infrastructure in the American Cape.

Project description

CTICC is a world-class undertaking, providing 25, 000 m2 of space boasting high degrees of quality, and exceptional interior and outdoor design elements. The job comprises the development of a multi-purpose convention, convention and exhibition centre. It is a three-storey building including numerous facilities, such as a deluxe hotel, dedicated column-free exhibition space, and considerable banqueting and seminar facilities. Such an ambitious project required careful design of auditoriums, ballrooms, get together suites, breakout blocks and exhibition halls. CTICC aspires to give a landmark feature at the city/waterfront gateway, and comes with an impressive domed exterior appearance with numerous glazed concourses and making use of internal landscaped areas.

Project team for the building period of the CTKC

The two main meetings were the project manager and the look architect. Foreshore Architects was named as the joint venture responsible for producing the total design principle, this is an association of various architectural procedures including:

  • Revel Fox and Companions (architects and planners);
  • Van der Merwe Miszewski Architects;
  • Lucien le Grange Architects and Urban Planners;
  • Stauch Vorster Architects;
  • Magqwaka Affiliates, Architects.
  • Procurement management strategy

Before examining the role of the sub-contractor management in the successful completion of CTICC, it is essential to understand the socio-political situation within post-apartheid South Africa. CTICC was built in South Africa's Cape metropolis at a time when the country and its structure industry are going through significant restructuring (Dept. of Community Works White Paper, 1999). Top of the set of the Southern African Government's Reconstruction and Development Program (RDP) is provision of infrastructure made to bring relief to the people by means of jobs and financial business development. Extension of business, the federal government contends, would increase potential for investment for small, medium and growing contractors (especially those representing affirmative businesses [ABEs] and previously disadvantaged individuals [PDls]). PDls are a key aspect of this example since they were often long-term unemployed and/or unskilled personnel from the townships picked as a way to expand financial activity without particular reference to the skills of the individuals. On-the-job training therefore became an inherent component of the development of all ABEs used on the CTICC.

Essentially, the RDP insurance policy platform requires that the development of the development industry must respond to the broad interpersonal and economical imperatives of the united states. These include sustainable employment creation, affirmative action, lively campaign of small, medium and appearing corporations (SMEEs). The perspective is designed for a structure industry policy and strategy that promotes balance, fosters economic expansion and international competitiveness. Furthermore, that the plan should create lasting employment, which should simultaneously address historical imbalances in work opportunity as it generates new capacity for monetary development. In this regard government is ready to market appropriate and innovative public-private sector partnerships, which build on the strengths of respective sectors to promote investment in the delivery of infrastructure.

Management of sub-contractors at the CTKC project

The procurement of sub-contractors was good targeted procurement policy. Up to more than 200 sub-contractors participated in the project. To ensure equity, targeted written agreement procurement goals were founded. To make sure that the choice, performance, workmanship, health insurance and safety issues, sub-contractor design, creation and installation were all properly managed and co-ordinated, a targeted procurement strategy, support and management system was set up.

Time, cost and quality performance of sub-contractors

Performance was achieved through demanding work malfunction, which ensured that each sub-contractor only performed their part of the 'pie' but while working as a conduit in the supply chain. The partnering set up was motivated down the resource chain to give sub-contractors a sense of ownership of the area of the pie. An especially ground breaking feature of the project was how the ethos of private open public partnership was powered down the resource chain through formation of joint endeavors between established companies and ABEs or PDls. These joint projects were encouraged as a means of guaranteeing performance on the part of ABEs and PDls. It will not be inferred that the ABE or PDI individuals were for some reason inferior compared to other potential bidders for contracts. Indeed, the performance of most members has been seen to be excellent. However, the politics and social imperative for this job was that it should be a success in every dimensions. To the end, Foreshore Architects along with all the current other design associates needed to be a lot more proactive and collegiate in their approach to interacting with sub-contractors. Sub-contractors were not appointed with the aim of devolving risk to organisations often struggling to handle such vulnerability. On the contrary, the project organisation and management centered on the necessity for shared support of every other's activities in the successful delivery of the common aim.

The role of the architect in achieving this very positive target was through the provision of information at the initial time possible. Furthermore, the architect had a normal on-site supervisory role in the analysis of quality at the very minimum level within the project. To this end, the architectural suggestions was always literally available and ever before present on-site, rather than the traditional propensity for architects to be physically remote. This is a conscious effort to assist in team working. Oddly enough, regardless of going contrary to the 'normally' expected role of the architect, in many ways this is a step forwards into the history, with the architect being much more closely linked to the manner in which, and the quality of, the work being conducted on site. By implementing such an method of helping both ABEs and PDls it was simultaneously easy for the architectural team to retain a higher amount of design control than might have been anticipated with a similar design and contract elsewhere.

Conclusions - lessons to be learned from the CTKC

Today, development is so technologically advanced that no development company can or even hopes to conduct the building process in its entirety. As construction technology continues to advance so does indeed the necessity to sub-contract specialist work and investments to those who specialize in the most appropriate discipline at a lower cost when compared to a non-specialist. Such an approach usually provides an possible solution (based on prior experience and competence), in less time and to better quality and value. Indeed, most projects today will have even up to 90 percent of the work provided by sub-contractors with the primary contractor only playing a management role. Causes of increased levels of sub-contracting have been seen to be; scientific progress resulting in greater specialisation, advertising of an venture based culture centred on individual effort and drive towards self applied career and specialisation, and the consequences of employment fees on organizations.

Once sub-contractors have been appointed, it is vital for any job team to put in place the insurance policies and infrastructure essential to help in the effective working of the design and delivery teams. This can be seen to be highly effective in that the one common office space allowed the physical co-location of associates close to the site and so in an improved position to be able to influence operational activities. This deliberate insurance policy of co-locating the team meant that the architects specifically had a much more 'hands on' way of doing business than in many similar sites worldwide.

Underpinning the two main themes of value established sub-contractor selection working in a CE framework is the provision of an effective IT infrastructure and relevant protocols for its effective utilisation. IT infrastructure and software were significant components of investment for the CTICC job and techniques for handling such technologies had to be sufficiently robust and transparent to permit a CE beliefs. Probably the most important aspect of IT implementation for architects is to consider that if the value bottom part of sub-contractors is created the integrity of that list should be maintained, otherwise the potency of this approved sub-contractor list in saving time in selecting companies is lost. Much collectively is made of the necessity to put into practice IT systems, however the example of the CTICC has mentioned that the technological progression of the data source itself, or indeed any associated software, is not significantly important. What is most significant is a determination to use and present access to information for as wide a spectrum of stakeholders and subcontractors as you possibly can. The potency of the approaches adopted, highlighted by the project being supplied within designed time and budget, confirmed the epithet quite evidently that 'Knowledge is the only real factor of production not subject to diminishing results'.

More than 7 000 students trust us to do their work
90% of customers place more than 5 orders with us
Special price $5 /page
Check the price
for your assignment