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Innovation in the hotel industry

1 Chapter Two-Literature Review

1. 1 Introduction

From the books review, one are certain to get complete and justified analysis, regarding to Saunders et al (2007, p. 595). It offers the literature's merits and faults commentary within a precise arena that is mainly demonstrates familiarity about the known facts of research matter. Literature review is substantive results from secondary resources, and theoretically and methodologically added towards research aims. It is basically well structurally constant flow of reasonable suggestions to preface the study paper. Innovation is actually a positive change. Company analyst has defined it as many ways as mentioned below:

According to Cedicci and Trehan (2007), it stated that:"Innovation is an unremitting course of action and the best way to comprehend it to do raise questions concerning what is happening in the industry and produce pioneering products and services".

According to Jones (2008), it explained that:

"Invention is the most crucial component of a companies' strategy since it provides way for the advancement of a company. "

According Baregheh et al. (2009), it stated innovation as:

"Development is the multi-stage process whereby organizations change ideas into improved upon products, service or operations, in order to advance, compete and differentiate themselves efficiently in their market. "

Eco-friendly initiatives have now become a need because people are now getting recognition about the save entire world. Hence the hotel industry is doing its best to go greener. Advancement in virtually any field is comes with combined attempts of research and development team and other stake holders in the organization. Innovative practices have become part of every industry to meet the customers demand also to sustain in the slice throat competition. There is an imperative dependence on the hotel to offer products and services based on regulatory requirements. Inside the hotel industry, luxury hotels cannot neglect with the needs and requirements of the valuable and potential customers. Some guests don't compromise with the blissful luxury for the sake of green (Wood and Brotherton, 2008). To meet certain requirements of the friends is the first top priority of the hotelier along with the mission of recycling of wastage and become friendly to the environment. So hotelier needs to introduce radical impressive approach to start environmentally friendly steps without compromising with the service quality and luxury facility.

1. 2 Definition and the Technology in the Hotel Industry

Innovation means bringing out a fresh thing to the planet. Innovation is generally taking spot to offer increased product and services to the customer as well as organizational business gaining. As per Jones (2008), "Innovation is the new means of doing the regular things, or unique or better combinations of the development elements. " To catch the attention of customers and increase their business, hoteliers are doing research and development activities to create progressive product and services. People favor herbal product compared to the substance product. Example, in body care and attention product or in food and drink product, most people buy natural and eco-friendly materials only. Inside the modern times, the public activist, environmental firms and group those are mindful about the green earth taking initiatives and pressuring all industry to lessen their process that is affecting to the environment.

In the hotel industry, there are major five elements where creativity is take place. It could be product and service invention, process advancement, logistics innovation, market invention or institutional invention.

  1. Product and service enhancements: For ecological growth and achieve remarkable bottom line, it is needed strategic development in neuro-scientific product and service innovation.
  2. Process Innovations: New ways of services are creating by the hotelier to provide to the customers. In the initial service delivery process, customers are also taken into consideration for new role. Hotels replacing their stream of work process with adopting technology, like automated services for prominent and returning office. Due to the process creativity there is improvement in the efficiency in the delivery of services to the customer.
  3. Process Enhancements in Information Handling (Logistics Development): The flows of information in the business are actually getting faster. Because of busy plan of visitor, hotelier offers complete information in the internet such that it will be easier for them to book a collection from a single windows. Now hoteliers are handling supply chain relationship with travelling providers, courier services, and tourism so that it will be convenient for guest.
  4. Market Inventions: Promotional activities play an important role for just about any company. To connect with the clients, now hoteliers are implementing new settings of communication. Making strategic relationship with the tourism and travel agents, mutually promoting co-brand ideals.
  5. Institutional innovations: There is an emergence of progressive means of providing financing support to the firm's investment funds. Firms need costs and capitals to introduce services, promotional marketing, and collaboration with potential companions.

1. 3 Influencing components of advancement in Hotel industry

There are five influencing components of innovation in the hotel

1. 3. 1 Innovation supporting process

A meticulous strategic planning is required for radical development, that enough budgets and capital is necessary. There should be well developed employees' evaluation and compensation plan to stimulate them. Knowledge management and Training and development are also necessary to encourage every individual in the organization to add towards business strategy.

1. 3. 2 Company (Hotel) Size

The size of the firms also matter a whole lot for development process. If a firm is big in proportions and operate globally then its procedure will be different.

1. 3. 3 Dealer Driven

Hotels are provided driven business and also to achieve maximum profit it aims for standardized goods. Value to the hotel is produce by its reliable suppliers.

1. 3. 4 Market Factor and Competition

In the fierce competition, firms need to adopt well developed marketing strategy. Building visitor loyalty, providing better customer satisfaction, relate to the customer emotions, earning the quality value of guest experience, implementing latest tendencies in the hotel, will be the major elements a hotelier should give attention to for strategically development of market initiatives.

How a guest is cured by an hotelier is most important. Guest is definitely satisfied by the non-public attention by the staffs of the hotel. But it is change from individual to individual. For different age group, different kind of attention is necessary. Example, kids choose electronics more than the personal attention and they demand their parents to move such place. For personalization, devotion programs give you a great opportunity to invite more variety of customers. Commercial programs aren't only to treat the friends as individual but also to hook up with their most important customers grabbing more opportunities.

A guest has always expected from hotel that "give me an experience ". Whilst travelling to a new place, guests would like for additional activities. Customers are expecting for surprise activities that would be bigger than their thoughts and emotions and connect with the senses. In the customer commitment program, hotelier should be more focused on how to connect with emotions rather than on logical, incentive structured offers. More often than not, customers go for tourism and prefer hotel services. Basically activity centered travel gives rich emotional experiences, which may be marketed by the hotelier to draw in customers. Now a day there are various activity based travel fads are encouraging in the market. It could be cultural team, because on vacation now more folks opt to go theater, visiting traditional sites or indulge in educational activities. The purchasing electric power of the customers is increasing with the development of economy and therefore they even don't head to pay extra cash to get quality things. Adventure tourism is also one of the activity based travel fads. The main emphasis of the activity based mostly travel is to stay lean and green by going to famous parks, hiking, and taking part in other adventure activities. Keeping this at heart, now hoteliers are offering easy vehicles in affordable price or in absolve to the guest to explore the places near by. People go for history tourism also to celebrate any famous area, community or historical place.

The perceptions of the people about the purchase price have evolved and due to the up and down of monetary graph these are more concern about the merchandise and quality for which they are really paying. So, people are comparing the value what they are getting and what they are paying. But the most important matter for hoteliers is to increase value with the same price which required technology in product, process, logistics, and marketing communication and institutional. A couple of mainly five factors which create value to a person while residing at hotel as listed below:

  1. Guest room design: Hotelier can create creativity in the visitor room design in terms of size of the area and comfort level. Staffs of the hotel should give consideration towards cleanliness of the room other moving regions of the friends. Room of the visitor should be decorated with the classic equipments. The light system, curtains and the set up of the entertainment should be based on the preference of the visitor.
  2. Physical property: The inside and exterior structures of the hotel also creates value to a hotel.
  3. Interpersonal Service: The staffs of the hotel need to show service friendliness, extra attentiveness to prospective customers. The action of professionalism and personal popularity from employees is appreciated by the visitor all the times. These attributes bring smile to the guest face and distributed positive words about hotel.
  4. Functional Services: Everyone expect efficiency and service speed from employees of any hotel or in virtually any firm.
  5. Food & Beverage related service: This is the most crucial factor which is generally appreciated by the guest to recognize the hotel experience Food and beverage is the fun part and interpersonal area of customer stay. So it is very necessity to leverage in food and beverage of the hotel, in terms of its quality and its excitement, to make value for guest. Quality food should be offered in a enjoyable atmosphere.

1. 4 The role of Employees in Innovation

There is a need for each and every organization to market innovation and creativity within and amongst their workers. This required reconciliation of the very important needs to increase efficiency, improve quality and boosting output. This creative process is highly complex and chaotic dynamics which involves employee generating new ideas and concepts, or new associations of existing ideas and ideas.

According to Teresa Amabile (1998):

"Creativity that is out there within every individual is a function of three components: experience, creative thinking and drive. "

Expertise originates from the experience. Over the years employee engages in a function and bought depth knowledge for the reason that field. This knowledge comes through not only from formal education but also through working experience in the job activities and from conversation with other pros. Now a day in every organization they encourage the knowledge showing program (KSP) to share experience and knowledge of an employee to all or any others. Doing this type of activities, it nourishes the scrutiny of challenges and problems by creating an intellectual space. Employees get more vibrant and aware to find alternatives of any problems.

Creative thinking is originates from practices. It is an experienced and determined thought process which identifies the overall flexibility and imaginative capacity for a person to tackle a challenge. It gives immense space to a person to believe out of the box. Now companies are motivating the employees to bring new areas of possible, to blend the existing ideas in various manner, to carefully turn difficulties ugly, allowing sudden ways and ideas from heterogeneous fields. Personality of a person and his/her style of thinking and working that highly affected the creative thinking about a person.

After getting inputs from above two factors, makes the person to inspire to do things. When there is lack of drive then there is no use of expertise and creative thinking. A determined person can execute a job creatively and with greater efficacy.

In conjunction with these three factors, now hotel industry is promoting imagination and ideas. Time to time, organizations are performing training programs in brainstorming, problem resolving, and lateral thinking skills for employees, which can boost the abilities of employees and therefore to add in output.

  • Brainstorming
  • Problem Solving
  • Lateral Thinking

The capacity of technology and imagination is considered on the firm's commitment to learning. In case the employees are certain to get progress knowledge in their domains, then definitely it going to bring gain to the business opportunities. Employees will get more alert and sensible to avoid any peculiar situations. Training programs helps an employee to renewing and revitalizing their knowledge and open a door to the exterior world. A firm also learns by giving learning opportunities to its every individual and gets benefit from its employees. Relevant knowledge is distributed among co-workers in a group, which causes organizational development. A company is benefitted from employees even by absorbing the better methods, procedures, advance technology, personnel and competencies of other businesses. Essentially the most importance is the fact that employee should have learning attitude which can business the business enterprise environment. Offering money as a reward can not work to motivate the employees.

Rewards System should include extrinsic and intrinsic accomplishments. Apart from choosing praise tool as offing extra benefit, there are many more ways to drive the employees. Now a day, individual resource management is given evenly importance towards contribution in business growth. They may be approaching with new proposals to inspire the employee. Sense of fulfillment is one of the incentive techniques where employees are encourage to add their thoughts, strategies, and having unique solution to problems to daily work activities. The tendencies of giving reputation and value to the talents of peers and superiors, consistent meeting between market leaders and employees, are believed as healthy work culture in a firm. Those who are creative personnel, they generally react to the intrinsic rewards and accordingly motivated to bring something new to the work place.

1. 5 Hospitality trends (Eco-Friendly Initiatives)

The hotel industry in global, are mainly attempting to undertake the challenge of low rate of occupancy. Like any other industry, hoteliers are also giving much more importance to the creativeness and innovativeness to attract customers and to earn loyalty. Undoubtedly, in a healthcare facility sector, the luxury center is given top most priority which to in affordable price. To provide luxury service hoteliers have to work 24x7 to identify themselves with respect to uniqueness and degree of satisfaction they are offering to the customer, also justifying the higher expenses. Hotel industry is segmented matching to its services such as:

Boutique Hotels:

Boutique hotels will be the traditional players in the hospitality sector. At this time, "Change the changing times" is the slogan for hospitality industry. Boutique hotel mainly offers late night disco night clubs and techno grooves to replace the monotonous concerts.

Energy Spa:

"Energy medication" industry is growing at the faster rate. This is considered as part of the hospitality sector. To handle the fierce competition, people will work hard for their existence in the corporate world. People are sacrificing their health because of this frantic schedule. They opt to go hotels for getting energy-spa for balancing body, head and spirit. That is a stress decrease treatment, that are in great demand. Little treatments like massage therapy for 5 minutes are very popular these days. Hoteliers are offering spa facilities to the guests during their stay at hotel to transform their fatigued energy into powerful and lively energy. This isn't only popular for working people but also in the later years people who prefer these kinds of treatment.

No Dog or cat Friendly Initiatives:

Dogs are not allowed in many hotels as it is not satisfactory by some customers. Now household pets aren't allowed on the red carpet rolled out for the guests. Generally pet sleeps on the guest beds and goes in the other guest's area and it creates problem to the other friends also. Due to your pet, hotel staff needs to put extra initiatives to improve all bed linens, pillows cover, and to put them in laundry with proper care.

Resurgence of Traditional Wines

Some of the pleasing visitor, who doesn't want to compromise with the quality or tastes of the wines, functions in the hotel. They go to hotel to enjoy the drink therefore the hotelier will take special care of the type of visitor.

1. 6 Eco-Friendly Hospitality Initiatives

As already we've mentioned previously that now every industry is taking initiatives to go green. In the hotel industry also there is a craze to become green for good purpose and even this initiative help them in marketing. The operational operations of the hotel such as cooking, use of power and water, impact the environment on regular basis. Hotel industry in addition has began advocating the ecological sustainability and considerable conservation of energy. Eco - friendly hotels in the initial stage regarded as found in a heavily nature-focused area, as it is built in jungles. However the eco hotels in urban locations also have proved that it is the mind place to live green and embraced the inexperienced philosophy to maintain the environment.

The industry is encouraging to quite the carbon footprint and also to get green label. Environmental training programs are now offering to the employees of the hotels to gear up towards dynamics preservation. Hotels would rather build the house from the green resources-sustainable materials only. To find the suppliers for these organic material like local stone and tropical hardwood are challenging to them. But eco- conscious hotels are taking all efforts to build concrete green viewpoint. It's not only the business enterprise owner but also the government authorities actively encouraging for the change of green viewpoint. Government has released certain accreditation and legislation on green procedures and agencies are there to certify the inexperienced hotels. The very best part about the eco hotel is the fact that it actively encourages the conservation of natural resources and pollution minimization which is unquestionably gives positive impact on health and brain. The hotelier and the guest both get advantages from these procedures. Guests learn to recycle at home, like to drive a much more friendly to the environment car and save energy. Hoteliers always make an effort to give demo to the friends about the nice practices. A couple of few green best practices features as follows:

Eco-friendly Hotels harmonize with dynamics:

Environmentally-friendly hotels offers a harmonize environment to the clients. It is mostly found in a peaceful area with well supervised eco friendly practices like recycling of rainwater waters. The commitment of the hotels to become eco-friendly and their respects towards the type is proven by them in every small effort.

Truly 'green' hotels support the surroundings:

The truly inexperienced hotels offer best features helping to the surroundings. Friends of the hotels are encouraged to experience the natural beauty of environment. In this way, friends get quality time to hook up with the type and sincerely appreciate the experience. The understanding and understanding of environment help the guests to add towards preservation of natural resources. Ambience of renewable hotels offers true comfort level plus more than just a good night's sleep. Due to the surrounding with natural environment, the mind set of guests force to think about the environment and to take necessary action to work on this way. (Article Source: http://EzineArticles. com)

Eco accommodation helps decrease utilization of materials

It's true that eco -friendly accommodation helps to minimize the consumption of materials. It really is one of the most strengths of true inexperienced status, and probably one of the easiest ways to apply. Green hotels are truly focused on become environmentally friendly and make serious makes an attempt to reduce in materials ingestion in hotel. Its routines of rainwater harvesting to recycle the rainwater drinking water, recycling of wastage, and the utilization of sustainable products show the caring attitude of the hotels towards dynamics.

Eco hotel must have a proactive environmental policy

Green hotels take proactive environmental coverage which is often easily adoptable by friends and employees of the hotel in same manner. Genuine green hotel has environmental policy produced by them and encourage the employees and friends to check out it. Corresponding to policy hotel staffs get training to inject green thinking atlanta divorce attorneys ways as it can be.

An eco-friendly hotel won't sacrifice luxury and room comfort

Enlightened renewable hotel has no reasons to stop the comfort and luxury in the sake of eco accommodation. In the blissful luxury hotel, comfy bedrooms provided for sleeping at the same time helping the nature through active sheet re-use programs, using rainwater normal water for toilet flushing in the luxury bathroom, re-use strategies of towels in the hotel cutting down the laundering. Management of the hotel always choose healthy renewable furnishing and cleaning materials for the decoration of the guest room and the floors are also design to promote the natural conscience. The inexperienced methods are so simple to

make in day to day routine and many of these even don't necessary for certification also. For example, for using of non toxic cleaning solution such as laundry detergent and dishwashing fluids and other things utilized by hotel is not required anybody recognition. Now new technologies are coming to displace electrical energy in some extent such as solar technology and breeze energy in keeping. Although it needs well infrastructure to set up but it can help a lot to save electricity. Hence hotel should source energy out of this kind of technology to save energy. Usage of cotton is also a good example of 100% organic material can be implemented for renewable practice including bed- sheets, towels for bathing and palm wash purpose, bathroom robes, and mattresses.

Eco-friendly initiatives considered by hotels in London :( Options from micro generation UK, 2011, available on http://www. microgenerationuk. com):

Hotel Cavendish

The Cavendish is an elegant central London hotel at Jermyn Neighborhood is known for its eco-pioneering. In London, Cavendish hotel is the leading eco-conscious hotel and is the winner of the very most prestigious honor called Green tourism for London gold award. In addition to this it has accepted many more accolades for its initiatives. The Cavendish has a very green culture at their office which can be observed in its every pore.

Example: Hotel Cavendish purchases ethically sourced espresso and fair trade tea for customers. Throughout its only use eco-friendly chemicals and directly use suppliers such that it can do reduce packaging and time in transportation. Its waste products product is always choosing recycling process. Because of its noble initiatives it has got recognitions through Platinum Prize in Sustainable Tourism, 3-Legend Accreditation by the SRA (Sustainable Restaurant Relationship) and Icarus Environmental Honor.

Hotel Park Plaza

This hotel did a partnership with Carbon neutral company to do globally carbon reduction projects to reduce environmental impact.

The Strand Palace Hotel

Hotel Strand Palace has installed low energy lighting bulb throughout the hotel to save power. In chemical consumption, hotel prefers to use biodegradable and eco-friendly substance. Its generate electricity through incorporate operation of heating system and power models that assist them to lessen CO2 emissions. Hotel Strand Palace has engaged a passionate Green team to deal with environmental issues.

The Royal Trafalgar London

To save drinking water from leaking and other potential problem, Hotel Royal Trafalgar has carried out proactive water keep an eye on. Also water saving devices is used in toilets and restrictors for bathroom tabs and showers. Hotel staffs regularly check the efficiency of the boiler and maintain a maximum drinking water temperature. Movement sensor manipulated and low energy lamps system has used in the hotel to save lots of energy.

Hotel Rafayel

Hotel Rafayel is recognized as one of the eco-friendly luxury hotel in the world. It serves organic and good trade food and beverage to the friends. Without diminishing with the luxury, it has used eco- friendly initiates to save lots of energy through installation of unique LED lighting systems with low energy bulbs, low energy eating air conditioning equipment systems. Installed technology for rainwater harvesting and use the rainfall water for seed irrigation. The wine glass, paper and furnitures go for recycling process and there is a insurance plan for no plastic.

Apex City of London Hotel

Hotel Apex City is incorporated its environmentally friendly features including offsetting carbon emissions, recycling of waste products, managing the energy consumption of light, heating and air coolers, monitoring consumption of gasoline and water.

Basic2Stay Hotel

Hotel Bottom part2stay Kensington from London has significantly invested in environmental credentials development and also stimulating their employees to follow this quest. It has a list of initiatives including recently intro of your zero emissions vehicle. Hotel is providing electro-mechanical car for friends. The car is made with a state - of -the-art electric car technology with top swiftness of 60 mph. It is cheaper than booking an automobile and also saves from pay congestion, overnight car parking or petrol charges of guests. The quest of the hotel is to provide eco- budget services to the friends.

Hotel Zetter

Hotel is known because of its eco-boutique. It's a very beautiful hotel with just a little funky feel. The management of the hotel has taken all pain to construct a proper under the building which could resource this particular required to meet up with the requirements of hotel.

Hotel Savoy

The Savoy hotel offers eco-ultra-deluxe services. The hotel has considered inexperienced initiatives like high-efficiency hotel heating and cooling systems and energy-intelligent controls. To get potential friends and skill manpower requires in events to identify and make partnerships with environmental charities. They have initiated an comprehensive recycling and donation programme for maximum usage of resources and to minimize waste. Lost food is now controlled to renewal energy plan. In this particular donation scheme it will support a number of charities. Environmentally-responsible activities has expand to the kitchen also, where, the chef of the hotel facilitates local growers and use herbal remedies harvested in the hotel's plants.

Other greater ranges of environment friendly initiatives taken by hoteliers are such as follows:

  • To save water in toilet, hotelier is putting in dual flush system.
  • The wastage product of newspaper, cardboard, outdated IT equipments, a glass, and plastic of hotel are going for recycling.
  • To are more eco-friendly, hoteliers are using local produce and organic and natural materials.
  • Ambience of your hotel is the key one of the factors to appeal to guests therefore the hoteliers are very particular about the light set up for the day and nighttime. Hence now they going for lighting agreements that can save energy and comes with automated dimmers as well as motion detectors.
  • Energy productive lifts are installing in the hotels with upgrading the old one.
  • Building management can control heat over the building. Installing glass windows that are energy conserving and enhances overall thermal performance.

1. 7 Research Framework

1. 8 Summary

In this section, it is described that innovation is a positive change. Advancement is an activity where in a firm; ideas are changed into improved upon products and services, procedures to be able to support and differentiate themselves from competition. Innovation can be done in the merchandise, process, logistics, market and institutional. For lasting growth, firms present changes in these five elements. There are various factors which impact in the technology such as accommodating process, hotel size, market factors and competition, hotel specific characteristics and dealer driven. Hotel is something oriented industry. Hotelier must create value to the customers in terms of guest room design, physical property, social services, efficient services and food and drink related services. Employees of the firm also add towards development. Creativity is an internal feature of an individual which comprises of three components such as skills, creative thinking and determination. Organizations need to build up various training programs to enhance these skills of the individual. Brainstorming, problem solving and lateral thinking are encouraged through workshop in the business. Hotels are tried out to identify themselves through different fads like boutique hotel, energy spa, no family pet friendly effort, resurgence of traditional wines and friendly to the environment hospitality initiatives. Eco-friendly is now a buzz expression for every industry including hotel industry. A number of the eco friendly practices features are friendly to the environment hotels harmonize with nature, truly renewable hotels support the environment, eco - accommodation helps reduce utilization of materials, proactive environmental coverage, and eco - friendly hotel won't sacrifice luxury and room comfort. Hotel Cavendish from London is a perfect example for the eco friendly-pioneering. There are more types of eco friendly tactics implemented by various hotels in London. The green procedures such as recycling of newspaper and other material, reduction in carbon emission, harvesting of rainwater normal water, conservation of energy and other natural resources, are now in common for most hotels. Hoteliers are further taking radical progressive approach to go green with affordable and obtaining significant ROI. However, hotels those have executed the eco-friendly systems, proved that without compromise in luxury and comfort it can do business with significant profit margin. The customers also sincerely participating in the actions of "live green "along with hoteliers.

2 Chapter Three-Methodology

2. 1 Introduction

There are several research methods out of which one method is to be chosen to achieve the research aims. So, in the first section, all type of research methods (Test, Study, Action research, Research study, and Ethnography) is mentioned. Chosen research design is talked about in the next section and the logical for choice is justified. In the next section where it is explain about sampling size, questionnaire and other details. Moral and moral issues are described within the last section.

In this research paper there is principally two phases. In the initial stage (chapter two), the available literature has analyzed. In this particular chapter the essential concept on theories of definition and innovation in the hospitality sector has evaluated. At first level, it has already explained about staff contribution and organizational motivations towards innovative strategy. In this stage and yes it included about the evaluation of various green invention for products and services that instituted in hospitality sector and generally in hotel industry.

In the next stage, hotel Cavendish London has taken for setting up example in eco pioneering since 2007. Interaction with the employees of the hotel Cavendish, it can be explored about organizational motivations and efforts towards services and services which they have instituted will be motivated. Through this job, the innovative figure of the hotel Cavendish will be explored in inexperienced developmental strategy.

2. 2 Types of Research Methods

Researchers are guided by executing various research methods to meet their research aims. Relating to Saunders et al (2007, p. 135), it is explained these research methods are extremely important to adopt business decisions. Experiment, review, action research, case study and ethnography will be the major research methods implemented by the research workers to acquire data and then analyze.

2. 2. 1 Experiments

Experiment is an extremely systematic and clinical method where the researcher used to manipulates one adjustable and randomizes the other parameters to understand the phenomena. Experimental research is mainly used where there is time concern in a casual relationship, the magnitude of the relationship among variables is great or where, there exists consistency in a informal relationship.

2. 2. 2 Survey

This research method entails the questionnaires methodology or statistical studies to accumulate data. In this method, insights of customer are accumulated including their thoughts and manners. Corresponding to Tharenou et al (2007, p. 47) explained that the survey approach immediate to measure the marriage between a dependant variable and several indie variables.

2. 2. 3 Action Research

Action research has a brief cyclic action which method is discussed as spiral.

2. 2. 4 Case Study

According to Saunders et al (2007, p. 139), it stated that:

"Case study is a technique for doing research that involves an empirical research of a specific contemporary happening within its true to life context using multiple sources of evidence. "

Casestudy is very helpful when a firm is certainly going for merger or acquisition, or downsizing its business. It is a fundamental process and very ideal for the management to take business decisions

2. 2. 5 Ethnography

This method is followed by researcher when they investigate an intrinsic culture group who are showing common sociable knowledge, experience or other cultural feature appealing. This is a quantitative method includes interview strategy to get insights of customers.

2. 3 Research Design and Rationale for selection of research method

There are various research methods, that already been reviewed in the technique of research techniques. This dissection required mainly qualitative solution to meet its goals. Qualitative way is to research the idea of view of members and their culture, behavior, lifestyle or connections with target audience. It is produces non numerical data. The normal methods to collect the data are interviews, group discussion, research study, and ethnographic studies. Matching to Saunders et al (2007, p. 135-143) stated that study strategy is frequently linked with the deductive method. It is an over-all strategy running a business research. The secondary data, such as journals, articles, books, existing studies and etc. will be used to aid the analysis effect.

2. 4 Honest Issues

The survey researches are believed to be threat of damage because the members are put through the breach of confidentiality and the consequences. For a good example, employee of a firm will always provide a positive assertion about his/her group. It may be as a result of fear of burning off the work or dropping the reputation or the chance of civil prosecution. Worker of a firm generally avoid from such breaches. The staffs of the organization are bound to check out the rules and regulation and also to keep folded about certain confidentiality data. They can be supposed to task the business image favorably in the public place. Therefore the data gathered from the employees may be manipulated. Such kind of data may not be reliable for the study objectives.

2. 5 Summary

In this section, it is reviewed about the many ways of research such as experimental research, review, action research, research study, ethnography. Predicated on the research goals these methods are used by the experts. These methods are briefly detailed in the section. However, semi set up interview method is considered because of this research proposal. In such a research newspaper, Hotel Cavendish from London has taken for the analysis goal. Data has been collected from the various resources about the employee's perspective of the Cavendish hotel and its own radical innovative way towards green.

2. 6 Interview results

Employee of the Cavendish says without diminishing in luxury treatment, this eco hotel has acquired Yellow metal Green Awards and regarding to them this means a lot to them. It proved that they has struck all areas such as lowering actions in energy intake through efficient lighting and condensing boilers, fair-trade products which has been used throughout the hotel, and the menu of restaurant that features fish from lasting and reliable sources and local produce. Hotel Cavendish has truly gone extra mile in advocating the green approach. It really is encouraging the delegates at conferences to adopt green culture. Within the meeting issues includes the carbon offsetting payment, to give 50% discount to the environmentally friendly cars in the hotel's auto parking, encouragement of non paper centered communication, and recycling of paper. It includes fixed recycling bins all over the place and guests and staffs are encouraged to utilize them sincerely. Mobile phones are recharged with find yourself chargers in the hotel premise. For friendly to the environment stationery are used in the hotel. Within the every small details are scrutinize with respect to green routines.

Hotel Cavendish has designed for a power efficient life. Green team of the hotel trains the staffs. To save lots of energy, low drinking water dishwasher is prepared and the hotel has establish a grand vision in recycling of every possible products.

Guest can pattern to the hotel. Inside the hotel, energy efficiency is almost everywhere. Everything is reasonable trade in the hotel. The foodstuffs served to the friends are ethically sourced. Cavendish is one of the top four star luxury hotels and positioned in a great location with excellent city views.

Hotel Cavendish has place a concentrate on using the considerate obstacles from competitive hoteliers. The Cavendish has been granted the scheme's 'Yellow metal' rating from one of only three hotels in London. Cavendish hotel was also the first to win the prize. Hotel is close to Piccadilly Circus, an enviable put in place the town. For shopping and sightseeing, Hotel Cavendish is the perfect place in the capital. The Cavendish hotel assists with offsetting carbon emissions of the popular tourist activities by providing bicycles to the friends. Staffs of the hotel provides walking routes map to the customers to explore London, pushing visitors to avoid needing to count on taxis throughout their stay. Offering a close look to the daily operations of the hotel, it uncovers the reason why it is the only green hotel should assert to gain Visit Britain's Yellow metal Accolade. It has also grabbed awards from the Institute of Travel Management's Icarus Environmental Awards for 2008 and 2009. To have the renewable features, the employees of hotel work hard to do this and earn the best greenest hotel in London.

Hotel Cavendish enlisted the help of the many green managements such as "The Carbon Trust" and "Envirowise" for auditing goal which gives direction for highlighting key regions of opportunities for keeping of energy and drinking water. Property administrator of the hotel can take the responsibility of making action designs with the help and support from General Supervisor and operational manager. This course of action is developed to keep an eye on progress to ensure that the committed actions are carried out.

Mr. Peter Caddy of Cavendish hotel is leading the green project. (Resources available on the website: http://londonhotelsinsight. com).

Mr. Caddy has said that customer generally identified that eco- friendly hotel must be expensive. In hotel Cavendish, they have motion controlled lighting at the corridors but no customer grievances about this. Mind of every team consult one another for purchasing of materials. Due to its strong eco-friendly practices, during financial downturn Cavendish was totally held up with friends. The green team of Cavendish has -vanished always cost-neutral, aiding the environment at the same time managing the expenses. Among the significant keeping is the power which is their great achievement. Running a hotel with renewable strategy is not about money but it depends on the innovativeness and creativeness, corresponding to Mr. Caddy. For a good example, it cost higher to the visitor if indeed they buy better breakfast pork immediately the farm. But the same quality of breakfast time is offer at Cavendish to the guest comparatively in lower rate and highly loved by guests. Guest gets nutrition-rich food with flavorsome with less shrinkage so people have a tendency to eat much less. Hence the purchase of food and beverage is also going less in variety and so as wastage of food. Management has understood that inexperienced initiatives are influencing the business enterprise in an optimistic way. It attracts quality staffs also who shares equal value for eco- friendly. The funding team of hotel Cavendish has an admirable way for taking care of its short term and long term costs. Regarding to Trip Advisor reviews, Cavendish is one of the London's top 50 hotels.

Hotel Cavendish is considered as best place to work. Miss Sarah, HR Director of the Cavendish has said in an interview that the recruitment process is based on the right person with learning attitudes and worth to a specific vacancy as opposed to the skills. It recruits people on staff-referral structure those fit in to the environment of the hotel. To understand the best practices of the competitors, staffs of the Cavendish is sent to fighting hotels. This practice has brought a sense of business frame of mind in every staffs. Retain good staffs is a most important factor. To comprehend the each functions in the hotel, employees should go under training and also have to work on each functions. Leading house manager are a waitress, sometimes work in accounts before taking the charge. Sarah said she also acquired the been through the same practice. She took a rest and works in other hotel and again returned to Cavendish with additional experience and knowledge. Cavendish takes care of its employees in every respect. Outside the work also they experience fun real life skydiving, abseiling to raise money for charity etc. It arranges time to time get-togethers, game titles, awards of popularity, monthly themed lunch.

Fabricio Torre, who works in the Cavendish in the capacity of business development coordinator and interpersonal mass media expert, said that Cavendish calls for every single effort to preserve its customers. Staffs of the hotel have a prompt response to the customer problems and try to solve it. On TripAdvisor reviews, hotel Cavendish offers a 91% ranking in visitor reviews. Hotel Cavendish has a solid social press network on twitter and facebook where customer can reveal their experiences at hotel. If any issue will be documented on the network then employees of the hotel will need immediate action on that. Taking the services of William Murray Communications, Cavendish has optimized its website for sociable advertising. In marketing viewpoint, Cavendish has a very strong PR and communication team who represent the image of the hotel in advertising very well. It's a known fact that customers refer the prior guest's experience before visiting any hotels or restaurants. The positive word of mouth affects the business a great deal. The web site of the hotel is abundant with relevant content for customers and possible for them to book a suite. Over the social network sites and yes it is revamping its image and make more colourful and interactive for the customers. The business enterprise development director, Mr. Torres, provides understanding of the local region of Piccadilly and Mayfair to the international customers, and manuals them to visit all important places. This gesture provides personal touch to the clients. Hotel Cavendish has multi terms speaking employees who assist in translation and reply the customers. Because of this, customer do not get problem in communicating. Hotel Cavendish has its own blogs site to communicate with customers. It publishes its historical little bit of interesting occurrences or reports to the customers which is liked by the guests. Due to unique initiatives and reviews on blogs, advertising also take interest to repay these tales from Cavendish. Just lately, BBC radio required the interview of mind chef of the hotel known as Nitin Padwal because of his dish invention on the Cavendish's British restaurant Petrichor. (Source: http://blog. williammurray. co. uk)

2. 7 Summary

In this research paper, Hotel Cavendish from London has considered for the research purpose. Data has been gathered from the many resources about the employee's perspective of the Cavendish hotel and its own radical innovative way towards environmentally friendly. From the resources it is considered that Hotel Cavendish is one of the greenest hotels in London without diminishing luxury and comfort center. Employees of the Cavendish has projected that this hotel is a best spot to work due to its fun loving working culture. Employees are recruited not only based on particular skills arranged but also for their learning capability, flexibility to adoption and behaviour. Generally recruitment process is dependant on the reliable sources like worker- recommendation. Employees are delivered to the competitor's restaurant to get the knowledge about guidelines and to put it in Cavendish. Every specific is given by green training curriculum so that in every small thing the methods of live green should be used. Cavendish has a strong Public Relation and Communication team to take care of the promotional activities of the hotel. The business enterprise development manager of the hotel gives a close look on all the interpersonal networking sites such as facebook and twitter to realize all complaints, if any. To hold on to customers, the staffs of the hotel give a personal touch to its guests. Hotel has put in place all possible ways to lessen energy and water resources. It also encourages the friends to become environmentally friendly.

3 Chapter Four-Finding and Analysis

3. 1 Finding

Since 2007, Hotel Cavendish has through conscious efforts to live green, reduced significantly in its use of drinking water, gas and energy. Through its eco-friendly deeds it is keeping practically 20, 000 annually in 2007. Hotel has increased its recycling procedure for cardboard by 353%. Around 13%, they have achieved the waste products reduction to landfill. The financial amount shows a positive sign because of its eco-friendly working procedures and makes merged sense for both economically and environmentally. When making travel and vacations plans, the clients of UK are thinking about sustainability problems. Therefore, hotel is taking best attempts to take care of these issues and rate for costs has made clear including proof the environmental insurance policy. The hotels breakfasts are ready from organic yoghurts and fruit juices supplying fantastic experience to the dinning. Inside the menu of the hotel, they advertise the neighborhood foods and its way to obtain procurement from plantation.

Government of UK is helping the companies to put into action eco- friendly practices. The Mayor of London taking initiatives and supporting green travel and leisure. The staffs and management of hotel are receiving trained about inexperienced practices and regarding to make small changes in the work. The hotel has changed existing lights with low energy bulb to lessen energy ingestion. The management of the hotel always ensures that the purchase of new appliances should be energy conserving even in the kitchen also. Inside the Cavendish hotel every time helps to keep monitoring the boiler functions and water temperature and pull the plug on policies are positioned stringently at its offices and back again of house areas. The utilization of drinking water is tackled by the installation of the water keeping shower minds in the entire guest rooms and flushing the toilet is taken off the housekeeping room investigations functions. For different disposal materials has different recycling bin is fixed all around the hotel. Newspaper, plastics, cup, and cardboards are will go separately for recycling process. Necessary cleaning materials and chemicals are ordered in undiluted form to lessen the packaging bags. To lessen the vehicles cost and the amount of bundle, the staffs of the hotel work strongly with the suppliers. Hotel Cavendish creates its every month menus by using seasonal sustainable and locally produce sourced. For instance, earlier the container water was importing from Norway which is now replaced by Belu carbon neutral water, a local friendly to the environment supplier. All caffeine, tea and appetizers are replaced with fair trade and organic products without diminishing with the product quality and tastes. For eco friendly vehicles, the hotel has created discounted valet car parking and offer guaranteed bicycle lock ups for friends who wish to go by cycling to the hotel. Ensuring all food and beverage serving dish should be produced from recyclable materials. The pens used in the hotel are produced from recycled car parts and all paper is recycled.

In the invention initiative, an employee plays a essential role. HR team of the organization should consistently participate to work on the worker motivational plan and organizational development to generate blocks for a sustainable business growth. Hotel should understand the demand of skills and skill required for this industry. In such a industry, there may be requirement of talent management, authority development, organizational change, work place communication and intercultural awareness. .

3. 2 Analysis

It is available that without getting 100% determination from older management nothing can be happened. For any changes in the hotel or in virtually any firm requires a lot of efforts and commitment of the employees and the management. The changes can be easily be over ridden by handing the day to day business stresses. The hotel needs to instruct its staffs through organizing workshops, learning and developmental program on ongoing basis. The circulation of information from top management to the every employee should be clear and their decisions should align exactly to its renewable practice by the staffs. It need a lot of their time to source the organic products and finding supplier to supply fair trade foods in large quantity is also a problem. It takes time and effort to find new supplier to make deal with them. It requires almost 3 to 4 a few months to source and change a food items in a hotel. For feasible plan, a hotel cannot go ahead alone. It requires someone help to change its methods. In case there is The hotel Cavendish, it proved helpful strongly with the Considerate Hoteliers Association (CHA is a particular body shaped and run by hoteliers to offer a central source to offer tips and hints, as well as keep up-to-date with current federal legislation. ) for possible programs in the green methods. Cavendish has installation a clear eyesight and focusing on it they achieved their goal in time and affordable.

HR team of the hotel performs an important role in structuring and handling effective organizational tactics. They have to develop approaches for long lasting success and choose latest styles in learning & development of the employees. Engage a team to cope with the emotions of the employees and to inspire them effectively. To get best result from a worker it is an imperative to control their stress and difficult situations. For proven success there should be increment in personal output by 20-35% and teamwork by 15-35 %. An Psychological Intelligence (EI) Examination should be Initiated and identify which skills need to improve in a particular employee. Within the firm, recognize the value of redefining and rethinking visions of the employees. Continue to keep upgrade with the insights into the latest developments in talent management. Set up should be produced to listen to circumstance studies from acquaintances and peers who've achieved real and measurable results in their fields. Worker should be encouraged to think and action strategically also to identify competitive gain for next 3-5 years. Regarding to Tas, LaBrecque and Clayton (1996), discussed that five main competencies will be required in hotel Industry. To be able worth focusing on these competencies are brought up below:

  • Interpersonal skills required to effectively connection with others efficient because in a hotel it necessary to share the information to different departments.
  • A command skill is the capability to convert ideas into beneficial action and also to point others to work towards getting together with the organizational goal.
  • Conceptual-creative is the cognitive skills necessary for the work to bring innovativeness in the organization.
  • Administrative is known as workers and financial management of the business which manage individuals capital and fund.
  • Technical knowledge and skills is vital to produce the product or service.

According to Baum (1989), who may have analyzed hotel industry and found that, employees have an undue concentrate on:

  • Operational issues are the functional issues which is obviously opposed to the management' theoretical issues.
  • The mine coordinator strategy and the revenue concept goes in various course and it need to spotlight.
  • The hospitality apprenticeship don't consider any particular educational qualifications which can lead to the performance and efficiency issues and
  • The 'uniqueness' of hospitality and therefore the 'irrelevance' of standard management ideas.

Hotel industry has acknowledged that there surely is an crucial need to improve its employee's skills to improve productivity in the business.

In the process of friendly to the environment initiatives, the hoteliers are facing great obstacles in implementation. Hoteliers need enough capital to invest on this effort and then achieving ROI is also a significant concern on their behalf. In implementing green lodging methods hoteliers have to find such vendors and suppliers who can provide the precise products they needed. To control all these things one need plenty of time. To become environmentally friendly one need to get more knowledge on ecological knowledge. But now people have limited knowledge and resources so it can be one factor that restraining to become green hotel. A hotel cannot develop and put into practice the routines without support and help from government authorities and local organization. To become renewable hotel, hotel needs meet all standards of regulations mentioned by government authorities. It isn't always true a new thing is liked by everyone. The introduction of services and services brings mixed reactions on the market. Some customers respond to the superior product in a good way, some customers respond to it in a negative way and some customers give a neutral reaction. When the green initiatives cannot make a positive impact on guest's notion and they do not acknowledge the changes which can lead to lack of business also.

Despite the fact that having great challenges but there are extensive motivational factors to adopt effort for eco - friendly technology:

  • Environmental benefits and building guest loyalty: Bound green is offering a positive impact to the environments and hotel is creating a healthy environment for guest and the as for others. Customers, those who find themselves conscious about these issues they'll prefer to live green hotel. Hence eco friendly practices also aiding hotels to identify themselves from opponents and creating visitor loyalty.
  • Financial personal savings: As already is pointed out that credited to total cost result, the fair trade food are providing in comparatively cheaper price to the guests. People are taking less shrinkage food. Hence the amount of food purchasing is also getting reduced. The objective of recycling and energy usage helping the hotel to save lots of its money.
  • Increasing market share: Now more customers are getting awareness about the environment and they are prefer to go green hotel where they will improve your health food, healthy environment and total luxury service. Due to these differentiations and building of guest's commitment, daily, the frequency of check -in and check -out is increasing and its own figures. Hence it is resulting in increasing of market share.
  • New income opportunities: Definitely, the innovation of environmentally friendly initiatives has opened up to new business opportunities. Because of upsurge in market share, the revenue body is also increasing.
  • Marketing and public relation coverage: Any new initiates catch the attention of the customers. They would like to go through the new things. Green initiatives are creating positive waves and present good marketing promotional and open public relation coverage.
  • Preempting government rules: Government is also providing helps to the renewable hotels in employing the green procedures. To declare as inexperienced hotel, a hotel must comply with the regulatory requirements by the government and other trusties in the field of environmental development and preservation.

Few green things those hoteliers are doing well used as given below:

  • Offering linen reuse program: Used linen is laundering properly and again uses it in the hotel.
  • Recycling paper: Recycling bin is fixed at everyplace in the hotel and waste paper is accumulated. It goes for recycling process. However, almost all of hotels encourage focusing on less paper structured.
  • Using compact fluorescents in guestrooms: By using compact fluorescents bulb, it is conserving the energy use.
  • Using small fluorescents in public areas spaces: By using small fluorescents bulb, it is saving the energy use.
  • Offering towel reuse program: Used towel is laundering properly and again uses it in the hotel.
  • Training maintenance staff on conservation and energy techniques: Green team of the hotel is providing training to the complete staffs in the hotel to adopt every small effort towards conservation and energy.
  • Recycling cardboard: Recycling of cardboard is done in the hotel to reuse in different form.
  • Water conserving retrofits for showers: Keeping of drinking water form waste is a superb success. Harvesting of rainwater is performed and uses it for toilet purpose.
  • Recycling program in administrative areas: Within the administrative areas also recycling program is introduced.
  • Tracking energy and water consumption on a monthly basis: On every month the consumption of normal water and energy is monitored and take necessary action to for future saving plans.

Other renewable things that a hotels can improve if it's not applied in their hotels:

  • Having occupancy sensor control buttons for the thermostat in guestrooms: Definitely it will save the consumption.
  • Recycling food waste material: Wastage of food should be minimized. Hotel should take part in charity occasions and recycle its wastage food in delivering the needy people.
  • Using inside paints that are low or zero VOC (volatile organic ingredients) or Green Seal Certified: Usage of low volatile organic compounds is good for health.
  • Using T8 lamps in corridors is obviously going to save lots of the energy ingestion.
  • Giving preferential treatment to vendors/suppliers who offer recycled products so that other seller and distributor also get motivation to provide recycled products.
  • Using of daily cleaning chemicals which may have a MSDS health rating of "1" or less and/or Green Seal Certified will create a healthy environment in the hotel.
  • T8 lamps in back of house can help in conservation of energy.
  • Tracking era of solid waste on a monthly basis is vital for planning of coming month's friendly to the environment effort programs.
  • Recycling program in guest rooms: It is not only staffs of the hotel but also the friends in the hotel are also urged to become listed on the recycling program of the hotel.
  • Recycling program in recreational areas is necessary in doing of green initiatives.

3. 3 Summary

In this chapter finding data are shown. The officials from Cavendish hotel has given insight data of the hotel which is accumulated from various resources. It has been discovered that since 2007, Hotel Cavendish made a decision to take environmentally friendly initiatives and taking help of Considerate Hotelier Relationship. Since that time, Hotel Cavendish has modified its practices to be renewable hotel through conscious work of its management and dedicated employees. Hotel Cavendish has placed a good example in the hotel industry that without reducing with luxury center also a hotel will offer green approach to the customer. In the analysis of the above mentioned finding it is found that for green methods, a hotel need to get significantly on short-term basis. Changing the source of food is not a fairly easy job. To recognize a new supplier and make a deal with them, it takes almost 3 to 4 months. Sourcing reasonable trade food in variety from an individual distributor is also not so easy. So there are some problems in implementing the green tactics in the hotel but nonetheless should innovate the new way of approaches to become environmentally friendly. Staff of the firm plays a essential role in development. So the abilities of the employees should be prompted through various prize system. A lot more than extrinsic reward, creative imagination employees shoot for intrinsic rewards. So the employee's rewards system should be prompted in the hotel and the creativity should be acknowledged by the management.

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